- Surface changes and bacterial adhesion on implant abutment materials after various clinical cleaning procedures. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chin Med Assoc 2019 Jul 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Comparing to titanium, zirconia was less susceptible to surface changes after tested cleaning procedures. Titanium curette should be used with care on titanium abutments.
- Dietary supplementation with free methionine or methionine dipeptide mitigates intestinal oxidative stress induced by Eimeria spp. challenge in broiler chickens. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Sci Biotechnol 2019; 10:58
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results show for the first time that supplementation with methionine as free amino acid or dipeptide helps protect the intestinal cells of broilers under Eimeria spp. challenge from the oxidative damage induced by free radicals, mainly through modulation of the antioxidant system.
- Identification of Salivary Microbiota and Its Association With Host Inflammatory Mediators in Periodontitis. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2019; 9:216
- Periodontitis is a microbial-induced chronic inflammatory disease, which may not only result in tooth loss, but can also contribute to the development of various systemic diseases. The transition fro…
Periodontitis is a microbial-induced chronic inflammatory disease, which may not only result in tooth loss, but can also contribute to the development of various systemic diseases. The transition from healthy to diseased periodontium depends on microbial dysbiosis and impaired host immune response. Although periodontitis is a common disease as well as associated with various systemic inflammatory conditions, the taxonomic profiling of the salivary microbiota in periodontitis and its association with host immune and inflammatory mediators has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify key pathogens and their potential interaction with the host's inflammatory mediators in saliva samples for periodontitis risk assessment. The microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the levels of inflammatory mediators were performed in saliva samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects. The salivary microbial community composition differed significantly between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls. Our analyses identified a number of microbes, including bacteria assigned to Eubacterium saphenum, Tannerella forsythia, Filifactor alocis, Streptococcus mitis/parasanguinis, Parvimonas micra, Prevotella sp., Phocaeicola sp., and Fretibacterium sp. as more abundant in periodontitis, compared to healthy controls. In samples from healthy individuals, we identified Campylobacter concisus, and Veillonella sp. as more abundant. Integrative analysis of the microbiota and inflammatory mediators/cytokines revealed associations that included positive correlations between the pathogens Treponema sp. and Selenomas sp. and the cytokines chitinase 3-like 1, sIL-6Rα, sTNF-R1, and gp130/sIL-6Rβ. In addition, a negative correlation was identified between IL-10 and Filifactor alocis. Our results reveal distinct and disease-specific patterns of salivary microbial composition between patients with periodontitis and healthy controls, as well as significant correlations between microbiota and host-mediated inflammatory cytokines. The positive correlations between the pathogens Treponema sp. and Selenomas sp. and the cytokines chitinase 3-like 1, sIL-6Rα, sTNF-R1, and gp130/sIL-6Rβ might have the future potential to serve as a combined bacteria-host salivary biomarker panel for diagnosis of the chronic infectious disease periodontitis. However, further studies are required to determine the capacity of these microbes and inflammatory mediators as a salivary biomarker panel for periodontitis.
