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35,449 results
  • Actin-microtubule interplay coordinates spindle assembly in human oocytes. [Journal Article]
    Nat Commun 2019; 10(1):4651Roeles J, Tsiavaliaris G
  • Mammalian oocytes assemble a bipolar acentriolar microtubule spindle to segregate chromosomes during asymmetric division. There is increasing evidence that actin in the spindle interior not only participates in spindle migration and positioning but also protects oocytes from chromosome segregation errors leading to aneuploidy. Here we show that actin is an integral component of the meiotic machin…
  • Chromosome errors in human eggs shape natural fertility over reproductive life span. [Journal Article]
    Science 2019; 365(6460):1466-1469Gruhn JR, Zielinska AP, … Hoffmann ER
  • Chromosome errors, or aneuploidy, affect an exceptionally high number of human conceptions, causing pregnancy loss and congenital disorders. Here, we have followed chromosome segregation in human oocytes from females aged 9 to 43 years and report that aneuploidy follows a U-curve. Specific segregation error types show different age dependencies, providing a quantitative explanation for the U-curv…
  • Meiotic crossovers characterized by haplotype-specific chromosome painting in maize. [Journal Article]
    Nat Commun 2019; 10(1):4604do Vale Martins L, Yu F, … Jiang J
  • Meiotic crossovers (COs) play a critical role in generating genetic variation and maintaining faithful segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. We develop a haplotype-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that allows visualization of COs directly on metaphase chromosomes. Oligonucleotides (oligos) specific to chromosome 10 of maize inbreds B73 and Mo17, respect…
  • Centromere repositioning causes inversion of meiosis and generates a reproductive barrier. [Journal Article]
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019Lu M, He X
  • The chromosomal position of each centromere is determined epigenetically and is highly stable, whereas incremental cases have supported the occurrence of centromere repositioning on an evolutionary time scale (evolutionary new centromeres, ENCs), which is thought to be important in speciation. The mechanisms underlying the high stability of centromeres and its functional significance largely rema…
  • Mitochondrial fusion is required for spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis. [Journal Article]
    Elife 2019; 8Varuzhanyan G, Rojansky R, … Chan DC
  • Differentiating cells tailor their metabolism to fulfill their specialized functions. We examined whether mitochondrial fusion is important for metabolic tailoring during spermatogenesis. Acutely after depletion of mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2, spermatogenesis arrests due to failure to accomplish a metabolic shift during meiosis. This metabolic shift includes increased mitochondrial content, mitochon…
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