- High proportion of coxsackievirus B3 genotype A in hand, foot and mouth disease in Zhenjiang, China, 2011-2016. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: This high prevalence of CVB3 genotype A among HFMD children has never been reported. This phenomenon has revealed a new epidemic trend of CVB3 among HFMD in China, and it has epidemiological implications for monitoring the epidemic risk of CVB3.
- Benefits of cooperation among large-scale cohort studies and human biomonitoring projects in environmental health research: An exercise in blood lead analysis of the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Jul 18
- A number of prospective cohort studies are ongoing worldwide to investigate the impact of foetal and neonatal exposures to chemical substances on child health. To assess multiple exposure (mixture) e…
A number of prospective cohort studies are ongoing worldwide to investigate the impact of foetal and neonatal exposures to chemical substances on child health. To assess multiple exposure (mixture) effects and low prevalence health outcomes it is useful to pool data from several studies and conduct mega-data-analysis. To discuss a path towards data harmonization, representatives from several large-scale birth cohort studies and a biomonitoring programme formed a collaborative group, the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group (ECHIBCG). In this study, an intra-laboratory trial was performed to harmonize existing blood lead measurements within the groups' studies. Then, decentralized analyses were conducted in individual countries' laboratories to evaluate blood lead levels (BLL) in each study. The measurements of pooled BLL samples in French, German and three Japanese laboratories resulted in an overall mean blood lead concentration of 8.66 μg l-1 (95% confidence interval: 8.59-8.72 μg l-1) with 3.0% relative standard deviation. Except for China's samples, BLL from each study were comparable with mean concentrations below or close to 10 μg l-1. The decentralized multivariate analyses revealed that all models had coefficients of determination below 0.1. Determinants of BLL were current smoking, age >35 years and overweight or obese status. The three variables were associated with an increase in BLL in each of the five studies, most strongly in France by almost 80% and the weakest effect being in Norway with only 15%; for Japan, with the far largest sample (~18,000), the difference was 36%. This study successfully demonstrated that the laboratory analytical methods were sufficiently similar to allow direct comparison of data and showed that it is possible to harmonize the epidemiological data for joint analysis. This exercise showed the challenges in decentralized data analyses and reinforces the need for data harmonization among studies.
- Altering the IgE binding capacity of king prawn (Litopenaeus Vannamei) tropomyosin through conformational changes induced by cold argon-plasma jet. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2019 Jul 08; 300:125143
- Tropomyosin (TM), a myofibrillar protein, is a major allergen in most crustaceans including king pawn (Litopenaeus vannamei). In this study, the structural modifications and allergenic response of TM…
Tropomyosin (TM), a myofibrillar protein, is a major allergen in most crustaceans including king pawn (Litopenaeus vannamei). In this study, the structural modifications and allergenic response of TM in fresh king prawn as induced by cold argon plasma jet (CAPJ) were examined. The result showed that the level of α-helix structures declined as treatment time progressed, while the level of β-sheets and random coils increased. The free sulfhydryl groups decreased as CAPJ treatment progressed due to the formation of disulphide bonds while surface hydrophobicity increased until equilibrium values. In addition, after 15 min of plasma exposure, the maximum reduction recorded for IgE and IgG binding capacities were 17.6% and 26.87% respectively as revealed by ELISA test. These findings correlated with the occurrence of protein unfolding and denaturation, evident by complementary structural analyses conducted. The study indicates that non-thermal plasma maybe a promising tool for developing hypoallergenic food products.
