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964,260 results
  • StatPearls: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Sapkota Sumina S Gandaki Medical College, Pokhara Shaikh Hira H University of Cincinnati Medical Center BOOK
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a neoplasm of the lymphoid tissues, which originates from B cell precursors, mature B cells, T cell precursors, and mature T cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprises of various subtypes, each with different epidemiologies, etiologies, immunophenotypic, genetic, clinical features, and response to therapy. It can be divided into two groups, 'indolent' and 'aggressive' bas…
  • StatPearls: Risk Management Event Evaluation and Responsibilities [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) McGowan Joel J University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Wojahn Amanda A Naval Medical Center San Diego Nicolini Joseph R. JR Department of Emergency Medicine, Naval Medical Center San Diego BOOK
  • Risk management in healthcare is a complex set of clinical and administrative systems, processes, procedures, and reporting structures designed to detect, monitor, assess, mitigate, and prevent risks to patients.  Currently, the numerous risk management practices and processes that occur in healthcare organizations are a response to The Institute of Medicine’s (“IOM”) report entitled “To Err is H…
  • StatPearls: Cinchonism [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Bykowski Adam A Mclaren Health System Logan Timothy D. TD Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine BOOK
  • Cinchonism is a collection of symptoms stemming from the ingestion of quinoline derivatives and its subsequent neural, retinal, and auditory toxicity. Ingestion of quinoline derivatives can produce a multitude of detrimental effects. Cinchonism is a subset of these effects originally believed to be primarily neurally mediated. This definition does not include the pro-arrhythmic properties of thes…
  • StatPearls: Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (Byler Disease) [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Siddiqi Ismaeel I University of Cincinnati Tadi Prasanna P Creighton University- CHI health BOOK
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis refers to a collection of rare genetic disorders due to defective mechanisms of bile secretion. Typically divided into three subtypes, PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2, PFIC type 3, the condition is usually diagnosed in the early years of life and often presents with signs and symptoms of intrahepatic cholestasis such as pruritis, dark urine, pale stool, loss…
  • StatPearls: Aphasia [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Le Huykien H Larkin Community Hospital Lui Mickey Y. MY Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of PM&R BOOK
  • Aphasia is an impairment to comprehension or formulation of language caused by damage to the cortical center for language. It can be caused by many different brain diseases and disorders; however, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the most common reason for a person to develop aphasia. The symptoms of aphasia can range from mild impairment to complete loss of any fundamental components of languag…
  • StatPearls: Osteoporosis Markers [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Williams Caroline C Beth Israel Deaconess Sapra Amit A Southern Illinois University School of Medicine BOOK
  • As the most common metabolic bone disease worldwide, osteoporosis and its associated morbidities have garnered significant attention as a public health concern and economic burden. The condition is characterized by progressive loss of bone mass and destruction of bone microarchitecture, both of which are independent risk factors for skeletal fragility and fracture. The primary goal of managing os…
  • StatPearls: Coronary Artery Stents [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Yelamanchili Varun S. VS Mclaren Hospital System Hajouli Said S Logan Regional Medical Center BOOK
  • Coronary artery disease is a major health care and economic burden in the United States. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) comprises a spectrum of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease that most commonly arises from plaque rupture and/or erosion, leaving the lipid-rich plaque core exposed to the circulation. This leads to a cascade of events, including activation of platelets and the co…
  • StatPearls: Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Khan Israr I Bolan Medical College, Quetta, Pakistan De Jesus Orlando O University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Neurosurgery Section BOOK
  • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a spectrum of clinical syndromes characterized by neuronal degeneration involving the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain.[1][2] In patients age ≥ 65, it is the third most common cause of dementia and is the second most common cause of early-onset dementia (age <65) and usually involves patients with age ranges from 45 to 65. Arnold Pick was the first…
  • StatPearls: Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Moriles Kevin E. KE Advent Health Ocala Azer Samy A. SA King Saud University, King Khalid UH BOOK
  • In humans, the liver is an organ involved in various processes critical for life. The liver secrets bile produces plasma proteins such as albumin tightly regulates the composition of blood plasma controls the flow of energy and nutrients in tissues, involved in detoxification processes, and the excretion of waste products. Because of these vital functions in the human body, it is essential to ass…
  • StatPearls: Dysdiadochokinesia [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Rocha Cabrero Franklyn F University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital De Jesus Orlando O University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Neurosurgery Section BOOK
