- Cervical canal stenosis due to cervical spondylotic myelopathy C4-C5: A case report. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Case Rep 2019 Jun 04; 60:82-86
- CONCLUSIONS: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a complex disease that may lead to significant clinical morbidity. The management requires an extensive knowledge of the anatomy, biomechanics, and surgical options. The variable clinical findings, radiological evidence and scoring system, such as JOA, are important for preoperative evaluation and individualising surgical planning. The choice of the most appropriate technique is affected by patient's clinical condition and radiologic findings as well as surgeon's experience. It is demonstrated that the Kurokawa-type laminoplasty that involves splitting the spinous processes in the midline offers the advantage of reduced bleeding as the lateral epidural venous plexus is not disturbed in comparison to that with the former Hirabayashi's expansive open-door laminoplasty. Moreover, the body symmetry is preserved; therefore, this procedure may be considered more anatomical and physiological. However, differences in the outcomes between the two approaches remain unknown.These findings suggest that the decompression and posterior stabilisation method may help achieve good patient outcomes.
- Characterizing Gait Abnormalities in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Neuromuscular Analysis. [Journal Article]
- SJSpine J 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: The onset of muscle activity is not delayed in CSM patients, but many key muscles take longer to fully contract. This produces a situation in which patients with CSM are unable to fully fire their muscles with sufficient speed to maintain a normal gait. The core and lower extremity muscles do not contract with increased peak amplitude in response, but the deltoid and hamstring muscles are more active, suggesting compensatory activity as patients attempt to maintain balance. The end result is less efficient ambulation. These findings provide a more nuanced understanding of gait in individuals suffering from CSM and may have implications on rehabilitation protocols.
- Which NDI Domains Best Predict Change in Physical Function in Patients Undergoing Cervical Spine Surgery? [Journal Article]
- SJSpine J 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: All NDI domains improve significantly after cervical spine surgery and demonstrate significant correlation with changes in PROMIS PF and SF-36 PCS. The work, recreation, and pain intensity domains were the only independent predictors of physical function changes postoperatively. Considering physical function, our findings highlight the importance of presenting changes in individual NDI domains in addition to the total score.
- Flagellin hypervariable region determines symbiotic properties of commensal Escherichia coli strains. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2019 Jun 17; 17(6):e3000334
- Escherichia coli represents a classical intestinal gram-negative commensal. Despite this commensalism, different E. coli strains can mediate disparate immunogenic properties in a given host. Symbioti…
Escherichia coli represents a classical intestinal gram-negative commensal. Despite this commensalism, different E. coli strains can mediate disparate immunogenic properties in a given host. Symbiotic E. coli strains such as E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are attributed beneficial properties, e.g., promotion of intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, we aimed to identify molecular features derived from symbiotic bacteria that might help to develop innovative therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of intestinal immune disorders. This study was performed using the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, which is routinely used to evaluate potential therapeutics for the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). We focused on the analysis of flagellin structures of different E. coli strains. EcN flagellin was found to harbor a substantially longer hypervariable region (HVR) compared to other commensal E. coli strains, and this longer HVR mediated symbiotic properties through stronger activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)5, thereby resulting in interleukin (IL)-22-mediated protection of mice against DSS-induced colitis. Furthermore, using bone-marrow-chimeric mice (BMCM), CD11c+ cells of the colonic lamina propria (LP) were identified as the main mediators of these flagellin-induced symbiotic effects. We propose flagellin from symbiotic E. coli strains as a potential therapeutic to restore intestinal immune homeostasis, e.g., for the treatment of IBD patients.
- Cervical Laminectomy With or Without Lateral Mass Instrumentation: A Comparison of Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- CSClin Spine Surg 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: In carefully selected patients with normal preoperative cervical sagittal alignment, stand-alone cervical laminectomy may offer acceptably low rates of postoperative kyphosis. In patients with preoperative loss of cervical lordosis and/or kyphosis, posterior fusion is recommended to reduce the risk of progression to postoperative kyphotic deformity, bearing in mind that radiologic evidence of kyphosis may not necessarily correlate with poorer clinical outcomes. Furthermore, the specific risks associated with posterior fusion (instrumentation failure, pseudarthrosis, infection, C5 nerve root palsy, and vertebral artery injury) need to be considered and weighed up against potential benefits.
