- An association of Orf virus infection among sheep and goats with herd health programme in Terengganu state, eastern region of the peninsular Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2019 Jul 18; 15(1):250
- CONCLUSIONS: Good herd health supervision is a rehearsal target to prevent an outbreak and the spread of diseases thus reduces economic losses among farmers. Therefore, a good herd health programme should be in place, in order to prevent and control disease transmission as well as to improve herd immunity.
- Effect of grazing cows in an intensive silvopastoral system with Leucaena leucocephala on Panela cheese properties: yield, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptability. [Journal Article]
- ASAnim Sci J 2019 Jul 17
- Yield, chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and sensory acceptability of Panela cheese produced from cows grazing in an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS) with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodo…
Yield, chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and sensory acceptability of Panela cheese produced from cows grazing in an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS) with Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon nlemfuensis were evaluated and compared with Panela cheese from cows grazing a monoculture system (MS) of C. nlemfuensis only. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks in a tropical area in Mexico using ten crossbred cows (30-90 days of milking) assigned homogenously as five cows in each experimental group. No significant differences were found between the two systems for milk and cheese gross composition. Panela cheese from ISS showed lower content of the hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, accompanied with higher content of omega-3, omega-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, Panela cheese from ISS showed higher preference for the attributes of appearance, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability. It is concluded that Panela cheese from cows grazing in ISS has better acceptability and nutritional properties than that produced from MS with grass only.
- l-Lactate Dehydrogenase B Chain Associated with Milk Protein Content in Dairy Cows. [Journal Article]
- AAnimals (Basel) 2019 Jul 15; 9(7)
- This study aimed to explore genes associated with milk protein content in dairy cows and their relationships with l-leucine. Ten primiparous Holstein cows (93.8 ± 11.56 milking days) fed the same die…
This study aimed to explore genes associated with milk protein content in dairy cows and their relationships with l-leucine. Ten primiparous Holstein cows (93.8 ± 11.56 milking days) fed the same diet were divided into two groups depending on their milk protein contents (group High, 3.34 ± 0.10%; and group Low, 2.86 ± 0.05%). Milk epithelial cells (MECs) were isolated from the collected morning milk and differentially expressed proteins in MECs were explored by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Then, the mRNA expression of these proteins was detected by real time PCR in MAC-T cells incubated with three different media named positive control (PC), negative control (NC), and l-leucine depletion (NO-leu). Results showed that ten proteins were differentially expressed in MECs from cows in group High. They included seven down-regulated ones (heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), l-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDH-B), malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic (MDH1), annexin I (ANXA1), cytokeratin-7 (CK-7), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)), and three up-regulated ones (prohibitin (PHB), beta casein (CSN2), and alpha S1 casein (CSN1S1)). When l-leucine was depleted from the medium, not only proteins content was lowered (p < 0.05), but also the LDH-B mRNA expression was decreased in MAC-T cells (p < 0.05). In conclusion, LDH-B is negatively associated with the milk protein content of dairy cows and has a positive association with l-leucine.
