- Terminologia Histologica after more than 10 years: disputable terms which need a wide scientific discussion and recent developments. [Journal Article]
- AAAnn Anat 2019 Jul 19
- At first sight, the issue of morphological terminology may seem as "closed and changeless chapter", as many of the structures within the human body have been known for decades or even centuries. Howe…
At first sight, the issue of morphological terminology may seem as "closed and changeless chapter", as many of the structures within the human body have been known for decades or even centuries. However, the exact opposite is true. The initial knowledge of the microscopic structure of the human body has been continuously broadening thanks to the development of new specialized staining techniques, discovery of the electron microscope, or later application of histochemical and immunohistochemical methods into routine tissue examination. Contrary to popular belief, histology has a status of constantly developing scientific discipline, with continuous influx of new knowledge, resulting in an unavoidable necessity to revise the histological nomenclature at regular intervals. The team of experts of the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminology, a working group of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, published in 2008 the First Edition of Terminologia Histologica. Terminologia Histologica (TH) is the best and most extensive of all the histological nomenclatures ever issued, however several terms of important histological structures are missing and on the other side, other disputable terms are present. In this article we have summarized some clinically important, but forgotten cells and tissue structure in TH (e.g., telocytes, myoid cells, laryngeal space of Reinke, lymphatic lacunae of tubal mucosa, or epicardial adipose tissue). The second part of this article is focused on those new terms listed in the current edition of the TH, which are not mentioned in current textbooks of histology (e.g., fusocellular connective tissue, bundle bone as the third type of bone tissue, spongy layer of vagina or arteria vaginata from the splenic white pulp). Without proper definition and examples of their occurrence, they will be used neither in histological practice nor in human histology teaching. We hope that a wide scientific discussion will develop before the publication of the second edition, so perhaps the mentioned minor flaws will be corrected, and the new edition of the Terminologia Histologica will truly become an internationally accepted communication tool for all histologists.
- Retinal findings in pediatric patients with Usher syndrome Type 1 due to mutations in MYO7A gene. [Journal Article]
- EEye (Lond) 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the physiopathologic basis of early-stage Usher syndrome (USH) may be changes in the outer retinal layer, particularly the photoreceptors, which in turn may cause alterations-such as CMO-in the inner retinal layers. Accordingly, monitoring the condition of photoreceptors during follow-up may be advisable for the early detection of pathologic changes.
- Glomangiopericytoma-type glomus tumour/myopericytoma of the lip. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2019 Jul 05
- We describe the case of a 46-year-old man who presented with a four-month history of a reddish, otherwise asymptomatic, nodular lesion that involved the mucosal side of the upper lip. The lesion cons…
We describe the case of a 46-year-old man who presented with a four-month history of a reddish, otherwise asymptomatic, nodular lesion that involved the mucosal side of the upper lip. The lesion consisted of myoid glomus-like cells arranged around branching and thin-walled haemangiopericytoma-like vascular structures, and was classified as glomangiopericytoma. No recurrences occurred during an eight-month follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this tumour has never previously been described in the mucosa of the lip.
- Photoreceptor Degeneration is Correlated With the Deterioration of Macular Retinal Sensitivity in High Myopia. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Jul 01; 60(8):2800-2810
- CONCLUSIONS: Altered cone distribution and outer retinal thickness, especially cone density and MEZ thickness, were significantly correlated with decline of MLS in HM, which may help to evaluate and monitor visual impairment in HM.
- First pancreatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) treated by mTOR inhibitor. [Journal Article]
- PPancreatology 2019; 19(4):566-568
- CONCLUSIONS: This first case of pancreatic PEComa treated by mTOR inhibitor without surgery suggests a good efficiency of this therapy.
- Visual Acuity in Pathological Myopia Is Correlated With the Photoreceptor Myoid and Ellipsoid Zone Thickness and Affected by Choroid Thickness. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Apr 01; 60(5):1714-1723
- CONCLUSIONS: Outer retinal alterations, especially thinning of the MEZ, occurred in pathological myopia. The MEZ thickness was associated with BCVA, and this relationship was affected by choroidal thickness.
