- A new blood parasite of leaf warblers: molecular characterization, phylogenetic relationships, description and identification of vectors. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Oct 04; 11(1):538
- CONCLUSIONS: Haemoproteus homopalloris n. sp. is the third haemoproteid, which is described from and is prevalent in wood warblers. Phylogenetic analysis identified a clade containing seven haemoproteids, which are characterised by pale staining of the macrogametocyte cytoplasm and with ookinetes maturing exceptionally rapidly (between 1 to 1.5 h after exposure to air). Both these features may represent valuable phylogenetic characters. Studies targeting mechanisms of sporogonic development of haemoproteids remain uncommon and should be encouraged. Culicoides nubeculosus is an excellent experimental vector of the new parasite species.
- Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2016 06 29; 6:29030
- The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and …
The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development.
- Plasmodium transmission blocking activities of Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated compounds. [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2015 Jul 25; 14:288
- CONCLUSIONS: Vernonia amygdalina leaves contain molecules affecting multiple stages of Plasmodium, evidencing its potential for drug discovery. Chemical modification of the identified hit molecules, in particular vernodalol, could generate a library of druggable sesquiterpene lactones. The development of a multistage phytomedicine designed as preventive treatment to complement existing malaria control tools appears a challenging but feasible goal.
- F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima. [Journal Article]
- PParasitology 2015; 142(7):855-64
- To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated…
To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima.
- RNA Seq analysis of the Eimeria tenella gametocyte transcriptome reveals clues about the molecular basis for sexual reproduction and oocyst biogenesis. [Journal Article]
- BGBMC Genomics 2015 Feb 18; 16:94
- CONCLUSIONS: The need for novel vaccine candidates capable of controlling coccidiosis is rising and this panel of gametocyte targets represents an invaluable resource for development of future strategies to interrupt parasite transmission, not just in Eimeria but in other Coccidia, including Toxoplasma, where transmission blocking is a relatively unexplored strategy.
- Eimeria arloingi: further studies on the development of some endogenous stages. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2014; 140:12-7
- The present study investigated the ultrastructural characteristics of gamogony and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria arloingi in experimentally infected kids. The 18 newborn animals allocated to 3 equ…
The present study investigated the ultrastructural characteristics of gamogony and oocyst wall formation of Eimeria arloingi in experimentally infected kids. The 18 newborn animals allocated to 3 equal groups. Two of groups, A, B were inoculated with a single dose of 1×10(3) and 1×10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. arloingi, respectively. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42days postinoculation (DPI), 1 kid from each group was necropsied for ultrastructural studies. Transmission electron microscopy was used to screen for the presence of developmental stages of the parasite. All stages of microgametocyte and macrogametocyte developments and also oocyst wall formation were observed from 7 to 42DPI. Different stages of schizigony accompanied by marked proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and several granular dividing nuclei were diagnosed in the affected epithelial cells. Young microgamonts were recognizable by an electron lucent parasitophorous vacuole and several dividing nuclei with prominent nucleolar and peripheral chromatin in the cytoplasm. At a later stage, the nuclei began to elongate and a single mitochondrion and two basal bodies were observed in close proximity nucleus. These bodies eventually protruded from the surface of the gametocyte and formed two flagellar structures. Up to 80-120 microgametes were produced per microgamont. Macrogamonts were recognized by the presence of wall-forming bodies of types 1 and 2. Electron lucent WFB2 appeared earlier than the electron denser WFB1 during the process of macrogametogenesis. The outer layer of the oocyst wall was formed by the release of the contents of WFB1 at the surface to form an electron dense layer. The WFB2 appeared, subsequently, to give rise to the electron lucent inner layer. WFB1 plays a major role in oocyst wall formation.
- New records of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium (Sporozoa: Haemosporida) of rock pigeon (Columba livia) in India. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Parasit Dis 2011; 35(2):155-68
- The prevalence, intensity and morpho-variants of new species of haemosporida (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) from the rock pigeon, Columba livia are described and illustrated for the first time from Ut…
The prevalence, intensity and morpho-variants of new species of haemosporida (Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) from the rock pigeon, Columba livia are described and illustrated for the first time from Uttar Pradesh state of India. Thin blood smears from 266 C. livia indicated 55.63% (Haemoproteus) and 6.76% (Plasmodium) prevalence and 1-6 pars/100 RBC's (Haemoproteus) and 1-2 pars/100 RBC's (Plasmodium) intensity of infection. The fully grown intracellular gametocytes of Haemoproteus were differentiated into microgametocyte (14.0 × 4.3 μm) and macrogametocyte (13.9 × 4.7 μm). Extracorpuscular gametocyte (15.0-17.8 μm in length, 3.9-7.3 μm in width) were occasionally visible. Nuclear displacement ratio was 0.2. Plasmodium species was characterized by rounded schizonts and elongated microgametocyte (7.8 × 7.6 μm) and macrogametocyte (7.8 × 7.7 μm) with irregular margins. Cells containing schizonts are often rounded and enlarged and those parasitized by gametocytes may be somewhat distorted in shape by lateral hypertrophy. Host cell nuclei are also displaced. Double gametocyte infection of Haemoproteus occasionally present but that of Plasmodium lacking.
