- Development and Quality of Barley Husk Adhesion Correlates With Changes in Caryopsis Cuticle Biosynthesis and Composition. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2019; 10:672
- The caryopses of barley become firmly adhered to the husk during grain development through a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. The degree of this attachment varies among cultivars, …
The caryopses of barley become firmly adhered to the husk during grain development through a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. The degree of this attachment varies among cultivars, with poor quality adhesion causing "skinning", an economically significant grain quality defect for the malting industry. Malting cultivars encompassing a range of husk adhesion qualities were grown under a misting treatment known to induce skinning. Development of the cementing layer was examined by electron microscopy and compositional changes of the cementing layer were investigated with gas-chromatography followed by mass spectroscopy. Changes in gene expression during adhesion development were examined with a custom barley microarray. The abundance of transcripts involved early in cuticular lipid biosynthesis, including those encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and all four members of the fatty acid elongase complex of enzymes, was significantly higher earlier in caryopsis development than later. Genes associated with subsequent cuticular lipid biosynthetic pathways were also expressed higher early in development, including the decarbonylation and reductive pathways, and sterol biosynthesis. Changes in cuticular composition indicate that lowered proportions of alkanes and higher proportions of fatty acids are associated with development of good quality husk adhesion, in addition to higher proportions of sterols.
- Projected heat stress challenges and abatement opportunities for U.S. milk production. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(3):e0214665
- Cost-effective heat mitigation strategies are imperative for maintaining milk production and dairy farm profitability in the U.S. with projected climate change. This study investigated the cost-effec…
Cost-effective heat mitigation strategies are imperative for maintaining milk production and dairy farm profitability in the U.S. with projected climate change. This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of four heat abatement strategies, including Minimal (open barn or shading), Moderate (forced ventilation), High (fans and misting), and Intense (air conditioning). Heat stress and subsequent impacts on milk production per cow were predicted across nine climatic regions in the U.S. for early (2015 to 2034), mid (2045 to 2064) and late (2081 to 2100) 21st century, using downscaled climate projections. Heat abatements were used to adjust predicted milk production losses and illustrate the potential to reduce milk production losses due to heat stress. Economic analysis included a cost-benefit ratio calculation associated with the implementation of each heat abatement. Results showed that milk production losses were expected to accelerate across the U.S. at a mean rate of 174±7 kg/cow/decade, with the fastest rate in the Southeast region. Relative to Minimal heat abatement, Moderate, High, and Intense heat abatements increased annual milk production per cow by 3%, 4%, and 6% during early-21st century, 3%, 6%, and 11% during mid-21st century, and 3%, 8%, and 21% during late-21st century, respectively. The cost effectiveness of different heat abatement strategies generally increased with subsequently stronger heat abatements. In mid- and late-21st century, mean annual net values of High and Intense heat stress abatement implementation approached -$30 to $190 /cow and -$20 to $590 /cow, respectively, with the largest net annual benefit in late-21st century under Intense abatement. Findings from the study demonstrate the value of using downscaled climate projections to shed light on local and regional strategies to abate heat stress on cattle and mitigate potential milk production losses due to climate change.
- Acinetobacter - the trojan horse of infection control? [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hosp Infect 2019; 102(1):45-53
- CONCLUSIONS: In an outbreak where contact precautions and environmental cleaning are optimal, it is important to give careful consideration to other mechanisms of spread. If there is a failure to do this, it is likely that the true causes of transmission will not be addressed and the problem will recur. It is recommended that burn theatres within burn facilities should be designed to operate at negative pressure; this is the opposite of normal operating theatre ventilation. Where showers are used, both the shower head and the hose should be changed after a patient with a resistant organism. The role of non-contact disinfection (e.g. hydrogen peroxide dispersal) should be reconsidered, and constant vigilance should be given to any 'trojan horse' item in the room.
- The Evaluation of Short-Term Water Misting of Room Air in Reducing Airborne Dust after Renovation Work. [Journal Article]
- AWAnn Work Expo Health 2019 Feb 16; 63(2):242-255
- CONCLUSIONS: Short-term misting after a dust-generating task is an effective measure to control the airborne dust after dust-producing tasks in environments where an effective air exchange for dust removal is not a feasible alternative. The information obtained from the study is beneficial to construction and renovation project management personnel and field practitioners.
- Reducing Lead and Silica Dust Exposures in Small-Scale Mining in Northern Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- AWAnn Work Expo Health 2019 Jan 07; 63(1):1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: This pilot project has been successful in working cooperatively with miners to provide them with the necessary information and tools to reduce exposures in mining and processing, and minimize off-site contamination. As silica dust is a significant risk factor for silicosis and tuberculosis (TB), this intervention could provide public health benefits to small-scale mining communities even in areas without significant lead concentrations in the ore. Significant reductions in respirable silica and lead exposures are feasible in low-resource, small-scale mining communities.
