- Fenpropathrin induces testicular damage, apoptosis, and genomic DNA damage in adult rats: Protective role of camel milk. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jun 21; 181:548-558
- Fenpropathrin (FNP) is a member of the synthetic pyrethroids. Herein, the present study was conducted to investigate, for the first time, the potentially harmful effects of FNP on the reproductive sy…
Fenpropathrin (FNP) is a member of the synthetic pyrethroids. Herein, the present study was conducted to investigate, for the first time, the potentially harmful effects of FNP on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, the prophylactic or concurrent influence of camel milk (CM) was assessed. Adult male rats were divided into five groups; control, vehicle control (oil), CM (2ml/rat/day), FNP (15mg/kg bwt/60 days), CM/FNP (prophylaxis) and FNP /CM (co-treated) groups. Sperm morphology, count, serum testosterone (TES), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), testicular enzymes, and comet assay analysis were estimated. In addition, histopathology, the ultrastructure of testicular tissue and apoptosis were evaluated. Reduced body weight and gonadosomatic index were observed in the FNP exposed group. TES, LH, FSH were markedly declined following FNP treatment. SOD and TAC concentrations were reduced while PC and TBARS were significantly elevated in FNP group indicating oxidative stress. Furthermore, FNP induced DNA damage and apoptosis in the testis which was evidenced histopathologically and by electron microscope examination. CM significantly counteracted FNP reprotoxic effects, particularly at the prophylactic routine (CM/FNP) than the co-exposure (FNP/CM) one. Conclusively, these findings verified that CM could be a potential candidate therapy against FNP reprotoxic impacts.
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in infant formulae, follow-on formulae, and baby foods in Iran: An assessment of risk. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2019 Jun 21; :110640
- Twenty-seven samples of infant formulae and follow-on formulae and fifteen samples of baby food from Iranian markets were analyzed for concentrations of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) d…
Twenty-seven samples of infant formulae and follow-on formulae and fifteen samples of baby food from Iranian markets were analyzed for concentrations of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) determined by use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry. An assessment of risks posed to infants and toddlers was conducted by calculating the margin of exposure and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) by use of the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Benzo (a) anthracene, was not detected in any of the samples, while approximately 64.3% samples contained detectable amounts of benzo (a) pyrene, while chrysene was observed in three samples and benzo (b) fluoranthene was detected in one sample. One of the samples contained 1.43 μg PAH4/kg, which was greater than the maximum tolerable limit (MTL; 1 μg/kg) stated in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1125. Accordingly, the 95% ILCRs in the infants/toddlers due to ingestion of milk powder and baby foods were determined to be 1.3 × 10-6 and 7.3 × 10-7, respectively. Also, the 95th centiles of the MOEs, due to ingesting milk powder or baby foods by infants/toddlers were estimated to be 3.6 × 104 and 7.2 × 104, respectively. In Iran, infants and toddlers are not at serious health risk (MOE ≥ 1 × 104 and ILCR < 1 × 10-4).
- Cellulose/chitosan pH-responsive indicator incorporated with carrot anthocyanins for intelligent food packaging. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 21
- In this study, the possible use of anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) as a chemo-responsive dye to fabricate a colorimetric pH indicator in a cellulose-chitosan matrix was investigated in order to th…
In this study, the possible use of anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) as a chemo-responsive dye to fabricate a colorimetric pH indicator in a cellulose-chitosan matrix was investigated in order to the monitoring of spoilage in pasteurized milk. Cellulose paper was impregnated with a chitosan solution prepared by a sol-gel method containing ABC (total anthocyanins content of 10 mg/100 mL) and characterized. The swelling and water solubility increased by incorporation of ABC into the chitosan-cellulose film. The colorimetric pH indicator showed an obvious color variation from pink to khaki at different pH values (pH 2-11). Stability tests revealed that the indicator had acceptable color stability during one-month storage at 20 °C. The results also confirmed the immobilization of ABC into the matrix of the polymeric indicator with no significant effect on the chemical and super-molecular structure of the samples. In food trial, fresh pasteurized milk was entirely discerned through a perceptible color change from blue to violet rose color after 48 h storage at 20 °C, which was comfortably observable by the naked eye. The results proved that the fabricated indicator could be used as food grade biomaterials to monitor freshness/spoilage of milk.
