- Matured hop bitter acids improve spatial working and object recognition memory via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. [Journal Article]
- PPsychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 May 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The results support the involvement of nAChRs in memory improvement in mice by MHBA. MHBA is thus thought to activate the vagal nerve and enhance hippocampus-dependent memory via nAChRs.
- Protective effect of electro-acupuncture on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(2):1373-1380
- Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important clinical complication in which excessive inflammation is a key factor; however, few studies have provided effective means of its regulation. As previ…
Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important clinical complication in which excessive inflammation is a key factor; however, few studies have provided effective means of its regulation. As previous studies suggested that electro-acupuncture (EA) is able control excessive inflammation, the present study aimed to explore its effects on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in experimental rats. The animals were randomly divided into surgery and sham groups, which were further divided into four sub-groups, including a non-treatment (NT), a non-point acupuncture (NPA), the non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl L-pioperazinium iodide (DMPPI) and an EA group. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum cytokine and myeloperoxidase (MP) levels and the tissue pathology were evaluated after 90 min of ischemia followed by a 4, 8 or 24 h reperfusion. The results demonstrated that EA and DMPPI suppressed serum ALT elevation at 4 and 8 h reperfusion, whereas NPA did not. I/R induced hepatocellular necrosis, and cytoplasmic vacuolization and sinusoidal congestion was ameliorated by EA treatment after an 8 and 24 h reperfusion. In addition, EA also inhibited liver neutrophil accumulation, evidenced by a decreased MPO level at 8 h reperfusion. EA also suppressed the release of serum inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 for the duration of reperfusion. However, little influence on IL-10 was observed. Mechanistically, vagus block by subphrenic vagotomy or mecamylamine hydrochloride abolished EA effect on liver damage, neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory factor release. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that EA protects the liver against I/R induced injury by inhibiting the inflammatory response, which is associated with the vagus.
- Role of ventrolateral orbital cortex muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in modulation of capsaicin-induced orofacial pain-related behaviors in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Nov 15; 815:399-404
- Acetylcholine, as a major neurotransmitter, mediates many brain functions such as pain. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine rec…
Acetylcholine, as a major neurotransmitter, mediates many brain functions such as pain. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists and agonists into the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLOC) on capsaicin-induced orofacial nociception and subsequent hyperalgesia. The right side of VLOC was surgically implanted with a guide cannula in anaesthetized rats. Orofacial pain-related behaviors were induced by subcutaneous injection of a capsaicin solution (1.5µg/20µl) into the left vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing with ipsilateral forepaw and general behavior were recorded for 10min, and then mechanical hyperalgesia was determined using von Frey filaments at 15, 30, 45 and 60min post-capsaicin injection. Alone intra-VLOC microinjection of atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) at a similar dose of 200ng/site did not alter nocifensive behavior and hyperalgesia. Microinjection of oxotremorine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist) at doses of 50 and 100ng/site and epibatidine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist) at doses of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100ng/site into the VLOC suppressed pain-related behaviors. Prior microinjections of 200ng/site atropine and mecamylamine (200ng/site) prevented oxotremorine (100ng/site)-, and epibatidine (100ng/site)-induced antinociception, respectively. None of the above-mentioned chemicals changed general behavior. These results showed that the VLOC muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors might be involved in modulation of orofacial nociception and hypersensitivity.
- Downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function in rats after subchronic exposure to diazinon. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Rep 2016; 3:523-530
- Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which exerts its effect through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). In this work, we studied the development of tolerance to subchro…
Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate insecticide which exerts its effect through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). In this work, we studied the development of tolerance to subchronic p.o. administration of DZN in rats, under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. A group of 20 rats (2 groups, n = 10) was administered p.o. the 1/10 of established LD50 DZN (namely 55.87 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. On the 14th and 28th day of study with isolated diaphragm and ileum, we examined the downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function through Electrical Field Stimulation (EFS). Maximum contractility of the diaphragm was recorded on the 14th day of the study (25% higher compared to the non-treated rats), while on the 28th day the contractions almost did not differ from the values found in non-treated rats. EFS of isolated ileum on the 14th day of study caused significantly higher contractions compared to the non-treated rats, but after 28 days, ileum contractions decreased approximately to the level of contractions in non-treated rats. On the 14th study day, we also recorded increased amplitude of spontaneous ileum contractions, compared to non-treated rats. The application of increasing ACh concentrations caused dose-dependent ileum contractions, without statistically significant differences of median effective concentration (EC50) values in non-treated and treated rats. Tolerance to subchronic DZN administration develops due to various adaptation mechanisms, including the most important one-downregulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor function.