- Factors Affecting Trailer Thermal Environment Experienced by Market Pigs Transported in the US. [Journal Article]
- AAnimals (Basel) 2018 Nov 09; 8(11)
- Extreme weather conditions challenge pig thermoregulation during transport and are addressed by the National Pork Board (NPB) Transport Quality Assurance® (TQA) program that provides guidelines for t…
Extreme weather conditions challenge pig thermoregulation during transport and are addressed by the National Pork Board (NPB) Transport Quality Assurance® (TQA) program that provides guidelines for trailer boarding, bedding, and misting. These guidelines are widely applied, yet very little is known about the microenvironment within the trailer. In this study, TQA guidelines (V4) were evaluated via extensive thermal environment measurements during transport in order to evaluate spatial variability and implications on ventilation pattern. Effects of trailer management strategies including bedding, boarding, and misting were examined and the trailer was monitored for interior temperature rise and THI responses within six separate zones. The trailer thermal environment was not uniformly distributed in the colder trips with the top front and bottom zones were the warmest, indicating these zones had the majority of outlet openings and experienced air with accumulated sensible and latent heat of the pigs. Relatively enhanced thermal environment uniformity was observed during hot trips, suggesting that ventilation patterns and ventilation rate were different for colder vs. warmer weather conditions. Misting applied prior to transport cooled interior air temperature, but also created high THI conditions in some cases. Neither boarding and bedding combinations in the TQA nor boarding position showed impacts on trailer interior temperature rise or spatial distribution of temperature inside the trailer.
- Understanding attitudes toward hygiene mask use in Japanese daily life by using a repeated cross-sectional survey. [Journal Article]
- WORKWork 2018; 61(2):303-311
- CONCLUSIONS: Men's attitudes in 2009 were different from those in 2012 and 2015. However, women's major attitudes were consistent in all 3 years. For both sexes, the most commonly reported problem was humidity in all 3 years. It is expected that more comfortable masks for daily use will result from improving humidity characteristics.
- Combination of aerosolized curcumin and UV-A light for the inactivation of bacteria on fresh produce surfaces. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 114:133-139
- There is a critical unmet need to improve microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Current sanitation approaches cannot achieve >2 log inactivation of bacteria on fresh produce. Thus, there i…
There is a critical unmet need to improve microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Current sanitation approaches cannot achieve >2 log inactivation of bacteria on fresh produce. Thus, there is a need to develop antimicrobial strategies that can consistently achieve >2 logs of bacterial inactivation on the surface of diverse fresh produce. Furthermore it is highly desired that these antimicrobial strategies have reduced environmental impact and are clean label solutions for food products. In this study, we evaluated the combination of curcumin and UV-A light radiation for the inactivation of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 and L. innocua bacterial cells on the surface of spinach, lettuce and tomatoes. Curcumin was deposited on the surface of fresh produce by either aerosolization or conventional spray-atomization methods before exposing the contaminated produce to UV-A light for 10 min (total light fluence of 20.4 kJ m-2). Results showed that the proposed combination of aerosolized or sprayed curcumin and UV-A light radiation can reduce the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua load from 6 log CFU cm-2 to approximately 3 log CFU cm-2 on spinach, lettuce and tomato surfaces. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bacterial reduction between the different types of inoculated fresh produce surfaces (P > .05). Interestingly, subsequent curcumin deposition and UV-A light exposure cycles were not able to further reduce the bacterial load below the observed threshold of approximately 3 log CFU cm-2. Lastly, the combination of aerosolized curcumin and UV-A light radiation did not affect the color or the texture of the treated fresh produce samples. The findings described in this study illustrate the potential of applying aerosolized or sprayed curcumin under UV-A light illumination to improve microbial safety of fresh produce products.
- Murine Oropharyngeal Aspiration Model of Ventilator-associated and Hospital-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2018 06 28; (136)
- Murine infection models are critical for understanding disease pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of novel therapeutics designed to combat causative pathogens. Infectious pneumonia is among the mo…
Murine infection models are critical for understanding disease pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of novel therapeutics designed to combat causative pathogens. Infectious pneumonia is among the most common infections presented by patients in the clinic and thus warrants an appropriate in vivo model. Typical pneumonia models use intranasal inoculation, which deposits excessive organisms outside the lung, causing off-target complications and symptoms, such as sinusitis, gastritis, enteritis, physical trauma, or microparticle misting to mimic aerosol spread more typical of viral, tuberculous, or fungal pneumonia. These models do not accurately reflect the pathogenesis of typical community- or healthcare-acquired bacterial pneumonia. In contrast, this murine model of oropharyngeal aspiration pneumonia mimics the droplet route in healthcare-acquired pneumonia. Inoculating 50 µL of the bacteria suspension into the oropharynx of anesthetized mice causes reflexive aspiration, which results in pneumonia. With this model, one can examine the pathogenesis of pneumonia-causing pathogens and new treatments to combat these diseases.
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- Rapid Identification of a Cooling Tower-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak Supported by Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of Environmental Samples, New York City, 2014-2015. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Health 2018; 80(8):8-12
- We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires' disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling to…
We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires' disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) <1 km from patient residences, a market misting system, a community-wide water system used for heating and cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Legionella DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection. We detected L. pneumophila serogroup 1 DNA only at a power plant cooling tower, supporting the decision to order remediation before culture results were available. An isolate from a power plant cooling tower sample was indistinguishable from a patient isolate by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting the cooling tower was the outbreak source. PCR results were available <1 day after sample collection, and culture results were available as early as 5 days after plating. PCR is a valuable tool for identifying Legionella DNA in environmental samples in outbreak settings.