- Medications and fall risk: a case-control study in nursing home residents in Japan. [Journal Article]
- ACAging Clin Exp Res 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Many medications were associated with falls in nursing homes residents in Japan. To prevent these falls, caregivers should provide adequate care, and healthcare professionals should consider switching or dose reduction for these medications.
- Extremely low frequency magnetic field induces human neuronal differentiation through NMDA receptor activation. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 Jul 17
- Magnetic fields with different frequency and intensity parameters exhibit a wide range of effects on different biological models. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) exposure is known to …
Magnetic fields with different frequency and intensity parameters exhibit a wide range of effects on different biological models. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) exposure is known to augment or even initiate neuronal differentiation in several in vitro and in vivo models. This effect holds potential for clinical translation into treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as autism, Parkinson's disease and dementia by promoting neurogenesis, non-invasively. However, the lack of information on underlying mechanisms hinders further investigation into this phenomenon. Here, we examine involvement of glutamatergic Ca2+ channel, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the process of human neuronal differentiation under ELF MF exposure. We show that human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiate more efficiently under ELF MF exposure in vitro, as demonstrated by the abundance of neuronal markers. Furthermore, they exhibit higher intracellular Ca2+ levels as evidenced by c-fos expression and more elongated mature neurites. We were able to neutralize these effects by blocking NMDA receptors with memantine. As a result, we hypothesize that the effects of ELF MF exposure on neuronal differentiation originate from the effects on NMDA receptors, which sequentially triggers Ca2+-dependent cascades that lead to differentiation. Our findings identify NMDA receptors as a new key player in this field that will aid further research in the pursuit of effect mechanisms of ELF MFs.
- Toward higher extraction and enrichment factors via a double-reservoirs microfluidic device as a microextractive platform. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sep Sci 2019 Jul 16
- In this survey, firstly, a double-reservoir and switchable prototype of a micro-chip along with the respective holders were fabricated. A cyclic desorption process using microliter volume of organic …
In this survey, firstly, a double-reservoir and switchable prototype of a micro-chip along with the respective holders were fabricated. A cyclic desorption process using microliter volume of organic solvent was adopted to prevent any outdoor contamination. As extractive phases, two identical sheets of electrospun polyamide/polypyrrole/titania nanofibers were synthesized using core-shell electrospinning technique and utilized for determination of memantine in plasma samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images exhibited a great degree of porosity and homogeneity throughout the sheet structure. Also, energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the presence of titania, while the recorded Fourier transform infrared spectra proved the chemical structures of the polymeric mats. The incorporation of titania as well as polypyrrole in the composition of polyamide nanofibers improved both mechanical stability and extraction capacity of the extractive phase and therefore facilitated the extraction/desorption process. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.04 ng mL-1 , respectively. In addition, the interday and intraday precisions were lower than 6.7% (n = 3). The linearity was in the range of 0.14-75.00 ng mL-1 , while recoveries were between 94.1 and 98.4% with the regression coefficient of 0.9987. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Memantine Improves Cognitive Function and Alters Hippocampal and Cortical Proteome in Triple Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- ENExp Neurobiol 2019; 28(3):390-403
- Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist clinically approved for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) to improve cognitive functions. There is no report …
Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist clinically approved for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) to improve cognitive functions. There is no report about the proteomic alterations induced by memantine in AD mouse model yet. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of AD-related transgenic mouse model (3×Tg-AD) treated with memantine. Mice (8-month) were treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/bid) for 4 months followed by behavioral and molecular evaluation. Using step-down passive avoidance (SDA) test, novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris water maze (MWM) test, it was observed that memantine significantly improved learning and memory retention in 3xTg-AD mice. By using quantitative proteomic analysis, 3301 and 3140 proteins in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex respectively were identified to be associated with AD abnormalities. In the hippocampus, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 233 proteins, among which PCNT, ATAXIN2, TNIK, and NOL3 were up-regulated, and FLNA, MARK 2 and BRAF were down-regulated. In the cerebral cortex, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 342 proteins, among which PCNT, PMPCB, CRK, and MBP were up-regulated, and DNM2, BRAF, TAGLN 2 and FRY1 were down-regulated. Further analysis with bioinformatics showed that memantine modulated biological pathways associated with cytoskeleton and ErbB signaling in the hippocampus, and modulated biological pathways associated with axon guidance, ribosome, cytoskeleton, calcium and MAPK signaling in the cerebral cortex. Our data indicate that memantine induces higher levels of proteomic alterations in the cerebral cortex than in the hippocampus, suggesting memantine affects various brain regions in different manners. Our study provides a novel view on the complexity of protein responses induced by memantine in the brain of AD.
- One-Year Persistence with Donepezil, Memantine, and Rivastigmine in More than 66,000 Elderly Patients Followed in Poland. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Alzheimers Dis 2019 Jul 06
- CONCLUSIONS: One-year persistence with donepezil, memantine, and rivastigmine was low in elderly patients followed in Poland, and was influenced by age, physician specialty, and co-therapy.