- Dietary generalists and nutritional specialists: Feeding strategies of adult female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in the Kakamega Forest, Kenya. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Primatol 2019 Jul 05; :e23016
- Generalist primates eat many food types and shift their diet with changes in food availability. Variation in foods eaten may not, however, match variation in nutrient intake. We examined dietary vari…
Generalist primates eat many food types and shift their diet with changes in food availability. Variation in foods eaten may not, however, match variation in nutrient intake. We examined dietary variation in a generalist-feeder, the blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis), to see how dietary food intake related to variation in available food and nutrient intake. We used 371 all-day focal follows from 24 adult females (three groups) in a wild rainforest population to quantify daily diet over 9 months. We measured food availability using vegetation surveys and phenology monitoring. We analyzed >700 food and fecal samples for macronutrient content. Subjects included 445 food items (species-specific plant parts and insect morphotypes) in their diet. Variation in fruit consumption (percentage of diet and total kcal) tracked variation in availability, suggesting fruit was a preferred food type. Fruits also constituted the majority of the diet (by calories) and some fruit species were eaten more than expected based on relative availability. In contrast, few species of young leaves were eaten more than expected. Also, subjects ate fewer young leaves (based on calories consumed) when fruit or young leaves were more available, suggesting that young leaves served as fallback foods. Despite the broad range of foods in the diet, group differences in fiber digestibility, and variation that reflected food availability, subjects and groups converged on similar nutrient intakes (grand mean ± SD: 637.1 ± 104.7 kcal overall energy intake, 293.3 ± 46.9 kcal nonstructural carbohydrate, 147.8 ± 72.4 kcal lipid, 107.8 ± 12.9 kcal available protein, and 88.1 ± 17.5 kcal structural carbohydrate; N = 24 subjects). Thus, blue monkeys appear to be food composition generalists and nutrient intake specialists, using flexible feeding strategies to regulate nutrient intake. Findings highlight the importance of simultaneously examining dietary composition at both levels of foods and nutrients to understand primate feeding ecology.
- Identification and capsular serotype sequetyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2019 Jul 03
- CONCLUSIONS: These studies affirm the importance of applying reliable identification protocols for S. pneumoniae before serotyping; our protocols provide reliable diagnostic tools, as well as an improved workflow, for serotype identification of pneumococcus and differentiation of serogroup 6 types.
- Metagenomic analyses reveal previously unrecognized variation in the diets of sympatric Old World monkey species. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218245
- Insectivory, or the consumption of insects and other arthropods, is a significant yet cryptic component of omnivorous primate diets. Here, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing to identify arthropod…
Insectivory, or the consumption of insects and other arthropods, is a significant yet cryptic component of omnivorous primate diets. Here, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing to identify arthropods from fecal DNA and assess variation in insectivory by closely-related sympatric primates. We identified arthropod prey taxa and tested the hypothesis that variation in insectivory facilitates niche differentiation and coexistence among closely-related species with high dietary overlap. We collected 233 fecal samples from redtail (Cercopithecus ascanius; n = 118) and blue monkeys (C. mitis; n = 115) and used a CO1 metabarcoding approach to identify arthropod DNA in each fecal sample. Arthropod DNA was detected in 99% of samples (N = 223 samples), and a total of 68 families (15 orders) were identified. Redtails consumed arthropods from 54 families, of which 12 (21.8%) were absent from blue monkey samples. Blue monkeys consumed arthropods from 56 families, of which 14 (24.6%) were absent from redtail samples. For both species, >97% of taxa present belonged to four orders (Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera). Redtail samples contained more Lepidoptera taxa (p<0.05), while blue monkey samples contained more Araneae (p<0.05). Blue monkeys consumed a greater diversity of arthropod taxa than redtail monkeys (p<0.05); however, the average number of arthropod families present per fecal sample was greater in the redtail monkey samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that while overlap exists in the arthropod portion of their diets, 20-25% of taxa consumed are unique to each group. Our findings suggest that variation in arthropod intake may help decrease dietary niche overlap and hence facilitate coexistence of closely-related primate species.