- [The development and investigation of nutritive and biological value and consumer properties of the fermented dairy product with flour free from glute]. [Journal Article]
- VPVopr Pitan 2019; 88(2):101-110
- The development of fermented dairy products with complex raw material composition, in particular, including cereal components, but not containing gluten, that most fully meet the criteria for a healt…
The development of fermented dairy products with complex raw material composition, in particular, including cereal components, but not containing gluten, that most fully meet the criteria for a healthy diet, is actual. The aim - the development of a new multi-component fermented dairy product with flour free from gluten. Material and methods. Milk and fine flour mixture for baby foods (buckwheat, rice, corn and their composition); DVS starter for fermented dairy products were used as the basic raw material components. Active and titratable acidity, mass fraction of protein, fat, microbiological indexes have been measured as well as the block of organoleptic tests has been used. Besides this, amino acids' amount as well as fat acid composition and gluten level (using PCR) have been determined. Results and discussion. A set of requirements to the product has been developed, the studies have been conducted, which made it possible to determine the dosage of the flour mixture of three selected species The total mass fraction of flour in the fermented dairy product with flour didn't exceed 5%.The variation makes it possible to create an assortment of a product with different content of flour and different composition of flour constituent. The typological selection of the starter cultures has been carried out in order to obtain samples with the required organoleptic, particularly, viscous characteristics. The product possessed the typical fermented pleasant taste, odor and aroma with the tone of flour used, and viscous-flow consistency. The starter based on Staphylococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus has been chosen. The titre of lactic microflora in all samples of the product exceeded the lowest required for fermented dairy products and composed no less 6×107 CFU/cm3. The determination of gluten content proved its absence in all test samples that evidenced about the achievement of the assigned task. The analysis of amino acids composition of the product samples showed that proteins contained essential amino acids from 160 to 210 g/100 g depending on the used flour combinations. It was determined that limiting amino acid of all test samples was isoleucine. The calculated coefficient of utility in the test samples was higher comparing to the fermented milk (control) by 9-12% that indicated an increase in the biological value of the developed product. The finished fermented dairy product with flour contained arachidonic (1.2%) and linoleic (3.0%) acids which relate to ω-6 PUFA in small amounts. Conclusion. The proposed methodological approach to the development of multi-component products consisted in the fact that it was considered as a bio-system, each ingredient of which contributed to its desired set of properties. Using the mentioned approach, strategically, it is possible to combine the components of animal (milk) and vegetable (flour of cereals and groat cultures) origin into the whole food biosystem with the target spectrum of useful properties.
- Effects of dietary Clostridium butyricum addition to sows in late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance and intestinal microbiota1. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2019 Jun 24
- This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum addition to diets in late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance and gut microbiota for sows. A total of …
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum addition to diets in late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance and gut microbiota for sows. A total of 180 healthy Landrace × Yorkshire sows at 90 d of gestation were randomly assigned to one of four groups, with 45 replicates per group, receiving a basal commercial diet (Control, 0% C. butyricum) or diet added with 0.1% C. butyricum (1 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), 0.2% C. butyricum (2 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), 0.4% C. butyricum (4 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), respectively. The experiment was conducted from 90 d of gestation to weaning at 21 d of lactation. The results showed that the interval between piglet born was linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, and the duration of farrowing was significantly (quadratic, P < 0.05) shortened as C. butyricum addition increased. There was a linear (P < 0.05) increase in litter weight at weaning and litter weight gain. The concentrations of IgG and IgM in colostrum, and IgM in milk were linearly increased (P < 0.05) as C. butyricum addition. Serum MDA concentrations of sows at parturition and 14 d in lactation, and piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, respectively. The serum total antioxidant capacity concentrations of sows at parturition and 14 and 21 d in lactation, and piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were linearly (P < 0.05) increased as C. butyricum addition, respectively. There was a linear decrease in the serum endotoxin concentration of sows on 21 d in lactation (P < 0.05). The serum cortisol concentrations of piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were both significantly (quadratic, P < 0.05) decreased. The 0.2% C. butyricum increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.016) at phylum level, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_UCG-003, Prevotella_9, Alloprevotella (P < 0.05) at genus level, and decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria (P < 0.001) at phylum level, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Streptococcus, Escheruchia-Shigella, Sphingomonas, Succinivibrio (P < 0.05) at genus level and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.020). In conclusion, the present research indicated that dietary addition with C. butyricum could shorten the duration of farrowing and enhance the growth performance of suckling piglets. Moreover, 0.2% C. butyricum administration to sows changed the composition of intestinal microbiota, especially increased the relative abundance of Prevotella.
- Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Enrichment Factor in Semihard Cow's Milk Cheese and Correlation with Cheese Yield. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Prot 2019 Jun 24; :1176-1182
- CONCLUSIONS: The aflatoxin M1 content in milk was not related to the enrichment factor. The enrichment factor in 45-day ripened semihard cheese was defined. The enrichment factor in cheese is affected by cheese yield.