- Music Festival Makes Hedgehogs Move: How Individuals Cope Behaviorally in Response to Human-Induced Stressors. [Journal Article]
- AAnimals (Basel) 2019 Jul 18; 9(7)
- Understanding the impact of human activities on wildlife behavior and fitness can improve their sustainability. In a pilot study, we wanted to identify behavioral responses to anthropogenic stress in…
Understanding the impact of human activities on wildlife behavior and fitness can improve their sustainability. In a pilot study, we wanted to identify behavioral responses to anthropogenic stress in an urban species during a semi-experimental field study. We equipped eight urban hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus; four per sex) with bio-loggers to record their behavior before and during a mega music festival (2 × 19 days) in Treptower Park, Berlin. We used GPS (Global Positioning System) to monitor spatial behavior, VHF (Very High Frequency)-loggers to quantify daily nest utilization, and accelerometers to distinguish between different behaviors at a high resolution and to calculate daily disturbance (using Degrees of Functional Coupling). The hedgehogs showed clear behavioral differences between the pre-festival and festival phases. We found evidence supporting highly individual strategies, varying between spatial and temporal evasion of the disturbance. Averaging the responses of the individual animals or only examining one behavioral parameter masked these potentially different individual coping strategies. Using a meaningful combination of different minimal-invasive bio-logger types, we were able to show high inter-individual behavioral variance of urban hedgehogs in response to an anthropogenic disturbance, which might be a precondition to persist successfully in urban environments.
- Simultaneous removal of nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide in a biofilter under micro-oxygen thermophilic conditions: Removal performance, competitive relationship and bacterial community structure. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 Jul 08; 290:121768
- The efficiency of a biofilter to simultaneously remove nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was investigated under thermophilic (48 ± 2 °C) micro-oxygen (3 vol%) conditions. After the start-up …
The efficiency of a biofilter to simultaneously remove nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was investigated under thermophilic (48 ± 2 °C) micro-oxygen (3 vol%) conditions. After the start-up stage (Days 0-14), the stable operation period was divided into three stages. SO2 inlet concentration remained 500 mg/m3, NO inlet concentrations were 300 mg/m3 (Days 15-40), 500 mg/m3 (Days 41-70) and 700 mg/m3 (Days 71-100). In each stable stage, the removal efficiency of NO and SO2 exceeded 90%, the maximum removal rates of NO and SO2 were 98.08% and 99.61%, respectively. The final products of SO2 were mostly sulphur. Nitrate-reducing bacteria inhibited sulphate-reducing bacteria. Illumina high-throughput sequencing confirmed that the relative abundance of nitrate-reducing bacteria was positively correlated with NO removal efficiency, the relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria was related to the conversion rate of sulphur.
- Evaluation of temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscle, and brain cortex activity in patients treated by removable functional appliances: a prospective fMRI study. [Journal Article]
- DRDentomaxillofac Radiol 2019 Jul 19; :20190216
- CONCLUSIONS: The cephalometric and MRI findings of this study indicate that the treatment effects were similar for both wear schedules. Functional appliances should be regarded not as simple devices that treat class II malocclusion through skeletal and dental correction alone, but as exercise devices that lead to neuromuscular changes by facilitating muscle adaptation and activating various brain regions.
- The Past Informs the Present, Academic New Media Pitfalls: A Primer for Plastic Surgeons. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2019; 7(4):e2178
- Mass communication has undergone a "new media" revolution, which includes the rise of digital, online, and social media. The impact of new media on academic processes, however, has been underapprecia…
Mass communication has undergone a "new media" revolution, which includes the rise of digital, online, and social media. The impact of new media on academic processes, however, has been underappreciated. The rise of Web-based virtual platforms has profoundly impacted the way plastic surgeons publish, store, exchange, and analyze scholarly biomedical information. This new media academic phenomenon refers to electronic mechanisms with the capacity to supplant traditional publication methods, which typically rely on printed documents in the physical domain. Although such tools can be efficient and user-friendly, they also make users vulnerable to exploitation. Notable examples reveal a relative lack of regulation, oversight, reliable rating scales, user authentication, and ethical accountability in the virtual space. As with any new technique, education is key and knowledge is power. In this article, online resources related to healthcare and the practice of plastic surgery are reviewed and summarized, including open access, mega-indices, whitelists, and electronic alerts. New media provides powerful knowledge-sharing tools that can help execute scholarly endeavors, communicate between professionals, and educate the public. However, it is essential for plastic surgeons to appreciate the caveats of new media academic processes to avoid unscrupulous practices of those that may seek to manipulate these Web-based systems. This article outlines the key pitfalls associated with online information streams to better inform plastic surgeons how to navigate new media-based scholarly processes.