- The roles and mechanisms of Leydig cells and myoid cells in regulating spermatogenesis. [Review]
- CMCell Mol Life Sci 2019; 76(14):2681-2695
- Spermatogenesis is fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of male reproduction, whereas its abnormality results in male infertility. Somatic cells, including Leydig cells, myoid cells, and …
Spermatogenesis is fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of male reproduction, whereas its abnormality results in male infertility. Somatic cells, including Leydig cells, myoid cells, and Sertoli cells, constitute the microenvironment or the niche of testis, which is essential for regulating normal spermatogenesis. Leydig cells are an important component of the testicular stroma, while peritubular myoid cells are one of the major cell types of seminiferous tubules. Here we addressed the roles and mechanisms of Leydig cells and myoid cells in the regulation of spermatogenesis. Specifically, we summarized the biological features of Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells, and we introduced the process of testosterone production and its major regulation. We also discussed other hormones, cytokines, growth factors, transcription factors and receptors associated with Leydig cells and myoid cells in mediating spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we highlighted the issues that are worthy of further studies in the regulation of spermatogenesis by Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells. This review would provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms of the somatic cells in controlling spermatogenesis, and it could offer new targets for developing therapeutic approaches of male infertility.
- Formation of organotypic testicular organoids in microwell culture†. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2019 Jun 01; 100(6):1648-1660
- Three-dimensional (3D) organoids can serve as an in vitro platform to study cell-cell interactions, tissue development, and toxicology. Development of organoids with tissue architecture similar to te…
Three-dimensional (3D) organoids can serve as an in vitro platform to study cell-cell interactions, tissue development, and toxicology. Development of organoids with tissue architecture similar to testis in vivo has remained a challenge. Here, we present a microwell aggregation approach to establish multicellular 3D testicular organoids from pig, mouse, macaque, and human. The organoids consist of germ cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular myoid cells forming a distinct seminiferous epithelium and interstitial compartment separated by a basement membrane. Sertoli cells in the organoids express tight junction proteins claudin 11 and occludin. Germ cells in organoids showed an attenuated response to retinoic acid compared to germ cells in 2D culture indicating that the tissue architecture of the organoid modulates response to retinoic acid similar to in vivo. Germ cells maintaining physiological cell-cell interactions in organoids also had lower levels of autophagy indicating lower levels of cellular stress. When organoids were treated with mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), levels of germ cell autophagy increased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the utility of the organoids for toxicity screening. Ablation of primary cilia on testicular somatic cells inhibited the formation of organoids demonstrating an application to screen for factors affecting testicular morphogenesis. Organoids can be generated from cryopreserved testis cells and preserved by vitrification. Taken together, the testicular organoid system recapitulates the 3D organization of the mammalian testis and provides an in vitro platform for studying germ cell function, testicular development, and drug toxicity in a cellular context representative of the testis in vivo.
- Immunohistochemical examination using the pericyte marker myosin 1B in a perivascular myoid tumor of soft tissue with definitive pericytic differentiation. [Letter]
- PIPathol Int 2019; 69(4):246-248
New Search Next
- Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma: A clinicopathologic study. [Journal Article]
- PRPathol Res Pract 2019; 215(5):983-987
- Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma (SNGP) is a neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that shows perivascular myoid differentiation. The diagnosis of SNGP may be diagnostically challen…
Sinonasal glomangiopericytoma (SNGP) is a neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that shows perivascular myoid differentiation. The diagnosis of SNGP may be diagnostically challenging due to a large number of potential mimics. In the present study, we sought to characterize the histological and molecular features of six cases of SNGP found in prior surgical pathology records over a 15-year period. The average age at diagnosis was 48.5 years (range: 31-78 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Imaging studies in all six cases demonstrated avidly enhancing, lobulated soft tissue masses in the nasal cavity, extending into the sinuses and nasopharynx. Histologically, the tumors were unencapsulated and composed of a proliferation of closely packed, bland, and uniform spindle cells growing deep to an intact surface respiratory epithelium. The cells were separated by a distinctive vascular network ranging from capillaries to large vascular spaces. All cases demonstrated strong positivity for smooth muscle actin, cyclin D1, CD99, and β-catenin (100%). Targeted sequencing revealed recurrent CTNNB1 missense mutations in all cases tested. Additionally, TLE1 was positive in all cases which has not been previously reported. No tested cases harbored SS18 translocations. We found that while no single marker resolves immunohistochemical overlap between SNGP and its histologic mimics, an extended immunohistochemical panel that includes β-catenin, cyclin D1, STAT6, smooth muscle actin, pan-cytokeratin cocktails, S100, and SOX10 helps to support the diagnosis of SNGP in diagnostically challenging cases without the need for molecular studies.