- Merging memantine and ferulic acid to probe connections between NMDA receptors, oxidative stress and amyloid-β peptide in Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2019 Jul 05; 180:111-120
- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acting as an open-channel blocker, the anti-AD drug memantine preferentially targets NM…
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Acting as an open-channel blocker, the anti-AD drug memantine preferentially targets NMDAR overactivation, which has been proposed to trigger neurotoxic events mediated by amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and oxidative stress. In this study, we applied a multifunctional approach by conjugating memantine to ferulic acid, which is known to protect the brain from Aβ neurotoxicity and neuronal death caused by ROS. The most interesting compound (7) behaved, like memantine, as a voltage-dependent antagonist of NMDAR (IC50 = 6.9 μM). In addition, at 10 μM concentration, 7 exerted antioxidant properties both directly and indirectly through the activation of the Nrf-2 pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. At the same concentration, differently from the parent compounds memantine and ferulic acid alone, it was able to modulate Aβ production, as revealed by the observed increase of the non-amyloidogenic sAPPα in H4-SW cells. These findings suggest that compound 7 may represent a promising tool for investigating NMDAR-mediated neurotoxic events involving Aβ burden and oxidative damage.
- Safety and Efficacy of Edonerpic Maleate for Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease: A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. [Journal Article]
- JNJAMA Neurol 2019 Jul 08
- CONCLUSIONS: Edonerpic maleate appeared to be safe and tolerable, with expected gastrointestinal symptoms occurring early but without evidence for a clinical effect among patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.
- Investigation of the underling mechanism of ketamine for antidepressant effects in treatment-refractory affective disorders via molecular profile analysis. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2019; 18(1):580-588
- Ketamine elicits a rapid antidepressant effect in treatment-refractory affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this effect and to identify poten…
Ketamine elicits a rapid antidepressant effect in treatment-refractory affective disorders. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this effect and to identify potential targets of ketamine for antidepressant effects. GSE73798 and GSE73799 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in hippocampus or striatum samples treated with ketamine, phencyclidyne or memantine compared with a saline or normal group at 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. The overlapping DEGs were the DEGs in both hippocampus and striatum samples. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCyc databases were used to perform functional annotation and pathway analyses. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were predicted using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins version 9.1 for the DEGs in the striatum samples treated with ketamine, phencyclidine or memantine compared with normal samples. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine mRNA levels. Perilipin 4 (Plin4), serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1), kruppel like factor 2 (Klf2) and DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 12 like 1 (Dcaf12l1) were the overlapping DEGs in the striatum samples treated with the three drugs at different time points. The mRNA expression levels of Plin4, Sgk1 and Klf2 were significantly higher (P<0.05), and the mRNA expression level of Dcaf12l1 was significantly lower in the striatum samples of the ketamine-treated group compared with the control group in an in vivo experiment. Both Sgk1 and Klf2 were enriched in the 'forkhead box O (FoxO) signaling pathway', and Sgk1 was additionally enriched in the 'mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) signaling pathway'. PPI networks of DEGs in the striatum samples treated with ketamine, phencyclidine and memantine compared with normal samples were constructed, and Klf2 was involved in more pairs and was therefore a gene hub in the three networks. The four genes, Plin4, Sgk1, Klf2 and Dcaf12l1, were differentially expressed in all of the groups that treated with the three drugs and their expression levels were verified in in vivo experiments. The FoxO and mTOR signaling pathways may be involved in the underlying mechanism of the antidepressant effects of ketamine, and Plin4, Sgk1, Klf2 and Dcaf12l1 may be potential biomarkers for depression in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist treatment.
- Memantine, a Noncompetitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist, Attenuates Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy by Increasing Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Expression. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Neurobiol 2019 Jul 06
- Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by cerebrovascular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits and causes cerebral hemorrhages and dementia in elderly people. Memantine is used in Alzheime…
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by cerebrovascular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits and causes cerebral hemorrhages and dementia in elderly people. Memantine is used in Alzheimer's disease to inhibit the glutamatergic system by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Its therapeutic effects in CAA are unclear, however. Here, we used APP23 transgenic mice (CAA model) to investigate whether memantine has direct therapeutic effects on cerebrovascular Aβ deposits. We treated APP23 mice and age-matched wild-type littermates with memantine at ages 6-18 months. We counted the numbers of vessels with Aβ and hemosiderin deposits. We measured soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels and levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), APP-processing enzymes (α-, β-, γ-secretase), and Aβ-degrading enzymes (insulin-degrading enzyme [IDE], neprilysin). Memantine reduced cerebrovascular Aβ and hemosiderin deposits in APP23 mice. Compared with controls, memantine-treated APP23 mice had reduced Aβ40 levels and increased levels of hippocampal and vascular IDE. Our results suggest that memantine reduces cerebrovascular Aβ deposits by enhancing Aβ-cleaving IDE expression. The clinical availability of memantine may allow its use as a novel therapeutic agent in CAA.
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- Harnessing ionic mechanisms to achieve disease modification in neurodegenerative disorders. [Review]
- PRPharmacol Res 2019 Jul 04; 147:104343
- Progressive neuronal death is the key pathogenic event leading to clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Neuroprotective treatments are virtually unavailable, partly because of the …
Progressive neuronal death is the key pathogenic event leading to clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Neuroprotective treatments are virtually unavailable, partly because of the marked internal heterogeneity of the mechanisms underlying pathology. Targeted neuroprotection would require deep mechanistic knowledge across the entire aetiological spectrum of each NDD and the development of tailored treatments. Although ideal, this strategy appears challenging, as it would require a degree of characterization of both the disease and the patient that is currently unavailable. The alternate strategy is to search for commonalities across molecularly distinct NDD forms and exploit these for the development of drugs with broad-spectrum efficacy. In this view, mounting evidence points to ionic mechanisms (IMs) as targets with potential therapeutic efficacy across distinct NDD subtypes. The scope of this review is to present clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the link between disruption of IMs and neuronal death in specific NDDs and to critically revise past and ongoing attempts of harnessing IMs for the development of neuroprotective treatments.