- Maternal exposure to bisphenol A during pregnancy interferes testis development of F1 male mice. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 14
- This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on testis development of F1 male mice. The BPA exposure model of pregnant mice was prepared by intragastr…
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on testis development of F1 male mice. The BPA exposure model of pregnant mice was prepared by intragastric administration of BPA at the doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day at gestation day (GD) 0.5-17.5. The testis index of the offspring mice was calculated at postnatal day (PND) 21 and PND 56. The results showed that maternal exposure to 20 mg/kg BPA during pregnancy significantly increased the testicular index of F1 males at PND 21, and 40 mg/kg BPA significantly decreased the testicular index of F1 males at PND 56 (P < 0.01). BPA significantly reduced serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels, and improved testicular ERα and ERβ levels in F1 males at both PND 21 and PND 56. BPA exposure also upregulated transcription of testicular Dnmt1 and inhibited the transcription of testicular Dnmt3A and Dnmt3B in F1 mice at PND 21. BPA reduced the transcriptional level of testicular DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt), increased the expression of testicular caspase-7, caspase-9, and bax, and decreased the expression of bcl-2 in F1 mice at PND 56. Consistent with that, BPA improved the apoptosis rate in the testis at PND 56 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Our study indicates that BPA disrupts the secretion of testosterone, estradiol, and estrogen receptors by interfering with the transcription of testicular DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) in offspring males, which damages testicular tissues and affects the potential reproductive function.
- The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is required for normal uterine development and function in mice. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2019 Jun 14
- Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a rate-limiting catalytic subunit of a histone methyltransferase, polycomb repressive complex, which silences gene activity through the repressive histone mark H…
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a rate-limiting catalytic subunit of a histone methyltransferase, polycomb repressive complex, which silences gene activity through the repressive histone mark H3K27me3. EZH2 is critical for epigenetic effects of early estrogen treatment, and may be involved in uterine development and pathologies. We investigated EZH2 expression, regulation and its role in uterine development/function. Uterine epithelial EZH2 expression was associated with proliferation and was high neonatally then declined by weaning. Pre-weaning uterine EZH2 expression was comparable in wild-type and estrogen receptor 1 knockout mice, showing neonatal EZH2 expression is ESR1 independent. Epithelial EZH2 was up-regulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) and inhibited by progesterone in adult uteri from ovariectomized mice. To investigate the uterine role of EZH2, we developed a EZH2 conditional knockout (Ezh2cKO) mouse using a cre recombinase driven by the progesterone receptor (Pgr) promoter that produced Ezh2cKO mice lacking EZH2 in Pgr-expressing tissues (e.g. uterus, mammary glands). In Ezh2cKO uteri, EZH2 was deleted neonatally. These uteri had reduced H3K27me3, were larger than WT and showed adult cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Ovary-independent uterine epithelial proliferation and increased numbers of highly proliferative uterine glands were seen in adult Ezh2cKO mice. Female Ezh2cKO mice were initially subfertile, then became infertile by 9 months. Mammary gland development in Ezh2cKO mice was inhibited. In summary, uterine EZH2 expression is developmentally and hormonally regulated, and its loss causes aberrant uterine epithelial proliferation, uterine hypertrophy and cystic endometrial hyperplasia, indicating a critical role in uterine development and function.
- miR-26a promotes hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis by inhibiting PTEN and inhibits cell growth by repressing EZH2. [Journal Article]
- LILab Invest 2019 Jun 14
- A previous study revealed that therapeutic miR-26a delivery suppresses tumorigenesis in a murine liver cancer model, whereas we found that forced miR-26a expression increased hepatocellular carcinoma…
A previous study revealed that therapeutic miR-26a delivery suppresses tumorigenesis in a murine liver cancer model, whereas we found that forced miR-26a expression increased hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell migration and invasion, which prompted us to characterize the causes and mechanisms underlying enhanced invasion due to ectopic miR-26a expression. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that miR-26a promoted migration and invasion of BEL-7402 and HepG2 cells in vitro and positively modulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-10 expression. In addition, exogenous miR-26a expression significantly enhanced the metastatic ability of HepG2 cells in vivo. miR-26a negatively regulated in vitro proliferation of HCC cells, and miR-26a overexpression suppressed HepG2 cell tumor growth in nude mice. Further studies revealed that miR-26a inhibited cell growth by repressing the methyltransferase EZH2 and promoted cell migration and invasion by inhibiting the phosphatase PTEN. Furthermore, PTEN expression negatively correlated with miR-26a expression in HCC specimens from patients with and without metastasis. Thus, our findings suggest for the first time that miR-26a promotes invasion/metastasis by inhibiting PTEN and inhibits cell proliferation by repressing EZH2 in HCC. More importantly, our data also suggest caution if miR-26a is used as a target for cancer therapy in the future.