- Level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows. II. Effects on the postpartum performance of the dam and the progeny1. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci 2019 May 16
- A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows on the postpartum performance of the dam and the progeny. Each year, 75 mature pregnant (18…
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of level and source of fat in the diet of gestating beef cows on the postpartum performance of the dam and the progeny. Each year, 75 mature pregnant (183 ± 4.8 d until calving) Angus cows with similar BW (663 ± 21.5 kg) and BCS (2.6 ± 0.12; 1 to 5 scale) were randomly assigned to 1 of 15 outdoor pens. Each pen was assigned to 1 of 3 iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous treatments: a low-fat diet (LF; 1.4 ± 0.12% EE) and two high-fat diets (HF; 3.3 ± 0.20% EE) including a canola seed- (CAN) or a flaxseed (FLX)-based pelleted feed. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements of pregnant beef cows and fed until calving. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with contrasts for the effects of level (LF vs. HF) and source (CAN vs. FLX) of fat. No differences (P ≥ 0.21) were found for BW or calving to weaning ADG of cows. The average BCS during the first 42 d of lactation was greater (P<0.01) for LF compared with HF (2.63 vs. 2.51) with no difference (P = 0.35) for CAN vs. FLX cows. Subcutaneous fat thickness over the ribs was greater (P ≤ 0.01) for LF compared with that of HF cows at calving (5.7 vs. 4.3 mm) and at weaning (4.3 vs. 3.7 mm) with no difference (P ≥ 0.11) for CAN vs. FLX cows. Over the first 42 d of lactation, no difference (P ≥ 0.23) was observed for 12-h milk yield. Milk protein concentration was greater (P = 0.03) for CAN compared with FLX (3.11 vs. 3.01%) cows, whereas no difference (P ≥ 0.28) was observed for any other milk component. Milk fat from FLX cows had greater (P < 0.01) CLA and CLnA concentrations than that of CAN cows during the first 42 d of lactation. Pregnancy rate of HF cows tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than that of LF cows with no difference (P = 0.77) for CAN vs. FLX cows. Calves from HF cows were heavier (P ≤ 0.01) at birth (42.9 vs. 40.2 kg) than those from LF cows. From calving to weaning, ADG of calves born to CAN cows was greater (P = 0.03) that that of calves born to FLX cows (1.19 vs. 1.13 kg/d) with no difference (P = 0.18) for calves born to LF vs. HF cows. At slaughter, progeny of HF cows had greater (P ≤ 0.03) shrunk BW (605 vs. 579 kg) and HCW (355 vs. 339 kg) compared with those from LF cows with no difference (P ≥ 0.16) for progeny of CAN vs. FLX cows. These results show that feeding a HF diet over gestation results in heavier calves at birth and at slaughter, and superior calf gains from birth to slaughter as well as heavier carcasses, possibly due to a developmental programming effect.
- Bacterial Content of Fortified and Unfortified Holder Pasteurized Donor Human Milk during Prolonged Refrigerated Storage. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019 Jun 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Unfortified and fortified Holder pasteurized donor human milk remain largely free of bacterial growth for up to 96 hours of refrigerated storage in NICU settings. Sample handling techniques are important for preventing microbial contamination.
- The puzzle of lactational bone physiology: osteocytes masquerade as osteoclasts and osteoblasts. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2019 Jun 24; 130
- Lactation is a unique period in which the maternal skeleton acts as a storehouse to provide substantial calcium to milk. Women who exclusively breastfeed lose an average of 210 mg of calcium per day,…
Lactation is a unique period in which the maternal skeleton acts as a storehouse to provide substantial calcium to milk. Women who exclusively breastfeed lose an average of 210 mg of calcium per day, which doubles or triples with twins and triplets. Data from rodent and clinical studies are consistent with skeletal calcium being released to provide much of the calcium needed for milk production. This is programmed to occur independently of dietary calcium intake or intestinal calcium absorption, which remains at the prepregnant rate in breastfeeding women. After weaning, the skeleton is restored to its prior mineralization and strength, but the factors that regulate this remain to be elucidated.
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- [Milk and dairy products as vehicle for calcium and vitamin D: role of calcium enriched milks]. [Journal Article]
- NHNutr Hosp 2019 Jun 24
- La leche y sus derivados son alimentos fundamentales durante todas las etapas de la vida dentro de una dieta occidental equilibrada. En las últimas décadas, su consumo ha disminuido notablemente y de…
La leche y sus derivados son alimentos fundamentales durante todas las etapas de la vida dentro de una dieta occidental equilibrada. En las últimas décadas, su consumo ha disminuido notablemente y de forma paralela se ha detectado un aumento de algunas alteraciones provocadas por la carencia de micronutrientes presentes en los productos lácteos, principalmente calcio y vitamina D, lo que está derivando en un grave problema de salud pública en determinados grupos de población. Para intentar solucionar estos problemas, se han incorporado al mercado alimentos enriquecidos en estos componentes, dentro de los que destacan los productos lácteos porque proporcionan mejor biodisponibilidad del calcio y son fuentes de vitamina D, por lo que son los más recomendables. Se han realizado diversas investigaciones que demuestran el beneficio que supone la suplementación con leche enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D en grupos vulnerables como los adultos mayores y las mujeres posmenopáusicas, en los que mejora sustancialmente el recambio óseo y aumenta la densidad y la fuerza de los huesos. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la importancia que tiene el consumo del calcio de la leche, así como las recomendaciones actuales de ingesta, y analizar la utilidad de las leches enriquecidas en calcio para determinados grupos de población como alternativa para aumentar las ingestas de este mineral y también de vitamina D. Asimismo, se pretende clarificar los errores y mitos que han surgido recientemente en relación a determinados alimentos que pretenden sustituir a la leche y sus derivados, basándonos en sus diferencias de composición, biodisponibilidad y efectos sobre la salud.