- The hepatoprotective effect of livergol microemulsion preparation (nanoparticle) against bromobenzene induced toxicity in mice. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Rep 2019; 6:444-448
- Livergol (LG), which is the extract of Silybum marianum and commonly known as milk thistle possess hepatoprotective effect and have got licensed for sale in Iran and other countries. LG was evaluated…
Livergol (LG), which is the extract of Silybum marianum and commonly known as milk thistle possess hepatoprotective effect and have got licensed for sale in Iran and other countries. LG was evaluated for its capacity to counteract the toxic effects of bromobenzene (BB) on mouse liver. The bioactive component of this plant is known to reinforce naturally occurring liver function through antioxidant activity, the stimulation of bile production and regeneration by the liver organ, resulting in enhanced protection against toxicants, hepatitis, and cirrhosis. The major bioactive components of this product are the flavonolignan ssilibinin, silidianin, silicristin, and isosilibinin. Mice were treated for 10 days with daily gavage of microemulsions (MEs), into which 0-400 mg/kg LG was dispersed. 0.36 ml/kg BB was injected intraperitoneally (ip) to each animal on day 10, followed by sacrifice on day 11, and histological evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin (HE)-stained liver tissue samples, afterwards followed by evaluation liver enzymes level, aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Significant suppression of BB-mediated damage to liver tissue, and increased in AST, ALT, and ALP level was observed to occur dose-responsively with LG administration, suggesting a use for LG as a chemoprotectant for persons chronically exposed to industrial solvents.
- The Synthesis Followed by Spectral and Calorimetric Evaluation of Stability of Human Milk Fat Substitutes Obtained from Thistle Milk and Lard. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Anal Chem 2019; 2019:5417962
- The central point of current investigations was the first time ever synthesis of modern substitutes of human milk fat followed by versatile evaluation of their oxidative properties. The enzymatic int…
The central point of current investigations was the first time ever synthesis of modern substitutes of human milk fat followed by versatile evaluation of their oxidative properties. The enzymatic interesterification conducted at 70°C for 2, 4, and 6 hours, respectively, with milk thistle oil and lard blend as starting reactants was catalyzed by 1,3-specific lipase Lipozyme RM IM, obtained from Rhizomucor miehei. Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (PDSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to evaluate quality of products formed. Although PDSC curves showed lower oxidative stability of newly synthesized fats as compared to both starting materials separately, they can be considered adequate substitutes of human fat milk fat, as distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerol molecules of substitutes obtained is much alike human milk fat itself, as resulted from analysis of GC data collected. Obvious changes in chemical structure of fats occurring during interesterification resulted in specific alterations in IR spectra of processed materials. Spectral data accompanied by PLS technique were successfully used for accurate determination of oxidative stability of new fats through indirect procedure, i.e., IR-PDSC-reference analysis of induction time. Additionally IR data exclusively, i.e., without any reference data, occurred powerfully in discrimination of human fat milk substitutes obtained.
- A Simple HPLC Method for the Quantitative Determination of Silybin in Rat Plasma: Application to a Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study on Commercial Silymarin Products. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jun 10; 24(11)
- Silybin (SBN) is a major active constituent of silymarin, a mixture of flavonoids found in fruits and seeds of milk thistle. The aim of this study was to describe a simple bioanalytical method for qu…
Silybin (SBN) is a major active constituent of silymarin, a mixture of flavonoids found in fruits and seeds of milk thistle. The aim of this study was to describe a simple bioanalytical method for quantifying SBN in rat plasma. A simple protein deproteinization procedure with acetonitrile (ACN) was employed for plasma sample preparation. A reversed column and gradient elution of a mobile phase (mixture of phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) and ACN) were used for chromatographic separation. The selectivity, linearity (50-5000 ng/mL), precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect, and stability for this method were validated as per the current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. Our method for SBN was applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study on four different commercial silymarin products. This in vivo rat study demonstrated that product #4 significantly enhanced the relative oral bioavailability of SBN, as compared to product #1-3. Therefore, the bioanalytical method proposed herein could serve as a promising alternative for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies on silymarin products and, by extension, clinical use after partial modification and validation.
