- Matrix metalloproteinases inactivate the proinflammatory functions of secreted moonlighting tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2019 Jul 19
- Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WRS) is a cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase essential for protein synthesis. WRS is also one of a growing number of intracellular proteins that are attributed distinct…
Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WRS) is a cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase essential for protein synthesis. WRS is also one of a growing number of intracellular proteins that are attributed distinct non-canonical "moonlighting" functions in the extracellular milieu. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases regulate processes such as inflammation, but how these multifunctional enzymes are themselves regulated remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that WRS is secreted from human macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to the proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ) WRS signaled primarily through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in macrophages leading to phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB with associated loss of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκB-α) protein. This signaling initiated secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and CXCL8 (IL8) from macrophages. We also demonstrated that WRS is a potent monocyte chemoattractant. Of note, WRS increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the conditioned medium of macrophages in a TNFα-dependent manner. Using purified recombinant proteins, and LC-MS/MS to identify proteolytic cleavage sites, we demonstrated that multiple MMPs, but primarily macrophage MMP7 and neutrophil MMP8, cleave secreted WRS at several sites. Loss of the WHEP domain following cleavage at 48Met generated a WRS proteoform that also results from alternative splicing, designated Δ1-47 WRS. The MMP-cleaved WRS lacked TLR signaling and proinflammatory activities. Thus, our results suggest that moonlighting WRS promotes IFNγ proinflammatory activities, and these responses can be dampened by MMPs.
- Effects of ionizing irradiation and interface backscatter on human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on titanium surfaces. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Oral Sci 2019 Jul 19
- Radiotherapy to the head and neck region negatively influences the osseointegration and survival of dental implants. The effects of cobalt 60 (60 Co) ionizing radiation and the impact of backscatter …
Radiotherapy to the head and neck region negatively influences the osseointegration and survival of dental implants. The effects of cobalt 60 (60 Co) ionizing radiation and the impact of backscatter rays were investigated on human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on titanium surfaces. Bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on titanium (Ti), fluoride-modified titanium (TiF), and tissue culture plastic. Cells were exposed to ionizing γ-radiation in single doses of 2, 6, or 10 Gy using a 60 Co source. Density and distribution of cells were evaluated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy, 21 d post-irradiation. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration and the levels of total protein and cytokines/chemokines were measured in the cell-culture medium on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-irradiation. Unirradiated cells were used as the control. Irradiation had no effect on cell viability, collagen and actin expression, or cell distribution, but induced an initial increase in the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), followed by a decrease in secretion after 3 or 7 d. Irradiation resulted in secretion of a lower amount of all analytes examined compared with controls on day 21, irrespective of radiation dose and growth surface. Backscattering from titanium did not influence the cell response significantly, suggesting a clinical potential for achieving successful osseointegration of dental implants placed before radiotherapy.
- Effect of S100A8 and S100A9 on expressions of cytokine and skin barrier protein in human keratinocytes. [Journal Article]
- MMMol Med Rep 2019 Jul 01
- Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder caused by immunological dysregulation and genetic factors. Whether the expression levels of cytokine and skin barrier protein were altered by S…
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disorder caused by immunological dysregulation and genetic factors. Whether the expression levels of cytokine and skin barrier protein were altered by S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) and S100A9 in human keratinocytic HaCaT cells was examined in the present study. Alterations of cytokine expression were examined by ELISA following treatment with S100A8/9 and various signal protein‑specific inhibitors. Activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB was evaluated by using western blotting and an NF‑κB activity test, respectively. The expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 increased following treatment with S100A8 and S100A9, and the increase was significantly blocked by specific signaling pathway inhibitors, including toll‑like receptor 4 inhibitor (TLR4i), rottlerin, PD98059, SB203580 and BAY‑11‑7085. Extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK pathways were activated in a time‑dependent manner following treatment with S100A8 and S100A9. Phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK were blocked by TLR4i and rottlerin. S100A8 and S100A9 induced translocation of NF‑κB in a time‑dependent manner, and the activation of NF‑κB was inhibited by TLR4i, rottlerin, PD98059 and SB203580. In addition, S100A8 and S100A9 decreased the expression of skin barrier proteins, filaggrin and loricrin. These results may help to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of AD and develop clinical strategies for controlling AD.