- Type 2 Inflammatory Responses in Autoimmune Demyelination of the Central Nervous System: Recent Advances. [Review]
- JIJ Immunol Res 2019; 2019:4204512
- Type 2 immunity has long been confined to a restricted spectrum of responses, mostly including allergic reactions to innocuous environmental triggers. However, growing evidence suggests that cells an…
Type 2 immunity has long been confined to a restricted spectrum of responses, mostly including allergic reactions to innocuous environmental triggers. However, growing evidence suggests that cells and mediators typically associated with type 2 inflammation are involved in several physiopathological conditions, such as defense against toxic substances, anticancer immunity, and autoimmune diseases. In neuromyelitis optica, an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the spinal cord and optic nerve, eosinophils extensively infiltrate lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) and promote tissue pathology in experimental models of this disease. Next-generation sequencing of CD4+ T cells isolated from a specific subtype of multiple sclerosis plaque has uncovered an unexpectedly Th2 profile of these cells. Even mast cells and other allergic mediators have been implicated in the modulation and/or effector mechanisms of autoimmune reactions against the CNS. In this review article, the most recent developments showing the involvement of type 2 inflammatory components in CNS autoimmunity are summarised and possible lines of further investigation are discussed.
- Generation of Retinal Pigmented Epithelium-Like Cells from Pigmented Spheres Differentiated from Bone Marrow Stromal Cell-Derived Neurospheres. [Journal Article]
- TETissue Eng Regen Med 2019; 16(3):253-263
- CONCLUSIONS: Bone marrow stromal stem cells can differentiate into functional retinal pigmented epithelium cells in a simple, low-cost, high-performance manner over a short period of time. These cells due to expressing the RPELC genes and markers can be used in cell replacement therapy for degenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration as well as retinitis pigmentosa.
- Treatment of Mild Cervical Myelopathy: Factors Associated with Decision for Surgical Intervention. [Journal Article]
- SSpine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated surgically for mild cervical myelopathy did not differ from those treated non-operatively with respect to baseline demographic or radiographic parameters. Patients with worse EQ5D scores had higher odds of surgical intervention.
- Factors Associated With Return-to-Work Following Cervical Spine Surgery in Non-Worker's Compensation Setting. [Journal Article]
- SSpine (Phila Pa 1976) 2019 Jul 01; 44(13):903-907
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies the various factors associated with a lower likelihood of RTW at 3 months after cervical spine surgery in the non-worker's compensation setting. This information provides expectations for the patient and employer when undergoing cervical spine surgery.
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- More friend than foe: the emerging role of neutrophils in tissue repair. [Review]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2019 Jun 17; 130
- Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in humans and serve as first responders to a myriad of host perturbations. Equipped with a plethora of antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils invade sites…
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in humans and serve as first responders to a myriad of host perturbations. Equipped with a plethora of antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils invade sites of inflammation to eradicate pathogens and clear debris. Traditionally, neutrophils were thought to cause collateral tissue damage before dying at the site. However, the presence of neutrophil infiltration into sterile injuries (in the absence of infections) suggests additional roles for these cells. Now, the view of neutrophils as indiscriminate killers seems to be changing as evolving evidence suggests that neutrophils actively orchestrate resolution of inflammation and contribute to tissue repair. Novel concepts include the idea that neutrophils are key to revascularization and subsequently reverse-transmigrate back to the vasculature, actively leaving sites of tissue damage to re-home to functional niches in the lung and bone marrow. This Review scrutinizes the role of neutrophils in tissue damage and repair, discussing recent findings and raising unresolved questions around this intriguing immune cell.