- Short communication: Assessing the accuracy of inline milk fat-to-protein ratio data as an indicator of hyperketonemia in dairy cows in herds with automated milking systems. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019 Jul 10
- The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of inline milk fat-to-protein (F:P) data to detect hyperketonemia (HYK) in herds with automated milking systems (AMS). The F:P ratio has been …
The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of inline milk fat-to-protein (F:P) data to detect hyperketonemia (HYK) in herds with automated milking systems (AMS). The F:P ratio has been investigated as a tool for detecting HYK with moderate accuracy in past studies, but inline F:P data in AMS may also be useful for HYK screening. To assess the accuracy of these data in commercial settings, we monitored 484 cows from 9 AMS herds for their first 3 wk of lactation, taking blood samples once per week (n = 1,427). Positive cases of HYK were defined by whole-blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations ≥1.2 or ≥1.4 mmol/L. Milk data were collected from the AMS software on each farm for each cow and converted into 4 different F:P values: (1) value from the same day as the BHB test; (2) 5-d centered-moving average (CMA); (3) 5-d backward-moving average (BMA); (4) 5-d forward-moving average (FMA). In linear regression models, all 4 values were associated with BHB, but slope estimates varied and R2 were low: same day (slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.07), CMA (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.07), BMA (slope = 0.65, R2 = 0.04), and FMA (slope = 1.23, R2 = 0.09). In logistic regression models, the odds of having HYK (BHB ≥1.2 mmol/L) increased with every 0.1-unit increase from the mean F:P ratio (1.16) using same-day values (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.25-1.47) and CMA (odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.51). The same increase in F:P from mean BMA (1.14) and FMA (1.17) was associated with 1.22 and 1.49 times the odds of HYK, respectively. For all 4 F:P variations, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of different F:P thresholds with HYK status. As the F:P threshold increased from 1.17 to 1.50, sensitivity decreased (range: 77 to 9%) but specificity increased (range: 58 to 96%). Same-day and CMA F:P cutoffs at which a balance was reached between sensitivity and specificity ranged from 1.18 to 1.22; however, even at these values we found high rates of false positives and negatives (range: 31-39%). These results suggest that inline milk F:P data from inconsistently calibrated sensors should not be used alone to detect HYK in AMS herds.
- Use of a single-step approach for integrating foreign information into national genomic evaluation in Holstein cattle. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2019 Jul 10
- The use of multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE) and the exchange of genomic information among countries allows national breeding programs to combine foreign and national data to increase the …
The use of multi-trait across-country evaluation (MACE) and the exchange of genomic information among countries allows national breeding programs to combine foreign and national data to increase the size of the training populations and potentially increase accuracy of genomic prediction of breeding values. By including genotyped and nongenotyped animals simultaneously in the evaluation, the single-step genomic BLUP (GBLUP) approach has the potential to deliver more accurate and less biased genomic evaluations. A single-step genomic BLUP approach, which enables integration of data from MACE evaluations, can be used to obtain genomic predictions while avoiding double-counting of information. The objectives of this study were to apply a single-step approach that simultaneously includes domestic and MACE information for genomic evaluation of workability traits in Canadian Holstein cattle, and compare the results obtained with this methodology with those obtained using a multi-step approach (msGBLUP). By including MACE bulls in the training population, msGBLUP led to an increase in reliability of genomic predictions of 4.8 and 15.4% for milking temperament and milking speed, respectively, compared with a traditional evaluation using only pedigree and phenotypic information. Integration of MACE data through a single-step approach (ssGBLUPIM) yielded the highest reliabilities compared with other considered methods. Integration of MACE data also helped reduce bias of genomic predictions. When using ssGBLUPIM, the bias of genomic predictions decreased by half compared with msGBLUP using domestic and MACE information. Therefore, the reliability and bias of genomic predictions for both traits improved substantially when a single-step approach was used for evaluation compared with a multi-step approach. The use of a single-step approach with integration of MACE information provides an alternative to the current method used in Canadian genomic evaluations.
- [Objective assessment of udder filling degree in diary cattle during shows]. [Journal Article]
- SASchweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2019; 161(7):445-452
- Overbagged udders are commonly seen at dairy cow shows in Switzerland and abroad due to prolonged milking intervals. In recent years various studies documented the negative effects of prolonged milki…
Overbagged udders are commonly seen at dairy cow shows in Switzerland and abroad due to prolonged milking intervals. In recent years various studies documented the negative effects of prolonged milking intervals and examined the objectivity of an ultrasound-based assessment scheme for determining udder filling. In addition, risk factors were calculated which lead to udder edema outside the puerperal phase. For example, the effects of a sudden increased 24-hour milking interval were altered behavior (reduced feeding time, increased rumination time) and a significantly increased cell count in experimental cows. Edema formation was observed sonographically in the subcutaneous udder tissue at the sites of predilection known from previous studies. No evidence of edema was observed in cows milked at 12 hour intervals. Based on these results, a new scoring system was defined using ultrasound images of show cows (grade 0 = no edema, grade 1 = slight, grade 2 = moderate, grade 3 = severe edema). Results documented that experienced clinicians were able to score ultrasound images reliable (interobserver reliability κ = 0.815, three different clinicians; intraobserver reliability κ = 0.90 and κ = 0.85, two clinicians) and little variability existed between the clinicians. A prolonged milking interval was identified as the main risk factor. Modified Swiss Dairy Show Regulations were implemented by January 1st, 2018 and ultrasonographic examinations proofed to be reliable in practice. Since January 1st, 2019 visual scoring of the udder filling is evaluated as part of a pre-show inspection. The sonographic evaluation can be used as a reliable diagnostic addition.