- Novel Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from the swallow-tailed gull (Lariidae), with remarks on the host range of hippoboscid-transmitted avian hemoproteids. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Parasitol 2012; 98(4):847-54
- Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) jenniae n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) is described from a Galapagos bird, the swallow-tailed gull Creagrus furcatus (Charadriiformes, Laridae), based on the morpho…
Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) jenniae n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) is described from a Galapagos bird, the swallow-tailed gull Creagrus furcatus (Charadriiformes, Laridae), based on the morphology of its blood stages and segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The most distinctive features of H. jenniae development are the circumnuclear gametocytes occupying all cytoplasmic space in infected erythrocytes and the presence of advanced, growing gametocytes in which the pellicle is closely appressed to the erythrocyte envelope but does not extend to the erythrocyte nucleus. This parasite is distinguishable from Haemoproteus larae, which produces similar gametocytes and parasitizes closely related species of Laridae. Haemoproteus jenniae can be distinguished from H. larae primarily due to (1) the predominantly amoeboid outline of young gametocytes, (2) diffuse macrogametocyte nuclei which do not possess distinguishable nucleoli, (3) the consistent size and shape of pigment granules, and (4) the absence of rod-like pigment granules from gametocytes. Additionally, fully-grown gametocytes of H. jenniae cause both the marked hypertrophy of infected erythrocytes in width and the rounding up of the host cells, which is not the case in H. larae. Phylogenetic analyses identified the DNA lineages that are associated with H. jenniae and showed that this parasite is more closely related to the hippoboscid-transmitted (Hippoboscidae) species than to the Culicoides spp.-transmitted (Ceratopogonidae) species of avian hemoproteids. Genetic divergence between morphologically well-differentiated H. jenniae and the hippoboscid-transmitted Haemoproteus iwa, the closely related parasite of frigatebirds (Fregatidae, Pelecaniformes), is only 0.6%; cyt b sequences of these parasites differ only by 1 base pair. This is the first example of such a small genetic difference in the cyt b gene between species of the subgenus Haemoproteus. In a segment of caseinolytic protease C gene (ClpC), genetic divergence is 4% between H. jenniae and H. iwa. This study corroborates the conclusion that hippoboscid-transmitted Haemoproteus parasites infect not only Columbiformes birds but also infect marine birds belonging to Pelecaniformes and Charadriiformes. We conclude that the vertebrate host range should be used cautiously in identification of subgenera of avian Haemoproteus species and that the phylogenies based on the cyt b gene provide evidence for determining the subgeneric position of avian hemoproteids.
- Lack of molecular correlates of Plasmodium vivax ookinete development. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2011; 85(2):207-13
- Previous studies of Plasmodium vivax transmission to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes have not been able to predict mosquito infectivity on the basis of microscopic or molecular quantification of parasites …
Previous studies of Plasmodium vivax transmission to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes have not been able to predict mosquito infectivity on the basis of microscopic or molecular quantification of parasites (total parasites in the sample or total number of gametocytes) in infected blood. Two methods for production of P. vivax ookinete cultures in vitro, with yields of 10(6) macrogametocytes, 10(4) zygotes, and 10(3) ookinetes, respectively, per 10 mL of P. vivax-infected patient blood with approximately 0.01% parasitemia, were used to study P. vivax sexual stage development. The quantity of gametocytes, determined by counting Giemsa-stained blood smears, and quantity and type of gametocyte as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for Pvalpha tubulin II and macrogametocyte-specific pvg377 did not predict ookinete yield. Factors that affect the efficiency of in vitro P. vivax ookinete transformation remain poorly understood.
New Search Next
- New avian Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from African birds, with a critique of the use of host taxonomic information in hemoproteid classification. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Parasitol 2011; 97(4):682-94
- Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) micronuclearis n. sp., Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) nucleofascialis n. sp., Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) paranucleophilus n. sp., and Haemoproteus (Parahaemoprot…
Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) micronuclearis n. sp., Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) nucleofascialis n. sp., Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) paranucleophilus n. sp., and Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) homobelopolskyi n. sp. (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) are described from African passeriform birds based on the morphology of their blood stages and segments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea), red-headed malimbe (Malimbus rubricollis), and black-headed weaver (Ploceus melanocephalus) are the type vertebrate hosts of new hemoproteids. It is probable that new species have wide distribution in weavers in sub-Saharan Africa. Both H. micronuclearis and H. nucleofascialis can be readily distinguished from other avian hemoproteids by tiny, compact microgametocyte nuclei that are significantly smaller than macrogametocyte nuclei and are a rare character of hemosporidian parasites. Gametocytes of H. paranucleophilus are closely appressed to the erythrocyte nuclei and do not touch the erythrocyte envelope along their entire margin at all stages of their development, including fully grown gametocytes. A particularly distinctive feature of H. homobelopolskyi development is the presence of circumnuclear dumbbell-shaped macrogametocytes. Illustrations of blood stages of the new species are given, and morphological and phylogenetic analyses identify the DNA lineages that are associated with these parasites. Numerous recent studies show that some lineages of hemoproteids are often present in birds belonging to different families. As a result, the use of the host family as a taxonomic character should be questioned and preferably discouraged in hemoproteid taxonomy, particularly with regard to the parasites of passerine birds. Microscopic identification of avian hemoproteids requires comparison of Haemoproteus species described from birds of different families, as is an established practice with avian Plasmodium spp. Development of bar-coding techniques remains essential in taxonomic and field studies of hemosporidian parasites.