- Genomic Characterization of the Emerging Pathogen Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae. [Journal Article]
- MBIOMBio 2019 Jun 25; 10(3)
- Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a close relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae It is increasingly associated with lower-respiratory-tract infections (LRTI) and a high prevalence of anti…
Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a close relative of the major human pathogen S. pneumoniae It is increasingly associated with lower-respiratory-tract infections (LRTI) and a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). S. pseudopneumoniae is difficult to identify using traditional typing methods due to similarities with S. pneumoniae and other members of the mitis group (SMG). Using whole-genome sequencing of LRTI isolates and a comparative genomic approach, we found that a large number of pneumococcal virulence and colonization genes are present in the core S. pseudopneumoniae genome. We also reveal an impressive number of novel surface-exposed proteins encoded by the genome of this species. In addition, we propose a new and entirely specific molecular marker useful for the identification of S. pseudopneumoniae Phylogenetic analyses of S. pseudopneumoniae show that specific clades are associated with allelic variants of core proteins. Resistance to tetracycline and macrolides, the two most common types of resistance, were found to be encoded by Tn916-like integrating conjugative elements and Mega-2. Overall, we found a tight association of genotypic determinants of AMR and phenotypic AMR with a specific lineage of S. pseudopneumoniae Taken together, our results shed light on the distribution in S. pseudopneumoniae of genes known to be important during invasive disease and colonization and provide insight into features that could contribute to virulence, colonization, and adaptation.IMPORTANCE S. pseudopneumoniae is an overlooked pathogen emerging as the causative agent of lower-respiratory-tract infections and associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbation of COPD. However, much remains unknown on its clinical importance and epidemiology, mainly due to the lack of specific markers to distinguish it from S. pneumoniae Here, we provide a new molecular marker entirely specific for S. pseudopneumoniae and offer a comprehensive view of the virulence and colonization genes found in this species. Finally, our results pave the way for further studies aiming at understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of S. pseudopneumoniae.
- Retrospective Analysis of Septic Arthritis Caused by Intra-Articular Viscosupplementation and Steroid Injections in a Single Outpatient Center. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med Res 2019; 11(7):480-483
- CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic septic arthritis is not common; however its complications can be catastrophic to patients. Improper sterile techniques and untrained physicians are the main risks factors for this complication. Physicians should take proper sterile measures to avoid complications of intra-articular injections.
- Endocarditis Caused by Highly Penicillin-Resistant Viridans Group Streptococci: Still Room for Vancomycin-Based Regimens. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Jun 10
- Introduction: Optimal treatment options remain unknown for infective endocarditis (IE) caused by penicillin (PEN)-resistant viridans group streptococcal (VGS) strains. The aims of this study were to …
Introduction: Optimal treatment options remain unknown for infective endocarditis (IE) caused by penicillin (PEN)-resistant viridans group streptococcal (VGS) strains. The aims of this study were to report two cases of highly-PEN-resistant-VGS-IE, perform a literature review, and to evaluate various antibiotic combinations in vitro and in vivo Materials and Methods: The following combinations were tested by time-kill studies and in the rabbit experimental endocarditis (EE) model: PEN-gentamicin, ceftriaxone-gentamicin, vancomycin-gentamicin, daptomycin-gentamicin, and daptomycin-ampicillin.Results: Case 1 was caused by S.parasanguinis (PEN MIC=4μg/mL) and was treated with vancomycin plus cardiac surgery. Case 2 was caused by S.mitis (PEN MIC=8μg/mL) and was treated with 4-weeks of vancomycin+gentamicin followed by 2-weeks of vancomycin alone. Both patients were alive and relapse-free after ≥6mos follow-up. In vitro studies: Except for daptomycin-ampicillin, all combinations demonstrated both synergy and bactericidal activity against the S.parasanguinis isolate. Only PEN-gentamicin; daptomycin-gentamicin and daptomycin-ampicillin demonstrated both synergy and bactericidal activity against the S.mitis strain. Both strains developed high-level daptomycin-resistance (HLDR) during daptomycin in vitro passage.EE studies: PEN alone failed to clear S.mitis from vegetations, while ceftriaxone and vancomycin were significantly more effective (P<0.001). Combining gentamicin with PEN or vancomycin increased bacterial eradication vs. respective monotherapies.Summary: Two patients with highly-PEN-R-VGS-IE were cured using vancomycin-based therapy. In vivo, regimens of gentamicin plus either β-lactams or vancomycin were more active than their respective monotherapies. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the role of vancomycin-based regimens for highly-PEN-R-VGS-IE. Emergence of HLDR among these strains warrants caution in the use of daptomycin therapy for VGS-IE.
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- Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Attenuates Virulence and Modulates Microbial Ecology of Saliva-Derived Polymicrobial Biofilms. [Journal Article]
- CRCaries Res 2019 Jun 04; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CPP-ACP has virulence-attenuating attributes that can influence a beneficial microbial ecological change in the biofilm.