- Early lactation performance in Holstein heifers first calving at 36 months and managed for high or low weight gain during mid- and late gestation. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Res 2019 Jul 10; :1-7
- The effect of weight gain during mid- and late gestation in dairy heifers on performance at the start of first lactation was studied. In this experiment, 47 Holstein heifers with first calving at 36 …
The effect of weight gain during mid- and late gestation in dairy heifers on performance at the start of first lactation was studied. In this experiment, 47 Holstein heifers with first calving at 36 months of age were used. The plane of nutrition aimed to have a high (900 g/d, H; n = 23) and low (500, L; n = 24) average daily gain (ADG) from the 4th month of gestation until 3 weeks before the expected day of calving, achieved by ad libitum intake of high quality pasture (H) or controlled intake of a total mixed ration (L). Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), milking, and reproductive performances were recorded. Concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and urea were characterised at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of lactation. Milk fatty acid composition was determined at weeks 3 and 6. A total of 39 heifers successfully calved and completed first lactation. During feeding treatment the required ADG were achieved. BW and BCS were higher in H heifers at calving compared to L heifers: 707 vs. 640 kg, and 3.91 vs. 3.01 respectively. H heifers lost more weight, BCS and had lower feed intake during the beginning of first lactation (-0.8 kg DM/d/heifer over the first 4 weeks of lactation). Per day of lactation, H heifers produced significantly more milk (29.2 vs. 26.2 kg), fat (1.27 vs. 1.07 kg) and protein (0.84 vs. 0.477 kg) from 0 to 8 weeks of lactation. Concentrations of NEFA, glucose and BHBA were higher in H heifers compared to L heifers, but urea concentration was not affected. Concentration of preformed fatty acids in the milk (C16 and more) was higher. As a result, the calculated daily net energy balance during the first 8 weeks of lactation was -1.53 and -5.95 MJ for L and H heifers, respectively.
- Water footprint and economic water productivity assessment of eight dairy cattle farms based on field measurement. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2019 Jul 09; :1-10
- Water scarcity prevailing in the drylands is threatening the sustainability of livestock production systems. The water footprint (WF) indicator was proposed as a metric of water use. This study aimed…
Water scarcity prevailing in the drylands is threatening the sustainability of livestock production systems. The water footprint (WF) indicator was proposed as a metric of water use. This study aimed to determine the WF and the economic water productivity (EWP) of 1 kg of fat and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in eight dairy farms (n = 8; animals = 117 ± 62; area = 198 ± 127; 95% confidence level) in northern Tunisia. Then, to assess the effects of three simulation scenarios targeting the reduction of the WF of milk production (scenario A: using triticale silage to replace, on DM basis, the silage of maize, sorghum or ray-grass; scenario B: reducing by 56% the wastage of water devoted to milking, cooling, cleaning and servicing; scenario C: using concentrate feeds imported from Brazil and Argentina instead of that imported from France). A year-round monitoring of on-farm practices was performed using water-meters and recording equipment installed in key locations in the target dairy farms: (i) water used for feed production, (ii) cow watering, (iii) servicing water, (v) crop and forage production and (iv) economic and production performance were controlled by water source (green and blue). Over the eight farms evaluated, milk production consumed on average 1.36 ± 0.41 m3/kg FPCM, of which 0.93 ± 0.40 m3/kg FPCM was green water and 0.42 ± 0.30 m3/kg FPCM was blue water. However, virtual water of 1 kg FPCM averaged 43% ± 14.3%. Water used for feed production for lactating cows represents approximately 87% ± 6% of the total WF of milk production. However, drinking and servicing water contributed by 3.75% ± 2% and 9% ± 5% to the total WF of milk, respectively. The EWP assessment revealed that the selected dairy farms had a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water averaging US$ 0.05 ± 0.04. The variation in WF of milk was mainly associated with diets' ingredients, which affected milk productivity and water consumption. Scenario analysis indicated that using feed with less water requirements or importing feeds from countries where its water consumption is low could reduce consumptive water use for milk production by up to 16%. The efficient use of servicing water could reduce blue WF of milk by up to 4%. The implementation of these measures would lead to potential total water savings in the Tunisian dairy sector of 646 million m3 per year (30%).
