- Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy versus Electroacupuncture on Postnatal Scanty Milk Secretion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Perinatol 2019 Jul 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Electroacupuncture is more effective than low-level laser therapy in increasing postnatal scanty milk secretion.
- Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Nucleus Accumbens Mediates Individual Differences in Behavioral Responses to a Natural, Social Reward. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Neurobiol 2019 Jul 20
- BDNF-oxytocin interactions in the brain are implicated in mammalian maternal behavior. We found that BDNF gene expression is increased in the hippocampus of rat mothers that show increased pup lickin…
BDNF-oxytocin interactions in the brain are implicated in mammalian maternal behavior. We found that BDNF gene expression is increased in the hippocampus of rat mothers that show increased pup licking/grooming (high LG mothers) compared to low LG mothers. High LG mothers also showed increased BDNF protein levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAcc). Immunoneutralization of BDNF in the nAcc eliminated the differences in pup LG between high and low LG mothers. Oxytocin antagonist in the ventral hippocampus significantly decreased the frequency of maternal LG behavior. Oxytocin antagonist significantly prevented the oxytocin-induced BDNF gene expression in primary hippocampal cell cultures. We suggest that oxytocin-induced regulation of BDNF in the nAcc provides a neuroendocrine basis for both individual differences in maternal behavior and resilience to the stress of reproduction in female mammals.
- Binge drinking during pregnancy and psychosis-like experiences in the child at age 11. [Journal Article]
- ECEur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2019 Jul 20
- Increased frequency of psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) has been previously reported in children born to mothers with high general levels of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study wa…
Increased frequency of psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) has been previously reported in children born to mothers with high general levels of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine whether the risk of PLEs was likewise elevated in children prenatally exposed to binge drinking. Participants were 44,326 children and their mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996-2002. Information on maternal binge drinking was collected twice in pregnancy by telephone interview and PLEs in the children were ascertained in a Web-based questionnaire at age 11. Analyses were carried out using weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Maternal binge drinking was relatively common among the participating women (27%). The adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) for reporting one definite PLE symptom was 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-1.13) and 1.06 (95% CI 0.95-1.20) for two or more symptoms in children exposed compared to unexposed to binge drinking during pregnancy. Furthermore, no association was found when addressing frequency and timing of binge drinking, nor for various levels of average alcohol consumption. When sub-dividing PLEs into specific types of experiences however, a slightly, although non-significant, increased risk was observed for one specific delusional idea, receiving messages from radio/TV, following prenatal exposure to binge drinking. Our results provide no evidence of an association between maternal binge drinking, nor average alcohol consumption in pregnancy, and overall occurrence of PLEs in the offspring. However, our results indicated that binge drinking might be related to a specific PLE.
- The effect of the first vaginal birth on pelvic floor anatomy and dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- IUInt Urogynecol J 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Though maternal characteristics at birth such as age or BMI increase the risk of PFD, labour and birth factors play a similarly important role. The most critical risk factor for MLA avulsion was forceps delivery, while an epidural had a protective effect.
- cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid represses Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination in shade light conditions. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Bot 2019 Jul 20
- Light-dependent seed germination is induced by gibberellins (GA) and inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA). The widely accepted view of GA/ABA ratio controlling germination does not however explain the fa…
Light-dependent seed germination is induced by gibberellins (GA) and inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA). The widely accepted view of GA/ABA ratio controlling germination does not however explain the fact that seeds deficient in ABA still germinate poorly under shade light conditions that repress germination. In Arabidopsis, MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT) acts as a key negative regulator of germination, modulating GA and ABA responses under shade light conditions. Under full light the oxylipin cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of the stress related phytohormone jasmonic acid, interacts with ABA and MFT to repress germination. Here, we show that, under shade conditions both OPDA and ABA repress germination to varying extents. We demonstrate that the level of shade induced MFT expression influences the ability of OPDA and/or ABA to fully repress germination. We also find that MFT expression decreases with seed age and this again correlates with the response of seeds to OPDA and ABA. We conclude that OPDA plays an essential role alongside ABA in repressing germination in response to shade light and the combined effect of these phytohormones is integrated to a significant extent through MFT.
- Feeding the Australian family: challenges for mothers, nutrition and equity. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Promot Int 2019 Jul 21
- Australian women shoulder the bulk of household duties including family food provisioning, despite increasing participation in the workforce. This research aimed to understand employed mothers' daily…
Australian women shoulder the bulk of household duties including family food provisioning, despite increasing participation in the workforce. This research aimed to understand employed mothers' daily-lived experience of family food provisioning, in particular, the intersection between family food provisioning, gender inequality and nutritional guidelines as they impact women's time and health. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 employed mothers in South Australia. Participants had at least one child aged less than 13 years. Qualitative data was analysed using a thematic content approach. Time-scarcity was common and associated with stress in relation to family food provisioning; this relationship was particularly apparent among employed mothers who were also studying. Most mothers valued nutrition and strove to provide nutritious meals, although they tended to work from their own nutritional understandings, not the national nutrition guidelines; they saw the nutrition guidelines as unhelpful because of the time demands that were implied. The study invites policy makers, practitioners and researchers to consider time for family food provisioning as a social determinant of family as well as women's health, and structural strategies to address this health inequity for women.