- Functional roles of hnRNPA2/B1 regulated by METTL3 in mammalian embryonic development. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jun 14; 9(1):8640
- Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2/B1) plays an important role in RNA processing via in m6A modification of pre-mRNA or pre-miRNA. However, the functional role of and relationship…
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2/B1) plays an important role in RNA processing via in m6A modification of pre-mRNA or pre-miRNA. However, the functional role of and relationship between m6A and hnRNPA2/B1 in early embryonic development are unclear. Here, we found that hnRNPA2/B1 is crucial for early embryonic development by virtue of regulating specific gene transcripts. HnRNPA2/B1 was localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm during subsequent embryonic development, starting at fertilization. Knockdown of hnRNPA2/B1 delayed embryonic development after the 4-cell stage and blocked further development. RNA-Seq analysis revealed changes in the global expression patterns of genes involved in transcription, translation, cell cycle, embryonic stem cell differentiation, and RNA methylation in hnRNPA2/B1 KD blastocysts. The levels of the inner cell mass markers OCT4 and SOX2 were decreased in hnRNPA2/B1 KD blastocysts, whereas that of the differentiation marker GATA4 was decreased. N6-Adenosine methyltransferase METTL3 knock-down caused embryonic developmental defects similar to those in hnRNPA2/B1 KD embryos. Moreover, METTL3 KD blastocysts showed increased mis-localization of hnRNPA2/B1 and decreased m6A RNA methylation. Taken together, our results suggest that hnRNPA2/B1 is essential for early embryogenesis through the regulation of transcription-related factors and determination of cell fate transition. Moreover, hnRNPA2/B1 is regulated by METTL3-dependent m6A RNA methylation.
- Single-molecule long-read sequencing reveals the chromatin basis of gene expression. [Journal Article]
- GRGenome Res 2019 Jun 14
- Genome-wide chromatin accessibility and nucleosome occupancy profiles have been widely investigated, while the long-range dynamics remains poorly studied at the single-cell level. Here we present a n…
Genome-wide chromatin accessibility and nucleosome occupancy profiles have been widely investigated, while the long-range dynamics remains poorly studied at the single-cell level. Here we present a new experimental approach MeSMLR-seq (methyltransferase treatment followed by single-molecule long-read sequencing) for long-range mapping of nucleosomes and chromatin accessibility at single DNA molecules, and thus achieve comprehensive-coverage characterization of the corresponding heterogeneity. MeSMLR-seq offers direct measurements of both nucleosome-occupied and nucleosome-evicted regions on a single DNA molecule, which is challenging for many existing methods. We applied MeSMLR-seq to haploid yeast, where single DNA molecules represent single cells, and thus we could investigate the combinatorics of many (up to 356) nucleosomes at long range in single cells. We illustrated the differential organization principles of nucleosomes surrounding the transcription start site for silently- and actively-transcribed genes, at the single-cell level and in the long-range scale. The heterogeneous patterns of chromatin status spanning multiple genes were phased. Together with single-cell RNA-seq data, we quantitatively revealed how chromatin accessibility correlated with gene transcription positively in a highly-heterogeneous scenario. Moreover, we quantified the openness of promoters and investigated the coupled chromatin changes of adjacent genes at single DNA molecules during transcription reprogramming. Especially, we revealed the coupled changes of chromatin accessibility for two neighboring glucose transporter genes in response to the change of glucose concentration.