- Sleep and lying behavior of milking Holstein cows at commercial tie-stall dairy farms. [Journal Article]
- ASAnim Sci J 2019 Jul 07
- The aim of this study was to clarify cow's sleep behavior on farm and to examine the influence of some environment and management factors on cow's sleep. Total 85 behavior data (summer 41, autumn 44)…
The aim of this study was to clarify cow's sleep behavior on farm and to examine the influence of some environment and management factors on cow's sleep. Total 85 behavior data (summer 41, autumn 44) were corrected from 12 commercial tie-stall dairy farm in northern Tohoku area. Daily duration, bout frequency, and averaged bout duration of sleep and lying were measured. Even though there was no significant difference in any lying measurements, daily duration, bout frequency, and averaged bout duration of sleep was significantly different among farms (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively). However, we could not find that any managements influence on sleep. There was significant seasonal difference in daily sleep duration (p < 0.01) and sleep bout frequency (p < 0.05). On the other hand, daily lying duration and averaged lying bout duration were significantly different between seasons (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Primiparous cows slept longer and more frequent than multiparous (both p < 0.001). Milk solid-non-fat content was positively correlated with daily sleep duration (p < 0.05) and bout frequency (p < 0.01). These results might imply the productive importance of sleep related with anabolic hormones release.
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- Review: extended lactation in dairy cattle. [Journal Article]
- AAnimal 2019; 13(S1):s65-s74
- This paper reviews the effects of extended lactation (EXT) as a strategy in dairy cattle on milk production and persistency, reproduction, milk quality, lifetime performance of the cow and finally th…
This paper reviews the effects of extended lactation (EXT) as a strategy in dairy cattle on milk production and persistency, reproduction, milk quality, lifetime performance of the cow and finally the economic effects on herd and farm levels as well as the impact on emission of greenhouse gas at product level. Primiparous cows are able to produce equal or more milk per feeding day during EXT compared with a standard 305-d lactation, whereas results for multiparous cows are inconsistent. Cows managed for EXT can achieve a higher lifetime production while delivering milk with unchanged or improved quality properties. Delaying insemination enhances mounting behaviour and allows insemination after the cow's energy balance has become positive. However, in most cases EXT has no effect or a non-significant positive effect on reproduction. The EXT strategy sets off a cascade of effects at herd and farm level. Thus, the EXT strategy leads to fewer calvings and thereby expected fewer diseases, fewer replacement heifers and fewer dry days per cow per year. The optimal lifetime scenario for milk production was modelled to be an EXT of 16 months for first parity cows followed by an EXT of 10 months for later lactations. Modelling studies of herd dynamics indicate a positive effect of EXT on lifetime efficiency (milk per dry matter intake), mainly originating from benefits of EXT on daily milk yield in primiparous cows and the reduced number of replacement heifers. Consequently, EXT also leads to reduced total meat production at herd level. For the farmer, EXT can give the same economic return as a traditional lactation period. At farm level, EXT can contribute to a reduction in the environmental impact of dairy production, mainly as a consequence of the reduced production of beef. A wider dissemination of the EXT concept will be supported by methods to predict which cows may be most suitable for EXT, and clarification of how milking frequency and feeding strategy through the lactation can be organised to support milk yield and an appropriate body condition at the next calving.