- Nicotine Directly Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Rat Placental Trophoblast Giant Cells. [Journal Article]
- TSToxicol Sci 2016; 151(1):23-34
- Nicotine exposure during pregnancy leads to placental insufficiency impairing both fetal and neonatal development. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in rats, nicotine augmen…
Nicotine exposure during pregnancy leads to placental insufficiency impairing both fetal and neonatal development. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in rats, nicotine augmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in association with placental insufficiency; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, we sought to investigate the possible direct effect of nicotine on ER stress in Rcho-1 rat placental trophoblast giant (TG) cells during differentiation. Protein and/or mRNA expression of markers involved in ER stress (eg, phosphorylated PERK, eIF2α, CHOP, and BiP/GRP78) and TG cell differentiation and function (eg, Pl-1, placental growth factor [Pgf], Hsd11b1, and Hsd11b2) were quantified via Western blot or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nicotine treatment led to dose-dependent increases in the phosphorylation of PERK[Thr981] and eIF2α[Ser51], whereas pretreatment with a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist (mecamylamine hydrochloride) blocked the induction of PERK phosphorylation, verifying the direct involvement of nicotine and nAChR binding. We next investigated select target genes known to play essential roles in placental TG cell differentiation and function (Pl-1, Pgf, Hsd11b1, and Hsd11b2), and found that nicotine significantly augmented the mRNA levels of Hsd11b1 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, using tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a safe bile acid known to improve protein chaperoning and folding, we were able to prevent nicotine-induced increases in both PERK phosphorylation and Hsd11b1 mRNA levels, revealing a potential novel therapeutic approach to reverse the deleterious effects of nicotine exposure in pregnancy. Collectively, these results implicate that nicotine, acting through its receptor, can directly augment ER stress and impair placental function.
- Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review. [Review]
- ERExpert Rev Neurother 2016; 16(2):131-44
- Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate …
Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder.
- Distinctive effects of nicotinic receptor intracellular-loop mutations associated with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropharmacology 2016; 102:158-73
- Previously characterized nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)-associated mutations are found in α2, α4 and β2 subunit transmembrane (TM…
Previously characterized nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)-associated mutations are found in α2, α4 and β2 subunit transmembrane (TM) domains. They predominantly increase ACh potency and, for β2-subunit mutants, increase macroscopic currents. Two recently-identified mutations, α4(R336H) and β2(V337G), located in the intracellular cytoplasmic loop (C2) have been associated with non-familial NFLE. Effects of these mutations on α4β2-nAChR function and expression were studied for the first time, using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biased-ratio preparations elucidated the mutations' effects at alternate isoforms: high-sensitivity [HS; (α4)2(β2)3] or low-sensitivity [LS; (α4)3(β2)2] via 1:10 or 30:1 [α4:β2] cRNA injection ratios, respectively. An unbiased (1:1 [α4:β2] cRNA) injection ratio was also used to study potential shifts in isoform expression. α4(R336H)-containing receptors showed significant increases in maximal ACh-induced currents (Imax) in all preparations (140% increase compared to wild type control). β2(V337G)-containing receptors significantly increased Imax in the LS-favoring preparation (20% increase compared to control). Expression of either mutation consistently produced enrichment of HS-isoform expression in all preparations. α4β2-nAChR harboring either NFLE mutant subunit showed unchanged ACh, sazetidine-A, nicotine, cytisine and mecamylamine potency. However, both mutant subunits enhanced partial agonist efficacies in the LS-biased preparation. Using β2-subunit-specific [(125)I]mAb 295 immunolabeling, nAChR cell-surface expression was determined. Antibody binding studies revealed that the β2(V337G) mutation tended to reduce cell-surface expression, and function per receptor was significantly increased by either NFLE mutant subunit in HS-favoring preparations. These findings identify both common and differing features between TM- and C2-domain AD/NFLE-associated mutations. As we discuss, the shared features may be particularly salient to AD/NFLE etiology.
