- Overexpression of a trypanothione synthetase gene from Trypanosoma cruzi, TcTrys, confers enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in rice. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2019 Jun 11
- Plants are frequently exposed to variable environmental stresses that adversely affect plant growth, development and agricultural production. In this study, a trypanothione synthetase gene from Trypa…
Plants are frequently exposed to variable environmental stresses that adversely affect plant growth, development and agricultural production. In this study, a trypanothione synthetase gene from Trypanosoma cruzi, TcTryS, was chemically synthesized and its roles in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses were functionally characterized by generating transgenic rice overexpressing TcTryS. Overexpression of TcTryS in rice endows transgenic plants with hypersensitivity to ABA, hyposensitivity to NaCl- and mannitol-induced osmotic stress at the seed germination stage. TcTryS overexpression results in enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, cadmium, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol stresses in transgenic rice, simultaneously supported by improved physiological traits. The TcTryS-overexpression plants also accumulated greater amounts of proline, less malondialdehyde and more transcripts of stress-related genes than wild-type plants under drought and salt stress conditions. In addition, TcTryS might play a positive role in maintaining chlorophyll content under 2,4,6-trichlorophenol stress. Histochemical staining assay showed that TcTryS renders transgenic plants better ROS-scavenging capability. All of these results suggest that TcTryS could function as a key regulator in modulation of abiotic stress tolerance in plant, and may have applications in the engineering of economically important crops.
- Massive Hyphaema Following Laser Iridotomy in a Patient on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy (Aspirin plus Ticagrelor): Case report and literature review. [Case Reports]
- SQSultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2019; 19(1):e63-e67
- Massive hyphaema presentation after a laser iridotomy is very rare. We report a 63-year-old man with ischaemic heart disease on dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus ticagrelor) who was diagnosed a…
Massive hyphaema presentation after a laser iridotomy is very rare. We report a 63-year-old man with ischaemic heart disease on dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus ticagrelor) who was diagnosed as a primary angle-closure suspect and was to undergo a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser iridotomy at Centro Oftalmológico Virgilio Galvis, Floridablanca, Colombia in 2016. While performing the iridotomy in the left eye, active bleeding occurred that finally filled approximately 75% of the anterior chamber. Intraocular pressure (IOP) increased to 62 mmHg. Mannitol and a topical dorzolamide/timolol were used to control the increase in IOP. The hyphaema slowly resolved over the following week without sequelae. This case revealed that massive hyphaema can complicate laser iridotomy in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, although this is rare. Therefore, if patients are taking aspirin and ticagrelor, it would be advisable to stop the second medication if possible. In addition, sequential application of photocoagulation and photodisruption lasers might diminish the risk of significant bleeding.
- StatPearls: Hypertonic Fluids [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Hypertonic Saline: Hypertonic saline is a crystalloid intravenous fluid composed of NaCl dissolved in water with a higher concentration of sodium compared to normal blood serum. Both 3% and 5% hypert…
Hypertonic Saline: Hypertonic saline is a crystalloid intravenous fluid composed of NaCl dissolved in water with a higher concentration of sodium compared to normal blood serum. Both 3% and 5% hypertonic saline (HS) is currently FDA-approved for use in hyponatremia and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Patients with hyponatremia with severe features should have their serum sodium gradually corrected with boluses of hypertonic saline. Patients should have their serum sodium monitored at regular intervals and can receive multiple boluses a day. Hypertonic saline should be discontinued once the patient’s symptoms improve or they have an adequate increase in serum sodium. Cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with intracranial tumors, cerebral hematomas, traumatic brain injuries, cerebral infarcts, and intracranial hemorrhages. Hypertonic saline increases the osmolarity of the blood, which allows fluid from the extravascular space to enter the intravascular space, which leads to decreases in brain edema, improved cerebral blood flow, and decreased CSF production. Research shows that 3% hypertonic saline decreases ICP similarly to 20% mannitol. Both hypertonic fluids have similar effects on hemodynamics. Hypertonic saline leads to increases in serum sodium and has less of a diuretic effect than mannitol likely due to the increased serum sodium causing ADH release. Hypertonic saline administered after mannitol in traumatic brain injury has also been shown to improve cerebral oxygenation in addition to lowering ICP. Due to there being no guidelines regarding the administration of hypertonic saline for increased ICP, various studies have used concentrations of 3% to 23.5% NaCl.. While not FDA-approved, small doses of hypertonic saline are thought to be effective in hypovolemia and shock due to the movement of fluid from the intracellular to intravascular spaces, increasing intravascular fluid volume and improving capillary blood flow.
