- Real-World Effectiveness and Tolerability of Tolvaptan in Patients With Heart Failure - Final Results of the Samsca Post-Marketing Surveillance in Heart Failure (SMILE) Study. [Journal Article]
- CJCirc J 2019 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness and safety of tolvaptan in real-world clinical settings was confirmed in this large-scale analysis. The 7.5-mg dose was equally as effective as the 15-mg dose and had a better safety profile. Improvements in all-cause mortality were suggested in tolvaptan responders.
- Differential neuro-immune patterns in two clinically relevant murine models of multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroinflammation 2019 May 22; 16(1):109
- CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings, showing increased concentrations of intrathecally produced Igs, substantial infiltration of ASC, and the presence of B cell supporting chemokines in the CNS of TMEV-IDD mice, but not R-EAE mice, suggest a potentially important role for Igs and ASC in the chronic progressive phase of demyelinating diseases.
- Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated With Zika Virus Infection: A Prospective Case Series From Mexico. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2019; 10:435
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results are similar to those reported from the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in which out of 33 samples of urine of patients with GBS two had a positive RT-PCR for ZIKV. Simultaneous processing of serum, CSF, urine, and saliva by RT-PCR may increase the success of diagnosis of GBS associated to ZIKV.
- Polyradiculoneuropathy in dourine-affected horses. [Journal Article]
- NDNeuromuscul Disord 2019 Mar 18
- Dourine is an equine protozoan disease caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. Dourine-afflicted animals die after developing neurological clinical signs, such as unilateral paresis. The disease has been a…
Dourine is an equine protozoan disease caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. Dourine-afflicted animals die after developing neurological clinical signs, such as unilateral paresis. The disease has been a problem for many years; however, the pathogenesis regarding the neurological clinical signs of dourine has been unclear. In the present study, we conducted a histopathological examination in order to investigate the mechanisms by which dourine-afflicted horses develop the accompanying neurological clinical signs. Four dourine-afflicted horses in Mongolia were evaluated. An apparently healthy horse exhibited multifocal neuritis without axonal or myelin degeneration. The other horses, which had obvious neurological clinical signs, also exhibited multifocal neuritis. In particular, the nerves that innervated areas associated with neurological clinical signs exhibited neuritis with demyelination in the latter horses. Inflamed, non-demyelinating nerves were infiltrated with B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes; while inflamed, demyelinating nerves were infiltrated with mononuclear phagocytes. Our observations revealed lesion progression in the nerves, such that polyradiculoneuropathy could explain the accompanying neurological clinical signs of dourine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a pathogenic mechanism for the development of the neurological clinical signs found in dourine-afflicted horses.
- Relevance of anti-HNK1 antibodies in the management of anti-MAG neuropathies. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol 2019 May 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HNK1 antibodies have good sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of anti-MAG neuropathy. Interestingly, anti-HNK1 titres are related to the disease severity and decrease after rituximab infusions.
- Trichostatin A Promotes the Conversion of Astrocytes to Oligodendrocyte Progenitors in a Defined Culture Medium. [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Pharm Res 2019; 18(1):286-295
- The generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) offers tremendous opportunities for cell replacement therapy in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury…
The generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) offers tremendous opportunities for cell replacement therapy in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury. Recently, the prospect of reprogramming terminally differentiated adult cells towards another mature somatic cell or progenitor cells without an intermediate pluripotent state has been of interest. Trichostatin A is a histone deacetylase inhibitor which opens the chromatin and facilitates the transcription of silence genes. In this study, we have treated human astrocytes line U87 and primary culture of mouse astrocytes with TSA for 12 h, prior their transfer to OPC induction medium. Then we evaluated the morphology and the fate of the treated astrocytes at post-treatment days. Both cell lines acquired OPC morphology and expressed OPC specific markers. Following transfer to differentiation medium, U87-derived iOPCs differentiated to oligodendrocyte like cells and expressed PLP as a mature oligodendrocyte marker. Our results introduced TSA as an inducer for production of OPCs from astrocytes and could be considered a potential way for the treatment of demyelinating diseases.
- Two-way crossed cerebellar diaschisis in a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- QJQ J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2019 May 08
- The term diaschisis refers to a neural dysfunction manifesting in anatomically intact, but functionally related, brain regions distant from a primary lesion. Here we report the diaschisis phenomenon …
The term diaschisis refers to a neural dysfunction manifesting in anatomically intact, but functionally related, brain regions distant from a primary lesion. Here we report the diaschisis phenomenon as a consequence of a first demyelinating event in the middle and superior cerebellar peduncles in both the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere and in the contralateral thalamus and cerebral cortex (two-way crossed cerebellar diaschisis), resulting in the simultaneous disruption of the afferent cortico-ponto- cerebellar pathway and the efferent cerebellar-thalamo-cortical pathway. The use of 18F-FDG-PET could help clarifying in vivo the distant pathophysiological effect of focal lesions in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
- Pediatric onset multiple sclerosis. [Review]
- RNRev Neurol (Paris) 2019 May 11
- Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the commonest among inflammatory demyelinating diseases. While the disease prevalence is high in adults, frequency of pediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is very low …
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the commonest among inflammatory demyelinating diseases. While the disease prevalence is high in adults, frequency of pediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is very low in children and particularities in this population have been identified. We will address in this review characteristics of POMS.
- Seizure and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Encephalomyelitis in a Retrospective Cohort of Chinese Patients. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2019; 10:415
- CONCLUSIONS: Seizures and encephalopathy are not rare in MOG encephalomyelitis, and are commonly associated with cortical and subcortical brain lesions. MOG-encephalomyelitis often presents with clinical meningoencephalitis symptoms and abnormal CSF findings mimicking central nervous system infection in pediatric and young adult patients.
New Search Next
- Novel CMKLR1 Inhibitors for Application in Demyelinating Disease. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 May 09; 9(1):7178
- Small molecules that disrupt leukocyte trafficking have proven effective in treating patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously reported that chemerin receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (CM…
Small molecules that disrupt leukocyte trafficking have proven effective in treating patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously reported that chemerin receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) is required for maximal clinical and histological experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); and identified CMKLR1 small molecule antagonist 2-(α-naphthoyl) ethyltrimethylammonium iodide (α-NETA) that significantly suppressed disease onset in vivo. Here we directly compared α-NETA versus FDA-approved MS drug Tecfidera for clinical efficacy in EAE; characterized key safety/toxicity parameters for α-NETA; identified structure-activity relationships among α-NETA domains and CMKLR1 inhibition; and evaluated improved α-NETA analogs for in vivo efficacy. α-NETA proved safe and superior to Tecfidera in suppressing clinical EAE. In addition, we discovered structurally differentiated α-NETA analogs (primarily ortho- or para-methoxy substitutions) with significantly improved target potency in vitro and improved efficacy in vivo. These findings suggest that α-NETA-based CMKLR1 inhibitors may prove safe and effective in treating demyelinating diseases and potentially other autoimmune disorders.