- Proteomic signatures of brain regions affected by tau pathology in early and late stages of Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- NDNeurobiol Dis 2019 Jun 14; :104509
- CONCLUSIONS: This work provides the comparison of proteomic changes in brain regions affected by tau pathology at different stages of AD. Although we identified commonly regulated proteins and pathways during disease advancement, we found that the dysregulated processes are predominantly region specific. In addition, a distinct proteomic signature was found between MTL and neocortex in healthy subjects that might be related to AD vulnerability. These findings highlight the need for investigating AD's cascade of events throughout the whole brain and studies spanning more brain areas are required to better understand AD etiology and region vulnerability to disease.
- Exploring associations of maternal sleep during periconceptional period with congenital heart disease in offspring. [Journal Article]
- BDBirth Defects Res 2019 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Poor maternal sleep around periconceptional period seems to be an independent risk factor for CHD. The concurrence with daytime nap could to some extent reduce the risk in simple CHD. The results individually and collectively put forward the importance of maternal sleep in embryonic heart development.
- A Unique Partnership Between the University of Hawai'i Cancer Center and the University of Guam: Fifteen Years of Addressing Cancer Health Disparities in Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i and Guam. [Journal Article]
- HJHawaii J Med Public Health 2019; 78(6):205-207
- This manuscript describes the efforts in research, education, and outreach of a unique partnership between the University of Hawai'i Cancer Center and the University of Guam in addressing cancer heal…
This manuscript describes the efforts in research, education, and outreach of a unique partnership between the University of Hawai'i Cancer Center and the University of Guam in addressing cancer health disparities faced by Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i, Guam, and other parts of Micronesia. Significant accomplishments of this 15-year collaboration in research, training Micronesian students, and impact on the local communities are highlighted.
- Comparative analysis of confocal microscopy on fresh breast core needle biopsies and conventional histology. [Journal Article]
- DPDiagn Pathol 2019 Jun 15; 14(1):58
- CONCLUSIONS: As a reliable on-site method, the Histolog™ Scanner provides a visualization of cellular details equivalent to the H&E standards, permitting rapid and accurate diagnosis of malignant and benign breast lesions. Furthermore, this device offers great potential for immediate margin analysis of specimen in breast conserving therapy.
- Disinfection of water and wastewater by biosynthesized magnetite and zerovalent iron nanoparticles via NAP-NAR enzymes of Proteus mirabilis 10B. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 15
- Disinfection of water and wastewater strongly contributes to solving the problem of water shortage in arid/semi-arid areas; cheap and ecofriendly approaches have to be used to meet water quality stan…
Disinfection of water and wastewater strongly contributes to solving the problem of water shortage in arid/semi-arid areas; cheap and ecofriendly approaches have to be used to meet water quality standards. In the present study, a green synthesis of iron nanoparticles (INPs) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions via nitrate reductases (NAP/NAR) enzymes produced by Proteus mirabilis strain 10B were employed for this target. The biosynthesized INPs were characterized; UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed surface plasmon resonance at 410 (aerobic) and 265 nm (anaerobic). XRD indicated crystalline magnetite ((MNPs) aerobically synthesized) and zerovalent INPs (ZVINPs anaerobically synthesized). EDX demonstrated strong iron signal with atomic percentages 73.3% (MNPs) and 61.7% (ZVINPs). TEM micrographs illustrated tiny, spherical, periplasmic MNPs (1.44-1.92 nm) and cytoplasmic ZVINPs with 11.7-60.8 nm. Zeta potential recorded - 31.8 mV (ZVINPs) and - 66.4 mV (MNPs) affirming colloidal stability. Moreover, the disinfection power of INPs was evaluated for standards organisms and real water (fresh, sea and salt mine) and wastewater (municipal, agricultural and industrial) samples. The results reported that INPs displayed higher antagonistic effect than iron precursor, 700 and 850 μg/mL of MNPs and ZVINPs, respectively, was sufficient to show a drastic algicidal effect on algal growth. Both types of INPs demonstrated obvious dose-dependent antibiofilm efficiency. Due to their smaller size, MNPs were more efficient than ZVINPs at the suppression of microbial growth in all examined water samples. Overall, MNPs showed superior antagonistic activity, which promotes their exploitation in enhancing water/wastewater quality.
- Assessment and comparison of sleep patterns among medical and non-medical undergraduates of Karachi: A cross-sectional study - SPECIAL REPORT. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pak Med Assoc 2019; 69(6):917-921
- To assess and compare patterns, habits and quality of sleep in undergraduate medical and non-medical students. The cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2018, at Dow Medical Col…
To assess and compare patterns, habits and quality of sleep in undergraduate medical and non-medical students. The cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2018, at Dow Medical College, Karachi, and Pakistan Air Force-Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology. Data was collected by self-reported questionnaires. Sleep quality of individuals was assessed using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. Of the 245 subjects, 137(55%) were medical students and 108(45%) were non-medical. Overall, 101(41.2%) subjects aid 8 hours of sleep was sufficient for them; 153(62.4%) reported daytime sleeping; and 168(68.5%) did not take naps. The duration of nap was >30 minutes in 118(48%) students. Factors affecting sleep were cited as electronic media 132(53.9%), caffeine 42(17.1%) and stress 126(51.4%). Of the total, 161(65.7%) subjects had poor sleep quality. There was no significant difference between medical and non-medical students (p>0.05). Majority of medical and non-medical undergraduate students were poor sleepers.
- Social Jetlag and Chronotypes in the Chinese Population: Analysis of Data Recorded by Wearable Devices. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Internet Res 2019 May 11; 21(6):e13482
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a higher proportion of early compared to late chronotypes in Chinese. Chinese have less SJL than the results reported in European populations, and more than half of the early chronotypes have negative SJL. In the Chinese population, SJL is not associated with body mass index. People of later chronotypes and long sleepers suffer more from SJL.
