- An excellent alternative composite modifier for cathode catalysts prepared from bacterial cellulose doped with Cu and P and its utilization in microbial fuel cell. [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019 Jun 18; 289:121661
- In this study, bacterial cellulose doped with phosphorus and copper via freeze-drying and high-temperature pyrolysis was used to prepare MFC cathode catalysts. After a series of characterization, the…
In this study, bacterial cellulose doped with phosphorus and copper via freeze-drying and high-temperature pyrolysis was used to prepare MFC cathode catalysts. After a series of characterization, the synthesized catalyst showed a three-dimensional network with a specific surface area of 580.09 m2/g. Due to the doping of Cu and P, more active sites were induced in the pores of bacterial cellulose and subsequently improved catalytic activity. The prepared catalyst was coated on the air cathode surface of the MFC to obtain the maximum output power and current density of 1177.31 mW/m2 and 6.73 A/m2, respectively, which were higher than those of Pt (1044.93 mW/m2 and 6.02 A/m2). This work aimed to improve bioelectrical generation in MFC and find alternative commercial Pt catalysts.
- Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Coping Mechanisms and Lifespan Regulation in Health and Diseases. [Review]
- FCFront Cell Dev Biol 2019; 7:84
- Multiple factors lead to proteostatic perturbations, often resulting in the aberrant accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins. Cells, from yeast to humans, can respond to sudden accumulation of secre…
Multiple factors lead to proteostatic perturbations, often resulting in the aberrant accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins. Cells, from yeast to humans, can respond to sudden accumulation of secretory proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through pathways such as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). The ability of cells to adapt the ER folding environment to the misfolded protein burden ultimately dictates cell fate. The aging process is a particularly important modifier of the proteostasis network; as cells age, both their ability to maintain this balance in protein folding/degradation and their ability to respond to insults in these pathways can break down, a common element of age-related diseases (including neurodegenerative diseases). ER stress coping mechanisms are central to lifespan regulation under both normal and disease states. In this review, we give a brief overview of the role of ER stress response pathways in age-dependent neurodegeneration.
- Baseline characteristics did not identify people with low back pain who respond best to a Movement System Impairment-Based classification treatment. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Phys Ther 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Age, educational status, physical activity status and STarT back tool classification did not modify the effects of an 8-week treatment based on the Movement System Impairment model in patients with chronic low back pain. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02221609 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02221609).
- NCALD Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy in Addition to Nusinersen further Ameliorates Spinal Muscular Atrophy in Mice. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2019 Jun 04
- Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease causing the most frequent genetic childhood lethality. Recently, nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that corrects SMN2 splicing an…
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease causing the most frequent genetic childhood lethality. Recently, nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) that corrects SMN2 splicing and thereby increases full-length SMN protein, has been approved by the FDA and EMA for SMA therapy. However, the administration of nusinersen in severe and/or post-symptomatic SMA-affected individuals is insufficient to counteract the disease. Therefore, additional SMN-independent therapies are needed to support the function of motoneurons and neuromuscular junctions. We recently identified asymptomatic SMN1-deleted individuals who were protected against SMA by reduced expression of neurocalcin delta (NCALD). NCALD reduction is proven to be a protective modifier of SMA across species, including worm, zebrafish, and mice. Here, we identified Ncald-ASO3-out of 450 developed Ncald ASOs-as the most efficient and non-toxic ASO for the CNS, by applying a stepwise screening strategy in cortical neurons and adult and neonatal mice. In a randomized-blinded preclinical study, a single subcutaneous low-dose SMN-ASO and a single intracerebroventricular Ncald-ASO3 or control-ASO injection were presymptomatically administered in a severe SMA mouse model. NCALD reduction of >70% persisted for about 1 month. While low-dose SMN-ASO rescues multiorgan impairment, additional NCALD reduction significantly ameliorated SMA pathology including electrophysiological and histological properties of neuromuscular junctions and muscle at P21 and motoric deficits at 3 months. The present study shows the additional benefit of a combinatorial SMN-dependent and SMN-independent ASO-based therapy for SMA. This work illustrates how a modifying gene, identified in some asymptomatic individuals, helps to develop a therapy for all SMA-affected individuals.
- Evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 and waste molasses as fermentation modifier to increase silage quality and reduce ruminal greenhouse gas emissions of rice straw. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 17; 688:143-152
- Lactobacillus plantarum and molasses have been shown to function as fermentation modifiers in both silage and rumen fermentation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of L. plantarum MTD1, a comm…
Lactobacillus plantarum and molasses have been shown to function as fermentation modifiers in both silage and rumen fermentation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of L. plantarum MTD1, a commercial probiotic, when co-administered with waste molasses (WM), on the silage quality, rumen volatile fatty acids and greenhouse gas (GHG) production of rice straw. Rice straw was ensiled with no additive (Control), 106 cfu/g L. plantarum (L), L + 2%WM, L + 3%WM and L + 4%WM for 3, 6, 9, 15, 30 and 60 days. The rumen volatile fatty acids and gas production kinetics were determined using in vitro incubation technology. All additives, especially L + 4%WM, improved the silage quality of rice straw, indicated by higher lactic acid and nonstructural carbohydrate content, lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen content (P < 0.05). A simple linear regression showed that the ruminal propionic concentration increased (linear, P < 0.0001) and the ratio of acetic to propionic acid decreased (linear, P = 0.0002) as a function of WM dose. The 60-day ensilage could decrease ruminal total gas production by 13.51-31.29% as compared to the untreated rice straw. Wherein L had no effect on the mitigation of CH4 but decreased the CO2 production, and further WM inclusion decreased the CH4 production with a dose effect. If the better silage quality and lower ruminal GHG production observed in the study are confirmed in practice, applying L + 4%WM may provide an insight for straw waste management while reducing pollution input into the atmosphere system. This in vitro study can be valuable for screening and informing on the suitability of these fermentation modifiers for further evaluation in vivo.
- Airborne mammary carcinogens and breast cancer risk in the Sister Study. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jun 18; 130:104897
- CONCLUSIONS: Some non-metallic air toxics, particularly methylene chloride, were associated with the hazard for overall and ER+ breast cancer. Overweight/obese women may be particularly susceptible to air toxics.
- DPPA2/4 and SUMO E3 ligase PIAS4 opposingly regulate zygotic transcriptional program. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2019 Jun 21; 17(6):e3000324
- The molecular mechanism controlling the zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in mammals remains poorly understood. The 2-cell (2C)-like cells spontaneously emerging from cultures of mouse embryonic stem c…
The molecular mechanism controlling the zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in mammals remains poorly understood. The 2-cell (2C)-like cells spontaneously emerging from cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) share some key transcriptional and epigenetic programs with 2C-stage embryos. By studying the transition of ESCs into 2C-like cells, we identified developmental pluripotency associated 2 and 4 (Dppa2/4) as important regulators controlling zygotic transcriptional program through directly up-regulating the expression of double homeobox (Dux). In addition, we found that DPPA2 protein is sumoylated and its activity is negatively regulated by small ubiquitin-like modifier (Sumo) E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4). PIAS4 is down-regulated during ZGA process and during transitioning of ESCs into 2C-like cells. Depleting Pias4 or overexpressing Dppa2/4 is sufficient to activate 2C-like transcriptional program, whereas depleting Dppa2/4 or forced expression of Pias4 or Sumo2-Dppa2 inhibits 2C-like transcriptional program. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Pias4 or Sumo2-Dppa2 impairs early mouse embryo development. In summary, our study identifies key molecular rivals consisting of transcription factors and a Sumo2 E3 ligase that regulate zygotic transcriptional program upstream of Dux.
- Estrogen receptor activation in response to Azadirachtin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in mice. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2019 Jun 21
- The positive effects of the sex hormone in sustaining bone homeostasis are exercised by maintaining the equilibrium between cell activity and apoptosis. In this regard, the importance of estrogen rec…
The positive effects of the sex hormone in sustaining bone homeostasis are exercised by maintaining the equilibrium between cell activity and apoptosis. In this regard, the importance of estrogen receptors in maintaining the bone is that it is an attractive drug target, if devoid of known side effects. In this study, we show that a natural pure compound Azadirachtin A (Aza A) isolated from Azadirachta indica binds selectively to a site in the estrogen receptor, identifying itself to be a selective tissue modifier. Using computational and medicinal chemistry, we show that Aza A binds potentially and selectively to estrogen receptor-α (ERα) as compared with ERβ. This preferential binding of Aza A to ERα with good pharmacokinetic distribution in the body forms metabolites, showing that it is well absorbed. In in vivo estrogen deficiency models for osteoporosis, Aza A at a much lower dose enhances new bone formation at both sites of the trabecular and cortical bone with increased bone strength and presents with no hyperplastic effect in the uterus.
- Lactulose: Mannitol Test as an Indicator of a Potential Modifier of the Effect of Specialized Nutritious Foods in the Treatment of Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Sierra Leone (P10-122-19). [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Dev Nutr 2019; 3(Suppl 1)
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study we did not find EED (L: M test) at enrollment to modify the effect of SNFs on likelihood of graduation from a MAM treatment program. This may be because EED did not affect graduation from the program, or because EED severity changes over the course of treatment. Watery stool post L: M dosing should be systematically recorded and its effect assessed in analysis.
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- Maternal Characteristics Affect Fetal Growth Response to Maternal Supplements in the Women First Preconception Trial (WF) (P10-017-19). [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Dev Nutr 2019; 3(Suppl 1)
- CONCLUSIONS: In diverse low resource populations, impaired fetal growth (weight and length) is substantially improved in nulliparous and in anemic women but minimally or not at all in parous and in non-anemic women. Correction of weight decrements is most pronounced with improvement in maternal nutrition commencing prior to conception.