- Observational study of cytomegalovirus from breast milk and necrotising enterocolitis. [Journal Article]
- ADArch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: CMV exposure from breast milk may be associated with the development of NEC in very low birth weight infants.
- Associations of prenatal exposures to low levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) with thyroid hormones in cord plasma and neurobehavioral development in children at 2 and 4 years. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jul 18; 131:105010
- CONCLUSIONS: This study adds new knowledge that prenatal PBDEs at low levels may be related to long-lasting behavioral abnormalities in children and reduced THs in cord plasma. However, the hypothesis that the neurotoxic impact of PBDEs may be explained by alterations in cord THs was not supported.
- Dynamics of Selenium uptake, speciation, and antioxidant response in rice at different panicle initiation stages. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 13; 691:827-834
- Selenium (Se) is an essential element in animals and humans, and its deficiency may cause conditions such as cardiac disease. The production of Se-enriched rice is one of the most important ways to s…
Selenium (Se) is an essential element in animals and humans, and its deficiency may cause conditions such as cardiac disease. The production of Se-enriched rice is one of the most important ways to supply Se in the human body, and thus, understanding of the mechanisms of Se-enriched rice is of great significance. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of Se addition on the growth, antioxidation, Se uptake and distribution, and Se speciation in three different stages of panicle initiation stage (i.e., pistil and stamen formation stage, pollen mother cell formation stage, pollen mother cell meiosis stage) and the maturity stage. The results showed that soil Se application significantly increased Se uptake in rice. Low rates of Se (<5 mg kg-1) application enhanced the plant growth and rice yield. Se speciation assays showed that SeCys and SeMet were the two main forms found in rice, of which SeMet accounted for 65.5%-100% in the ears and leaves, while SeCys accounted for 61.4%-75.6% in brown rice. SeMet was also the main Se-species found in different subcellular parts at the panicle initiation stage. However, inorganic Se was present in brown rice, mainly as Se(VI), when the soil Se addition exceeded 5 mg kg-1. Lower rates of Se (<5 mg kg-1) promoted the antioxidant capacity, while high levels of Se (≥5 mg kg-1) reduced the antioxidant capacity of rice. The results indicate that Se effects are dose dependent, and the suitable amount of soil Se application for Se-enriched rice production would be <5 mg kg-1.
New Search Next
- How community and healthcare provider perceptions, practices and experiences influence reporting, disclosure and data collection on stillbirth: Findings of a qualitative study in Afghanistan. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2019 Jul 12; 236:112413
- Quality concerns exist with stillbirth data from low- and middle-income countries including under-reporting and misclassification which affect the reliability of burden estimates. This is particularl…
Quality concerns exist with stillbirth data from low- and middle-income countries including under-reporting and misclassification which affect the reliability of burden estimates. This is particularly problematic for household survey data. Disclosure and reporting of stillbirths are affected by the socio-cultural context in which they occur and societal perceptions around pregnancy loss. In this qualitative study, we aimed to understand how community and healthcare providers' perceptions and practices around stillbirth influence stillbirth data quality in Afghanistan. We collected data through 55 in-depth interviews with women and men that recently experienced a stillbirth, female elders, community health workers, healthcare providers, and government officials in Kabul province, Afghanistan between October-November 2017. The results showed that at the community-level, there was variation in local terminology and interpretation of stillbirth which did not align with the biomedical categories of stillbirth and miscarriage and could lead to misclassification. Specific birth attendant practices such as avoiding showing mothers their stillborn baby had implications for women's ability to recall skin appearance and determine stillbirth timing; however, parents who did see their baby, had a detailed recollection of these characteristics. Birth attendants also unintentionally misclassified birth outcomes. We found several practices that could potentially reduce under-reporting and misclassification of stillbirth; these included the cultural significance of ascertaining signs of life after birth (which meant families distinguished between stillbirths and early neonatal deaths); the perceived value and social recognition of a stillborn; and openness of families to disclose and discuss stillbirths. At the facility-level, we identified that healthcare provider's practices driven by institutional culture and demands, family pressure, and socio-cultural influences, could contribute to under-reporting or misclassification of stillbirths. Data collection methodologies need to take into consideration the socio-cultural context and investigate thoroughly how perceptions and practices might facilitate or impede stillbirth reporting in order to make progress on data quality improvements for stillbirth.