- Nicotinic receptors and lurasidone-mediated reversal of phencyclidine-induced deficit in novel object recognition. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2016 Mar 15; 301:204-12
- CONCLUSIONS: These results identify both α4β2* and α7 nAChRs as candidates for enhancing the ability of lurasidone and other AAPDs, which increase the release of ACh, to improve CIAS.
- Muscarinic receptor control of pyramidal neuron membrane potential in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2015 Sep 10; 303:474-88
- Damage to the cholinergic input to the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cholinergic endings release acetylcholine, which activates nicotinic and/or G-protein-coupl…
Damage to the cholinergic input to the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cholinergic endings release acetylcholine, which activates nicotinic and/or G-protein-coupled muscarinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors activate transduction systems, which control cellular effectors that regulate the membrane potential in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons. The mechanisms responsible for the cholinergic-dependent depolarization of mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons in slices obtained from young rats were elucidated in this study. Glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission as well as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) and voltage-dependent Ca(++) currents were eliminated. Cholinergic receptor stimulation by carbamoylcholine chloride (CCh; 100 μM) evoked depolarization (10.0 ± 1.3 mV), which was blocked by M1/M4 (pirenzepine dihydrochloride, 2 μM) and M1 (VU 0255035, 5 μM) muscarinic receptor antagonists and was not affected by a nicotinic receptor antagonist (mecamylamine hydrochloride, 10 μM). CCh-dependent depolarization was attenuated by extra- (20 μM) or intracellular (50 μM) application of an inhibitor of the βγ-subunit-dependent transduction system (gallein). It was also inhibited by intracellular application of a βγ-subunit-binding peptide (GRK2i, 10μM). mPFC pyramidal neurons express Nav1.9 channels. CCh-dependent depolarization was abolished in the presence of antibodies against Nav1.9 channels in the intracellular solution and augmented by the presence of ProTx-I toxin (100 nM) in the extracellular solution. CCh-induced depolarization was not affected by the following reagents: intracellular transduction system blockers, including U-73122 (10 μM), chelerythrine chloride (5 μM), SQ 22536 (100 μM) and H-89 (2 μM); channel blockers, including Ba(++) ions (200 μM), apamin (100 nM), flufenamic acid (200 μM), 2-APB (200 μM), SKF 96365 (50 μM), and ZD 7288 (50 μM); and a Na(+)/Ca(++) exchanger blocker, benzamil (20 μM). We conclude that muscarinic M1 receptor-dependent depolarization in mPFC pyramidal neurons is evoked by the activation of Nav1.9 channels and that the signal transduction pathway involves G-protein βγ subunits.
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- The role of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid systems of the ventral orbital cortex in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2015 Jul 05; 758:147-52
- Nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors are involved in modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid compounds in…
Nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid receptors are involved in modulation of pain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of microinjection of nicotinic acetylcholine and opioid compounds into the ventral orbital cortex (VOC) on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. For this purpose, two guide cannulas were placed into the left and right sides of the VOC of the brain. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50μl, 1.5%) into the right vibrissa pad and face rubbing durations were recorded at 3-min blocks for 45min. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pain response (first phase: 0-3min and second phase: 15-33min). Epibatidine (a nicotinic receptor agonist) at doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/site, morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2μg/site and their sub-analgesic doses (0.025μg/site epibatidine with 0.25μg/site morphine) combination treatment suppressed the second phase of pain. The antinociceptive effect induced by 0.2μg/site of epibatidine, but not morphine (2μg/site), was prevented by 2μg/site of mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist). Naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) at a dose of 2μg/site prevented the antinociceptive effects induced by 2μg/site of morphine and 0.2μg/site of epibatidine. No above-mentioned chemical compounds affected locomotor activity. These results showed that at the VOC level, epibatidine and morphine produced antinociception. In addition, opioid receptor might be involved in epibatidine-induced antinociception, but the antinociception induced by morphine was not mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.