- Formulation Strategies for Enhancing the Bioavailability of Silymarin: The State of the Art. [Review]
- MMolecules 2019 Jun 07; 24(11)
- Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignan and flavonoid polyphenolic compounds extractable from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-viral acti…
Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignan and flavonoid polyphenolic compounds extractable from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-viral activities potentially useful in the treatment of several liver disorders, such as chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Equally promising are the effects of silymarin in protecting the brain from the inflammatory and oxidative stress effects by which metabolic syndrome contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. However, although clinical trials have proved that silymarin is safe at high doses (>1500 mg/day) in humans, it suffers limiting factors such as low solubility in water (<50 μg/mL), low bioavailability and poor intestinal absorption. To improve its bioavailability and provide a prolonged silymarin release at the site of absorption, the use of nanotechnological strategies appears to be a promising method to potentiate the therapeutic action and promote sustained release of the active herbal extract. The purpose of this study is to review the different nanostructured systems available in literature as delivery strategies to improve the absorption and bioavailability of silymarin.
- Herb-drug interactions: a novel algorithm-assisted information system for pharmacokinetic drug interactions with herbal supplements in cancer treatment. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Pharmacol 2019 Jun 01
- CONCLUSIONS: The novel algorithm allows to transparently generate and dynamically display herb-drug interaction risks based on the available evidence from clinical and laboratory pharmacologic studies. It provides health professionals with readily available and easy updatable information about the risk of pharmacokinetic interactions between herbs and oncologic drugs.
- Amelioration of toxicopathological effects of cadmium with silymarin and milk thistle in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 23
- Cadmium is an important widely distributed heavy metal in the environment due to its several industrial uses, while milk thistle is an important herb and is a source of several antioxidant particular…
Cadmium is an important widely distributed heavy metal in the environment due to its several industrial uses, while milk thistle is an important herb and is a source of several antioxidant particularly silymarin which is a pharmacological active substance present in seeds of milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). The current study investigated pathological effects of cadmium (Cd) and their amelioration with silymarin (SL) and milk thistle (MT) quails. A total of 144 quails were equally divided into 9 groups and given different combinations of cadmium chloride (150 and 300 mg/kg feed), SL (250 mg/kg), and MT (10 g/kg) feed. Parameters studied were clinical signs, mortality, organ weights, testes weight and volume, and gross and microscopic pathology. Results of this study indicated an increased mortality and reduced body weight in cadmium-treated quails. Quails were dull, depressed compared with control. Swollen hemorrhagic liver along with atrophied testes were also observed in these groups. No active spermatozoa were observed in lumen of seminiferous tubules of Cd-treated birds presenting arrest of spermatogenesis. Supplementing MT and SL ameliorated mortality, organ weights, spermatogenesis, and histopathological lesions. It may be concluded that MT and SL proved beneficial in cadmium-induced toxicities in Japanese quails.
- Silibinin Alleviates the Learning and Memory Defects in Overtrained Rats Accompanying Reduced Neuronal Apoptosis and Senescence. [Journal Article]
- NRNeurochem Res 2019 May 17
- Excessive physical exercise (overtraining; OT) increases oxidative stress and induces damage in multiple organs including the brain, especially the hippocampus that plays an important role in learnin…
Excessive physical exercise (overtraining; OT) increases oxidative stress and induces damage in multiple organs including the brain, especially the hippocampus that plays an important role in learning and memory. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid derived from milk thistle of Silybum marianum, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effect. In this study, rats were subjected to overtraining exercise, and the protective effects of silibinin were investigated in these models. Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests showed that silibinin significantly attenuated memory defects in overtrained rats. At the same time, the results of Nissl, TUNEL and SA-β-gal staining showed that silibinin reversed neuronal loss caused by apoptosis, and delayed cell senescence of the hippocampus in the overtrained rats, respectively. In addition, silibinin decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels which is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Silibinin prevented impairment of learning and memory caused by excessive physical exercise in rats, accompanied by reduced apoptosis and senescence in hippocampus cells.