- Stabilizing excipients for engineered clopidogrel bisulfate procubosome derived in situ cubosomes for enhanced intestinal dissolution: Stability and bioavailability considerations. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Sci 2019 Jun 09
- Clopidogrel bisulfate (CB) is a golden antiplatelet treatment, yet its benefits are limited by its low bioavailability (<50%) caused by poor intestinal solubility and absorption. The present study ai…
Clopidogrel bisulfate (CB) is a golden antiplatelet treatment, yet its benefits are limited by its low bioavailability (<50%) caused by poor intestinal solubility and absorption. The present study aims to improve CB intestinal solubility and absorption through developing a novel stable dry CB procubosomes tablets ready to disintegrate and re-disperse upon dilution in the GIT forming in situ CB cubosome nanoparticles while simultaneously overcome the poor stability of conventional cubosome dispersion at room temperature. Glyceryl monooleate based CB cubosome dispersion was prepared using Poloxamer 407 as surfactant, freeze dried using different stabilizing excipients (dextrose, mannitol and avicel) then compressed into procubosome tablets. The effect of excipient's physicochemical properties on the flowability, in vitro dissolution and stability at accelerated conditions (40 ± 2 °C/75 ± 5% RH) were evaluated. The prepared procubosomes exhibited an excipient type dependent dissolution profile where Avicel based procubosome tablet CF2 showed the highest in vitro dissolution profile among other excipients used during the freeze drying process. Upon transition to intestinal pH of 6.8 to mimic the drug absorption site, CF2 procubosome Avicel tablet, was able to preserve the enhanced CB release profile (99.6 ± 6.92%) compared to commercial Plavix® where, CB dissolved % dropped dramatically to 79.1 ± 2.45%. After storage for six months, CF2 retained the fresh tablet drug content of 98.5 ± 5.82% and dissolution properties. Moreover, following oral administration in rabbits, CF2 showed higher relative bioavailability (153%) compared to commercial Plavix® with significant higher Cmax,shorter tmax, as well as enhanced antiplatelet activity.
- Claudin-15 forms a water channel through the tight junction with distinct function compared to claudin-2. [Journal Article]
- APActa Physiol (Oxf) 2019 Jun 12; :e13334
- CONCLUSIONS: Claudin-15, similar to claudin-2, forms a paracellular cation and water channel. In functional contrast to claudin-2, water and Na+ fluxes through claudin-15 inhibit each other. Claudin-15 allows Na+ to retain part of its hydration shell within the pore. This then reduces the simultaneous passage of additional water through the pore. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- In Vitro Evaluation of Eudragit Matrices for Oral Delivery of BCG Vaccine to Animals. [Journal Article]
- PPharmaceutics 2019 Jun 10; 11(6)
- Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally, but oral delivery is highly advanta…
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally, but oral delivery is highly advantageous for the immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is susceptible to inactivation in the gut, vaccine formulations were prepared from suspensions of Eudragit L100 copolymer powder and BCG in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), containing Tween® 80, with and without the addition of mannitol or trehalose. Samples were frozen at -20 °C, freeze-dried and the lyophilised powders were compressed to produce BCG-Eudragit matrices. Production of the dried powders resulted in a reduction in BCG viability. Substantial losses in viability occurred at the initial formulation stage and at the stage of powder compaction. Data indicated that the Eudragit matrix protected BCG against simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The matrices remained intact in SGF and dissolved completely in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) within three hours. The inclusion of mannitol or trehalose in the matrix provided additional protection to BCG during freeze-drying. Control needs to be exercised over BCG aggregation, freeze-drying and powder compaction conditions to minimise physical damage of the bacterial cell wall and maximise the viability of oral BCG vaccines prepared by dry powder compaction.