- Cytosine-5 RNA methylation links protein synthesis to cell metabolism. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2019 Jun 14; 17(6):e3000297
- Posttranscriptional modifications in transfer RNA (tRNA) are often critical for normal development because they adapt protein synthesis rates to a dynamically changing microenvironment. However, the …
Posttranscriptional modifications in transfer RNA (tRNA) are often critical for normal development because they adapt protein synthesis rates to a dynamically changing microenvironment. However, the precise cellular mechanisms linking the extrinsic stimulus to the intrinsic RNA modification pathways remain largely unclear. Here, we identified the cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase NSUN2 as a sensor for external stress stimuli. Exposure to oxidative stress efficiently repressed NSUN2, causing a reduction of methylation at specific tRNA sites. Using metabolic profiling, we showed that loss of tRNA methylation captured cells in a distinct catabolic state. Mechanistically, loss of NSUN2 altered the biogenesis of tRNA-derived noncoding fragments (tRFs) in response to stress, leading to impaired regulation of protein synthesis. The intracellular accumulation of a specific subset of tRFs correlated with the dynamic repression of global protein synthesis. Finally, NSUN2-driven RNA methylation was functionally required to adapt cell cycle progression to the early stress response. In summary, we revealed that changes in tRNA methylation profiles were sufficient to specify cellular metabolic states and efficiently adapt protein synthesis rates to cell stress.
- Chimeric 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase with domains of acyl carrier protein and methyltransferase from Pseudallescheria boydii shows novel biosynthetic activity. [Journal Article]
- MBMicrob Biotechnol 2019 Jun 14
- Polyketides are important secondary metabolites, many of which exhibit potent pharmacological applications. Biosynthesis of polyketides is carried out by a single polyketide synthase (PKS) or multipl…
Polyketides are important secondary metabolites, many of which exhibit potent pharmacological applications. Biosynthesis of polyketides is carried out by a single polyketide synthase (PKS) or multiple PKSs in successive elongations of enzyme-bound intermediates related to fatty acid biosynthesis. The polyketide gene PKS306 from Pseudallescheria boydii NTOU2362 containing domains of ketosynthase (KS), acyltransferase (AT), dehydratase (DH), acyl carrier protein (ACP) and methyltransferase (MT) was cloned in an attempt to produce novel chemical compounds, and this PKS harbouring green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although fluorescence of GFP and fusion protein analysed by anti-GFP antibody were observed, no novel compound was detected. 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase (6MSAS) was then used as a template and engineered with PKS306 by combinatorial fusion. The chimeric PKS containing domains of KS, AT, DH and ketoreductase (KR) from 6MSAS with ACP and MT from PKS306 demonstrated biosynthesis of a novel compound. The compound was identified with a deduced chemical formula of C7 H10 O3 , and the chemical structure was named as 2-hydroxy-2-(propan-2-yl) cyclobutane-1,3-dione. The novel compound synthesized by the chimeric PKS in this study demonstrates the feasibility of combinatorial fusion of PKS genes to produce novel polyketides.
- Trifunctional integrated DNA-based universal sensing platform for detection of diverse biomolecules in one-pot isothermal exponential amplification mode. [Journal Article]
- CCChem Commun (Camb) 2019 Jun 14
- A biosensor with all the advantages of ultra-high sensitivity, easy operation, straightforward signal output and universal applicability is introduced. The biosensor was demonstrated to work well in …
A biosensor with all the advantages of ultra-high sensitivity, easy operation, straightforward signal output and universal applicability is introduced. The biosensor was demonstrated to work well in the detection of polynucleotide kinase and DAM methyltransferase, thus providing a powerful tool for clinical diagnosis, drug screening and disease therapeutic assay.
- Stimulation of Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain and Toll-Like Receptors 2 to Enhance the Effect of Bacillus Calmette Guerin Immunization for Prevention of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection: Protocol for a Series of Preclinical Randomized Controlled Trials. [Journal Article]
- JRJMIR Res Protoc 2019 Jun 08; 8(6):e13045
- CONCLUSIONS: Demonstration of a reduction of MTB infection by enhancement of innate immunity could show a new approach to improving vaccine efficacy against this pathogen.
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- MGMT Promoter Methylation in Patients with Rectal Adenocarcinoma After Chemoradiotherapy Treatment: Clinical Implications [Journal Article]
- BMBalkan Med J 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: MGMT methylation status no correlated to clinicopathologic variables examined in rectal adenocarcinoma selected to CRT although its role as biomarker needs further investigation.