- FNDC5 inhibits foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in vascular smooth muscle cells via suppressing NFκB-mediated NLRP3 upregulation. [Journal Article]
- VPVascul Pharmacol 2019 Jul 15; :106579
- Foam cell formation and monocytes adhesion are key events in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. Fibronect…
Foam cell formation and monocytes adhesion are key events in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. Fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a protein, which induces browning of fat and attenuates glucose/lipid metabolic derangements in obese mice. The present study was designed to determine the roles of FNDC5 in inhibiting foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in VSMCs and its underlying mechanisms. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was used to induce foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in human aortic VSMCs. Foam cell formation was evaluated by intracellular lipid droplets, cholesterol contents, and mRNA levels of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT-1) and ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). Monocyte adhesion was evaluated by the number of monocytes adhered to VSMCs and mRNA levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). FNDC5 inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation, monocyte adhesion, ABCA-1 mRNA downregulation, and ACAT-1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA upregulation in VSMCs. It inhibited oxLDL-induced p65-NFκB nuclear translocation, NLRP3 upregulation, caspase-1 and IL-1β production. Inhibition of NFκB with BMS-345541 or inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 showed similar effects to FNDC5 in attenuating the oxLDL-induced foam cell formation, monocyte adhesion, and caspase-1 and IL-1β production. The oxLDL-induced NLRP3 upregulation was prevented by BMS-345541 rather than MCC950. These results indicate that FNDC5 inhibits oxLDL-induced foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in VSMCs via suppressing NFκB-mediated NLRP3 upregulation and IL-1β production.
- Combined Cyclosporin A and Hypothermia Treatment Inhibits Activation of BV-2 Microglia but Induces an Inflammatory Response in an Ischemia/Reperfusion Hippocampal Slice Culture Model. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Neurosci 2019; 13:273
- CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with CsA has neurotoxic effects on primary neurons exposed to OGD but could inhibit BV-2 microglia activation. However, CsA and hypothermia treatment after ischemia/reperfusion injury results in cytotoxic neuroinflammation in the complex ex vivo OHSC.
- Inhibition of proliferation and migration of melanoma cells by ketoconazole and Ganoderma immunomodulatory proteins. [Journal Article]
- OLOncol Lett 2019; 18(1):891-897
- Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent, has been used to inhibit hormone synthesis in types of prostate and breast cancer. Immunomodulatory proteins of Ganoderma microsporum (GMI) inhibit the tumor necros…
Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent, has been used to inhibit hormone synthesis in types of prostate and breast cancer. Immunomodulatory proteins of Ganoderma microsporum (GMI) inhibit the tumor necrosis factor-α- and epidermal growth factor-induced metastatic ability of lung cancer cells. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a highly invasive and metastatic skin cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is limited understanding regarding the effects of ketoconazole and GMI on melanoma. The current study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of GMI combined with ketoconazole on melanoma survival and metastasis. The effects of GMI combined with ketoconazole on the viability, migration and protein expression of melanoma cells were determined by MTT assay, Boyden chamber assay and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The present results indicate that ketoconazole enhances the GMI-induced decrease in proliferation and migration of A375.S2 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Ketoconazole was identified to reduce the level of GMI-induced phosphorylated-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)-α and autophagy; however, ketoconazole did not affect p-AMPK-β levels in A375.S2 cells. In addition, ketoconazole and dorsomorphin dihydrochloride, an AMPK inhibitor, were revealed to reduce MCP-1 secretion in A375.S2 cells. In summary, the present study revealed that ketoconazole enhances GMI-inhibited proliferation and migration of A375.S2 melanoma cancer cells, and inhibits the secretion of MCP-1.