- Mannitol and the Combination of Mannitol and Gelatin Impair Whole Blood Coagulation and the Platelet Function In Vitro. [Journal Article]
- TJTurk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2019; 47(3):199-205
- CONCLUSIONS: In this in vitro study, clinically relevant dilutions of mannitol and gelatin showed a significant inhibition of whole blood coagulation and the platelet function, which could be detrimental in neurosurgical settings.
- Isolation and Characterization of CsWRKY7, a Subgroup IId WRKY Transcription Factor from Camellia sinensis, Linked to Development in Arabidopsis. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jun 09; 20(11)
- WRKY transcription factors (TFs) containing one or two WRKY domains are a class of plant TFs that respond to diverse abiotic stresses and are associated with developmental processes. However, little …
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) containing one or two WRKY domains are a class of plant TFs that respond to diverse abiotic stresses and are associated with developmental processes. However, little has been known about the function of WRKY gene in tea plant. In this study, a subgroup IId WRKY gene CsWRKY7 was isolated from Camellia sinensis, which displayed amino acid sequence homology with Arabidopsis AtWRKY7 and AtWRKY15. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that CsWRKY7 localized to nucleus. Cis-acting elements detected in the promotor region of CsWRKY7 are mainly involved in plant response to environmental stress and growth. Consistently, expression analysis showed that CsWRKY7 transcripts responded to NaCl, mannitol, PEG, and diverse hormones treatments. Additionally, CsWRKY7 exhibited a higher accumulation both in old leaves and roots compared to bud. Seed germination and root growth assay indicated that overexpressed CsWRKY7 in transgenic Arabidopsis was not sensitive to NaCl, mannitol, PEG, and low concentration of ABA treatments. CsWRKY7 overexpressing Arabidopsis showed a late-flowering phenotype under normal conditions compared to wild type. Furthermore, gene expression analysis showed that the transcription levels of the flowering time integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and the floral meristem identity genes APETALA1 (AP1) and LEAFY (LFY) were lower in WRKY7-OE than in the WT. Taken together, these findings indicate that CsWRKY7 TF may participate in plant growth. This study provides a potential strategy to breed late-blooming tea cultivar.
- New nitrogen-containing metabolites from cultures of rice false smut pathogen Villosiclava virens. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2019 Jun 10; :1-10
- Two new nitrogen-containing metabolites methyl N-acetyl-O-(4-acetylphenyl)-L-homoserinate (1), dimethyl (1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-D-glutamate (2), and two new natural products, 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-ma…
Two new nitrogen-containing metabolites methyl N-acetyl-O-(4-acetylphenyl)-L-homoserinate (1), dimethyl (1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-D-glutamate (2), and two new natural products, 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (3), N-acetyl-β-methyl-L-phenylalanine (4), along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the rice false smut pathogen Villosiclava virens UV-8b cultured in the solid rice medium. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with the literature. These metabolites were evaluated for their antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. Compounds 5-7 showed weak inhibition against the tested bacteria, while compounds 4-6 and 9 displayed inhibitory activity against the radicle elongation of rice seeds.
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- Monitoring of the freezing stage in a freeze-drying process using IR thermography. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2019 Jun 05
- This paper presents a new Process Analytical Technology based on the use of an infrared camera and a mathematical model to estimate the ice crystal size distribution obtained at the end of the freezi…
This paper presents a new Process Analytical Technology based on the use of an infrared camera and a mathematical model to estimate the ice crystal size distribution obtained at the end of the freezing stage of a vial freeze-drying process. Both empirical laws and first-principle based equations, already presented in the Literature, may be used to this purpose, if the temperature gradient in the frozen product and the freezing front rate are obtained from the analysis of the thermal images. The resistance of the dried product to vapor flux may be then calculated from the distribution of the ice crystal diameters, thus enabling the use of a one-dimensional model for process simulation and optimization. Freeze-drying of 5% and 10% w/w aqueous sucrose solutions, and of 5% w/w aqueous mannitol solutions, were considered as case study. The results were validated comparing the calculated diameters of the pores of the dried cake, corresponding to the ice crystal diameters, with the results experimentally obtained from the analysis of the SEM images, and comparing the values of drying duration and maximum product temperature calculated with the mathematical model with those measured experimentally. Results evidences the effectiveness of the proposed system for process monitoring.