  • Dysdiadochokinesia (diadochokinesia) is the inability to perform rapid alternating muscle movements. These can be quick, synchronous, and can include pronation/supination, fast finger tapping, opening and closing of the fists, and foot tapping. It is an essential component to evaluate in patients suspected of having a cerebellar disease. These activities correlate well with numerous lifelong meas…
  • StatPearls: Fungal Endophthalmitis [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Ly Victoria V University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Sallam Ahmed A UAMS BOOK
  • Endophthalmitis is a rare but severe disease of ocular inflammation involving vitreous or aqueous fluids and other intraocular tissues that can result in blindness. Fungal endophthalmitis is caused by intraocular fungal infections originating either exogenously from penetrating trauma and surgeries or endogenously from hematogenous spread. The highly variable clinical picture of fungal endophthal…
  • StatPearls: Elevated Hemidiaphragm [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Patel Paula R. PR Wyckoff Heights Medical Center Bechmann Samuel S Wyckoff Heights Medical Center BOOK
  • The diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscular structure that functions as a respiratory pump and is the primary muscle for inspiration.[1] Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak from muscular disease or loss of innervation due to phrenic nerve injury. Patients may present with difficulty breathing, but more commonly elevated hemidiaphragm is found on imaging as …
  • StatPearls: Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Ramakrishnan Sharanya S Grant Government Medical College and Sir JJ Group of Hospitals Gupta Vikas V South Carolina Department of Mental Health BOOK
  • Trinucleotide repeat disorders consist of a group of human diseases, which are a result of an abnormal expansion of repetitive sequences and primarily affect the nervous system. These occur during various stages of human development. Repetitive sequences, scattered in the microsatellite regions, usually account for about 30% of the human genome. In a normal person, the main purpose of various len…
  • StatPearls: Palliation Radiation Therapy Of The Spinal Cord [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Davis Donald D. DD Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center Kane Steven M. SM Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center BOOK
  • Radiation therapy is frequently used in medicine as both a curative and palliative treatment modality. If a neoplasm metastasizes to the spine, patients may experience debilitating back pain as well as neurologic dysfunction when there is compression of the spinal cord. Loss of sensation, muscle strength, and bowel/bladder incontinence are all clinical manifestations of spinal cord compression. P…
  • StatPearls: Pelvic Floor Dysfunction [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Grimes W R. WR LSU School of Medicine Shreveport Stratton Michael M LSU Shreveport Health Sciences Center BOOK
  • Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) refers to a broad constellation of symptoms and anatomic changes related to abnormal function of the pelvic floor musculature. The disordered function corresponds to either increase activity (hypertonicity) or diminished activity (hypotonicity) or inappropriate coordination of the pelvic floor muscles. Alterations regarding the support of pelvic organs are included …
  • StatPearls: Cartilage Graft [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Davis Donald D. DD Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center Kane Steven M. SM Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center BOOK
  • Joint pain is a complex problem facing medical practitioners that has its origin in a host of conditions, injuries, and diseases. Between the years of 2013 and 2015 alone, an estimated 54.4 million United States (US) adults (22.7%) annually were told by a doctor that they had some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia.[1]  Physicians, researchers, and other medical…
  • StatPearls: Marasmus [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Titi-Lartey Owuraku A. OA Barts and the London Queen Mary, University of London Gupta Vikas V South Carolina Department of Mental Health BOOK
  • To maintain the physiological requirements of the body, it is essential to take a sufficient amount of micro and macronutrients; however, the overconsumption of micronutrients and macronutrients can also be harmful. As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), malnutrition is an ‘inadequate or excess intake of protein, energy, and micronutrients such as vitamins, and the frequent infections…
  • StatPearls: Presbycusis [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Cheslock Megan M Naples Community Hospital De Jesus Orlando O University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Neurosurgery Section BOOK
  • Presbycusis refers to bilateral age-related hearing loss. In literal terms, presbycusis means "old hearing" or "elder hearing."[1] It becomes noticeable around age 60 and progresses slowly; however, there is evidence that certain stressors can speed the rate of deterioration. The diagnosis can be confirmed with audiometry.[2] The hallmark of presbycusis is the impaired ability to understand high-…
  • StatPearls: Megestrol [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Manikkuttiyil Chris C Nova Southeastern University Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine Nguyen Hoang H NOVA Southeastern University BOOK
  • Megestrol is a progestin, a modified derivative of the naturally occurring female hormone progesterone, indicated primarily to stimulate appetite for the treatment of significant, inexplicable weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients and anorexia or cachexia syndrome. Approved by the FDA in 1971, the drug induces a non-fluid weight gain by specifically increasing body fat and not muscle mass. The medicat…
  • StatPearls: CHARGE Syndrome [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Usman Norina N VA palo alto Stanford CA Sur Moushumi M Baylor College of Med, TX Children Hosp BOOK