- Low-dose Ionizing Radiation Attenuates Mast Cell Migration through Suppression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Expression by Nr4a2. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Radiat Biol 2019 Jul 09; :1-33
- CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose ionizing radiation inhibits mast cell migration through the regulation production of MCP-1 by Nr4a2 in the activated mast cell system.
- Ginkgolide B Mediated Alleviation of Inflammatory Cascades and Altered Lipid Metabolism in HUVECs via Targeting PCSK-9 Expression and Functionality. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:7284767
- The potential of oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) to elicit inflammatory responses in macrophages leading to the atherosclerosis (AS) progression is well known. Since proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin-9 (P…
The potential of oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) to elicit inflammatory responses in macrophages leading to the atherosclerosis (AS) progression is well known. Since proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin-9 (PCSK-9), the posttranslational regulator of LDL-receptor, is associated with elevated LDL in the circulation, the present report was aimed to uncover the ameliorative effects of Ginkgolide B, a terpenic lactone from Ginkgo biloba, against Ox-LDL-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism in HUVECs. Consequently, our results demonstrated that incubation with Ox-LDL significantly upregulated the PCSK-9 expression in HUVECs, which was significantly downregulated, both at mRNA and protein level, after Ginkgolide B treatment via subsequent suppression of sterol element binding protein (SREBP-2) expression. Moreover, Ginkgolide B-mediated inhibition of PCSK-9 activity was also validated by in silico methods which revealed that it interferes the PSCK-9 interaction with LDL-receptor (LDL-R). Interestingly, Ox-LDL-induced LDL-R expression was further enhanced by Ginkgolide B treatment in HUVECs. Moreover, Ginkgolide B treatment lead to downregulation of lectin-like Ox-LDL receptor (LOX-1) and NADPH oxidase (NOX-4) expression which was upregulated in Ox-LDL-treated HUVECs, along with the attenuation of mitochondrial ROS generation. Furthermore, Ginkgolide B significantly inhibited the augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in Ox-LDL-activated HUVECs. Ginkgolide B also significantly ameliorated the inflammatory response in Ox-LDL-activated HUVECs by suppressing the expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1), at mRNA and protein level. Our in vitro and in silico study established that Ginkgolide B alleviated the Ox-LDL-induced inflammatory cascades and altered lipid metabolism in HUVECs by suppressing the PCSK-9 and, thus, could be established as a treasured alternative therapeutic candidate in the atherosclerosis management.
- PACAP ameliorates hepatic metabolism and inflammation through up-regulating FAIM in obesity. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Mol Med 2019 Jul 03
- Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory disease, the inflammatory factors, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and small inducible cytokine A5 (RANTES), are …
Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory disease, the inflammatory factors, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and small inducible cytokine A5 (RANTES), are elevated in obese individuals. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) suppresses anti-inflammatory cytokines and ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism. Our previous study showed that Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) is a new mediator of Akt2 signalling, increases the insulin signalling pathway and lipid metabolism. In this study, we found that PACAP promoted the expression of FAIM protein in a human hepatocyte cell line (L02). Overexpression of FAIM with lentivirus suppressed the expression of the inflammatory factor interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Following treatment of obese mice with FAIM or PACAP for 2 weeks, inflammation was alleviated and the bodyweight and blood glucose levels were decreased. Overexpression of FAIM down-regulated the expression of adipogenesis proteins, including SREBP1, SCD1, FAS, SREBP2 and HMGCR, and up-regulated glycogen synthesis proteins, including Akt2 (Ser474) phosphorylation, GLUT2 and GSK-3β, in the liver of obese mice. However, down-regulation of FAIM with shRNA promotes obesity. Altogether, our data identified that FAIM mediates the function of PACAP in anti-inflammation, glucose regulation and lipid metabolism in obese liver.
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- [Immunological markers of alimentary-induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats]. [Journal Article]
- VPVopr Pitan 2019; 88(3):44-52
- CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a significant correlation between L/Gh ratio and changes in the weight of rats' body, spleen, adipose tissue, as well as levels of cytokines involved in inflammation regulation, confirms the importance of L/Gh ratio as a biomarker in an in vivo model of dyslipidemia.