- In Silico Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Subgenotype D1 Circulating in Pakistan, China, and India. [Journal Article]
- EBEvol Bioinform Online 2019; 15:1176934319861337
- The focus of this study was the computational analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype D subgenotype D1 in Pakistan, China, and India. In total, 54 complete genome sequences of HBV genotype D sub…
The focus of this study was the computational analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype D subgenotype D1 in Pakistan, China, and India. In total, 54 complete genome sequences of HBV genotype D subgenotype D1 were downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Of these, 6 complete genome sequences were from Pakistan, 14 were from China, and 34 were from India. Sequence alignment showed less than 4% divergence in these sequences. C and X genes showed divergence of less than 3%. Comparison over the S gene showed more than 97% similarity among the nucleotide sequences of genotype D subgenotype D1. The identity and similarity matrix of 54 nucleotide sequences of HBV genotype D subgenotype D1 from Pakistan, China, and India revealed more than 93% identity and 93% similarity. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted that complete genome isolates of HBV circulating in Pakistan had the closest evolutionary relationship with its neighboring countries China and India. China's (HQ833466) and Pakistan's (AB583680.1) isolates shared the same ancestor. Gene structure analysis showed that "P" gene exons were the longest, about three-fourth of the genome size, whereas gene "S" had the second longest coding regions with 2 exons and 1 intron. However, "C" and "X" genes had 1 smallest exon. X proteins had proven role in spreading of the HBV infection diseases. For HBx analysis, 1 X protein sequence of HBV genotype D subgenotype D1 belonging to each country was obtained. Homology models of the 3 X proteins generated using SWISS-MODEL revealed GMQE (Global Model Quality Estimation) = 0.1. Global and local quality estimate scores including Z-scores for Qualitative Model Energy Analysis (QMEAN) C-beta, all-atom, solvation, and torsion energy scores were similar indicating good quality, accuracy, and reliability of the predicted models. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization showed similar structures and Ramachandran plots showed a high percentage of protein residues into the favorable region for X protein models.
- Advances in chitosan-based nanoparticles for oncotherapy. [Review]
- CPCarbohydr Polym 2019 Oct 15; 222:115004
- Chitosan has attracted considerable attention as an anti-tumor drug carrier material in recent years, which is due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as the simple and mild prepari…
Chitosan has attracted considerable attention as an anti-tumor drug carrier material in recent years, which is due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as the simple and mild preparing techniques of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Chitosan-based nanoparticles can deliver various anti-tumor agents to specific tumor tissues by passive and active targeting mechanisms, including traditional chemotherapeutic agents, DNA or siRNA, proteins, photosensitizers and so on. In this review, we summarized the factors affecting the anti-tumor efficacy of chitosan-based nanoparticles, to aid exploring the function-structure relationship. The recent studies on chitosan-based nanoparticles for oncotherapy were highlighted, including their structures, properties and pharmacological effects. Finally, we offered our perspectives on the challenges and future development of this area.
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- Is (poly-) substance use associated with impaired inhibitory control? A mega-analysis controlling for confounders. [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Jul 15
- Many studies have reported that heavy substance use is associated with impaired response inhibition. Studies typically focused on associations with a single substance, while polysubstance use is comm…
Many studies have reported that heavy substance use is associated with impaired response inhibition. Studies typically focused on associations with a single substance, while polysubstance use is common. Further, most studies compared heavy users with light/non-users, though substance use occurs along a continuum. The current mega-analysis accounted for these issues by aggregating individual data from 43 studies (3610 adult participants) that used the Go/No-Go (GNG) or Stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition among mostly "recreational" substance users (i.e., the rate of substance use disorders was low). Main and interaction effects of substance use, demographics, and task-characteristics were entered in a linear mixed model. Contrary to many studies and reviews in the field, we found that only lifetime cannabis use was associated with impaired response inhibition in the SST. An interaction effect was also observed: the relationship between tobacco use and response inhibition (in the SST) differed between cannabis users and non-users, with a negative association between tobacco use and inhibition in the cannabis non-users. In addition, participants' age, education level, and some task characteristics influenced inhibition outcomes. Overall, we found limited support for impaired inhibition among substance users when controlling for demographics and task-characteristics.