  • CHARGE syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disorder commonly diagnosed during the prenatal or neonatal period due to the identification of numerous dysmorphic and congenital anomalies. The features of CHARGE syndrome were first described independently by Hall and Hittner, and hence, it was initially called Hall-Hittner syndrome. Pagon first described the cardinal anomalies such as colo…
  • StatPearls: Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Gabros Sarah S Rowan University SOM Masood Sadia S Aga Khan University Hospital karachi BOOK
  • Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a unique form of scarring alopecia that clinically presents as patches of permanent hair loss on the vertex or crown of the scalp, and spreads centrifugally.[1] This type of hair loss is associated with signs and symptoms of inflammation. It is a common condition that usually affects women of African descent, and it runs in families.[2] There is …
  • StatPearls: Hemorrhagic Stroke [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Unnithan Ajaya Kumar A. AKA Muthoot Hospital, Kozhencherry Mehta Parth P University of Illinois, College of Medicine Peoria BOOK
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), otherwise called a stroke, is the third major cause of morbidity and mortality in many developed countries. Stroke can be either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke is due to loss of blood supply to an area of the brain. It is a common type of stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may …
  • StatPearls: Membranous Nephropathy [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Alok Akankcha A Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University Yadav Anju A Thomas Jefferson University BOOK
  • Membranous nephropathy (MN), also known as membranous glomerulopathy, is one of the many glomerular diseases causing nephrotic syndrome. It is characterized by massive proteinuria (>3.5 g/day) and clinically presents with peripheral edema, hypertension, frothy urine, and manifestations of thromboembolic phenomena. Laboratory investigations show hypoalbuminemia, dyslipidemia, and acute kidney inju…
  • StatPearls: Mucolytic Medications [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Gupta Rishab R Sharda University, Sharda Hospital Wadhwa Roopma R South Carolina Department of Mental Health BOOK
  • Mucolytics are drugs belonging to the class of mucoactive agents. They exert their effect on the mucus layer lining the respiratory tract with the motive of enhancing its clearance. Mucus is the first line of defense for the various epithelia inside our body against harmful pathogens. Its job also entails the protection of the epithelium from the excoriating irritants found in the gastrointestina…
  • StatPearls: Breast Biopsy [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Versaggi Salvatore L. SL Brooke Army Medical Center De Leucio Alessandro A Hopital universitaire des enfants Reine Fabiola BOOK
  • Breast cancer carries a high cost to society; the loss of life and the economic impact is almost unimaginable. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 million cases of breast cancer diagnosed worldwide, and most were discovered by imaging.[1] However, there are limitations to breast imaging evaluation. The majority of suspicious breast lesions require further diagnostic workup with a biopsy and pathology d…
  • StatPearls: Optic Atrophy [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Ahmad Syed Shoeb SS Kanukollu Venkata M. VM Darlington Memorial Hospital BOOK
  • Optic atrophy is a pathological term referring to optic nerve shrinkage caused by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. The term “optic atrophy” is regarded as a misnomer since atrophy implies disuse. Therefore, a better term for optic atrophy would be “optic neuropathy.” However, that term is also controversial since, in certain situations, such as primary optic atrophy or traum…
  • StatPearls: Anterior Cord Syndrome [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Pearl Nathaniel A. NA Aventura Hospital and Medical Center Dubensky Laurence L Aventura Hospital and Medical Center BOOK
  • Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in motor paralysis below the level of the lesion as well as the loss of pain and temperature at and below the level of the lesion. The patient presentation typically includes these two findings; however, there is variability depending on the portion of…
  • StatPearls: Cancer, Cerebellopontine Angle [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Lak Asad M. AM Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School Khan Yusuf S. YS Al Farabi College of Medicine, Riyadh, KSA BOOK
  • Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a triangular space in the posterior cranial fossa that is bounded by the tentorium superiorly, brainstem posteromedially and petrous part of temporal bone posterolaterally. It is an important landmark anatomically and clinically as it is occupied by the CPA cistern, which houses the cranial nerve V, VI, VII, and VIII along with the anterior inferior cerebellar arte…
  • StatPearls: Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Dave Soham D. SD College of Physician and Surgeons Meyer Jay J. JJ University of Auckland BOOK
  • Glaucoma is a heterogeneous condition that leads to damage of the optic nerve and may result in visual field loss, including complete blindness. Anatomically, glaucoma is classified into open-angle glaucoma and close angle glaucoma. A closed-angle is an anatomical configuration in which there is a mechanical blockage of the trabecular meshwork by the peripheral iris. Etiologically, it can be clas…
  • StatPearls: Endophthalmitis [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Simakurthy Sriram S AIIMS, NEW DELHI Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • Endophthalmitis is defined as an inflammation of inner coats of the eye, resulting from intraocular colonization of infectious agents with exudation within intraocular fluids (vitreous and aqueous).[1] Based on the mode of entry of the organism, it is divided into 'exogenous' and 'endogenous.' Depending on the causative event, the exogenous endophthalmitis can be either post-traumatic or postoper…
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