- StatPearls: Milk Thistle [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by herbalists and physicians alike to treat a wide ran…
Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by herbalists and physicians alike to treat a wide range of liver pathology, including fatty liver disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and to protect the liver from environmental toxins. Today, millions of people consume milk thistle to support healthy liver function. Researchers have focused their efforts towards studying silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from milk thistle, as well as the most active ingredient of this extract, silybin. Silymarin and silybin have become some of the most prescribed natural compounds, and the two names are often used interchangeably. However, each has a different clinical purpose, but there are no definitive results in terms of clinical efficacy. Currently, there is no regulation of herbal products such as milk thistle in the United States as they are not considered drugs and are not under the supervision of the US Food and Drug Administration. Like most herbal products, the FDA does not approve or recommend the usage of milk thistle as a treatment for any medical condition.
- Arazyme Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis and Steatohepatitis in Diet-Induced Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Like Mouse Model. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 May 10; 20(9)
- Arazyme, a metalloprotease from the spider Nephila clavata, exerts hepatoprotective activity in CCL4-induced acute hepatic injury. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects in high-fat die…
Arazyme, a metalloprotease from the spider Nephila clavata, exerts hepatoprotective activity in CCL4-induced acute hepatic injury. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-like C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10/group): the normal diet group, the HFD group, the arazyme group (HFD with 0.025% arazyme), and the milk thistle (MT) group (HFD with 0.1% MT). Dietary supplementation of arazyme for 13 weeks significantly lowered plasma triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Suppression of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in the arazyme group was caused by the reduced hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) contents. Arazyme supplementation decreased hepatic lipogenesis-related gene expression, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription protein 1 (Srebf1), fatty acid synthase (Fas), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acc1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1), Scd2, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpam), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1), and Dgat2. Arazyme directly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced TG accumulation in HepG2 cells. Arazyme suppressed macrophage infiltration and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfa), interleukin-1β (Il1b), and chemokine-ligand-2 (Ccl2) expression in the liver, and inhibited secretion of TNFα and expression of inflammatory mediators, Tnfa, Il1b, Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4, and Ccl5, in PA-induced RAW264.7 cells. Arazyme effectively protected hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis by inhibiting SREBP-1-mediated lipid accumulation and macrophage-mediated inflammation.
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- Safety and toxicity of silymarin, the major constituent of milk thistle extract: An updated review. [Review]
- PRPhytother Res 2019 May 08
- Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family. Silymarin is the major constituent of milk thistle extract and is a mixture of some flavonolignans such as silybin, wh…
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family. Silymarin is the major constituent of milk thistle extract and is a mixture of some flavonolignans such as silybin, which is the most active component of silymarin. It is most commonly known for its hepatoprotective effect. Also, studies have shown other therapeutic effects such as anticancer, anti-Alzheimer, anti-Parkinson, and anti-diabetic, so its safety is very important. It has no major toxicity in animals. Silymarin was mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium strains in the presence of metabolic enzymes. Silybin, silydianin, and silychristin were not cytotoxic and genotoxic at concentration of 100 μM. Silymarin is safe in humans at therapeutic doses and is well tolerated even at a high dose of 700 mg three times a day for 24 weeks. Some gastrointestinal discomforts occurred like nausea and diarrhea. One clinical trial showed silymarin is safe in pregnancy, and there were no anomalies. Consequently, caution should be exercised during pregnancy, and more studies are needed especially in humans. Silymarin has low-drug interactions, and it does not have major effects on cytochromes P-450. Some studies demonstrated that the use of silymarin must be with caution when co-administered with narrow therapeutic window drugs.