- Therapeutic Protection Against H. pylori Infection in Mongolian Gerbils by Oral Immunization With a Tetravalent Epitope-Based Vaccine With Polysaccharide Adjuvant. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2019; 10:1185
- Urease is an effective target for design of a therapeutic epitope vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In our previous studies, an epitope vaccine CTB-UE containing Th and B epitopes from…
Urease is an effective target for design of a therapeutic epitope vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In our previous studies, an epitope vaccine CTB-UE containing Th and B epitopes from H. pylori urease was constructed, and the CTB-UE vaccine could provide therapeutic effect on H. pylori infection in mice. However, a multivalent vaccine, combining different antigens participating in different aspects of H. pylori colonization and pathogenesis, may be more effective as a therapeutic vaccine than a univalent vaccine targetting urease. Therefore, a multivalent epitope vaccine FVpE, containing Th1-type immune adjuvant NAP, three selected functional fragments from CagA and VacA, and an urease multi-epitope peptide (UE) from CTB-UE, was constructed in this study and expected to obtain better sterilizing immunity than the univalent epitope vaccine CTB-UE. The therapeutic effect of multivalent epitope vaccine FVpE with polysaccharide adjuvant (PA) was evaluated in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbil model. The results showed that both FvpE and CTB-UE vaccine could induce similar levels of specific antibodies against H. pylori urease, and had similar inhibition effect on H. pylori urease activity. However, only FVpE could induce high levels of specific antibodies to CagA, VacA, and NAP. In addition, oral therapeutic immunization with FVpE plus PA significantly reduced the number of H. pylori colonies in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils compared with oral immunization with CTB-UE plus PA, or FVpE only, and the FVpE vaccine with PA even exhibited sterilizing immunity. The protection of FVpE was related to the mixed CD4+ T cell responses and epitope-specific antibodies against various H. pylori antigens. These results indicate that a multivalent epitope vaccine targetting various H. pylori antigens could be a promising candidate against H. pylori infection.
- "Candidatus Accumulibacter delftensis": A clade IC novel polyphosphate-accumulating organism without denitrifying activity on nitrate. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2019 Jun 02; 161:136-151
- Populations of "Candidatus Accumulibacter", a known polyphosphate-accumulating organism, within clade IC have been proposed to perform anoxic P-uptake activity in enhanced biological phosphorus remov…
Populations of "Candidatus Accumulibacter", a known polyphosphate-accumulating organism, within clade IC have been proposed to perform anoxic P-uptake activity in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems using nitrate as electron acceptor. However, no consensus has been reached on the ability of "Ca. Accumulibacter" members of clade IC to reduce nitrate to nitrite. Discrepancies might relate to the diverse operational conditions which could trigger the expression of the Nap and/or Nar enzyme and/or to the accuracy in clade classification. This study aimed to assess whether and how certain operational conditions could lead to the enrichment and enhance the denitrification capacity of "Ca. Accumulibacter" within clade IC. To study the potential induction of the denitrifying enzyme, an EBPR culture was enriched under anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) conditions that, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and ppk gene sequencing, was composed of around 97% (on a biovolume basis) of affiliates of "Ca. Accumulibacter" clade IC. The influence of the medium composition, sludge retention time (SRT), polyphosphate content of the biomass (poly-P), nitrate dosing approach, and minimal aerobic SRT on potential nitrate reduction were studied. Despite the different studied conditions applied, only a negligible anoxic P-uptake rate was observed, equivalent to maximum 13% of the aerobic P-uptake rate. An increase in the anoxic SRT at the expenses of the aerobic SRT resulted in deterioration of P-removal with limited aerobic P-uptake and insufficient acetate uptake in the anaerobic phase. A near-complete genome (completeness = 100%, contamination = 0.187%) was extracted from the metagenome of the EBPR biomass for the here-proposed "Ca. Accumulibacter delftensis" clade IC. According to full-genome-based phylogenetic analysis, this lineage was distant from the canonical "Ca. Accumulibacter phosphatis", with closest neighbor "Ca. Accumulibacter sp. UW-LDO-IC" within clade IC. This was cross-validated with taxonomic classification of the ppk1 gene sequences. The genome-centric metagenomic analysis highlighted the presence of genes for assimilatory nitrate reductase (nas) and periplasmic nitrate reductase (nap) but no gene for respiratory nitrate reductases (nar). This suggests that "Ca. Accumulibacter delftensis" clade IC was not capable to generate the required energy (ATP) from nitrate under strict anaerobic-anoxic conditions to support an anoxic EBPR metabolism. Definitely, this study stresses the incongruence in denitrification abilities of "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades and reflects the true intra-clade diversity, which requires a thorough investigation within this lineage.
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- Possible mechanisms of polyphosphate-induced amyloid fibril formation of β2-microglobulin. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jun 10
- Polyphosphate (polyP), which is found in various microorganisms and human cells, is an anionic biopolymer consisting of inorganic phosphates linked by high-energy phosphate bonds. Previous studies re…
Polyphosphate (polyP), which is found in various microorganisms and human cells, is an anionic biopolymer consisting of inorganic phosphates linked by high-energy phosphate bonds. Previous studies revealed that polyPs strongly promoted the amyloid formation of several amyloidogenic proteins; however, the mechanism of polyP-induced amyloid formation remains unclear. In the present study using β2-microglobulin (β2m), a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, we investigated amyloid formation in the presence of various chain lengths of polyPs at different concentrations under both acidic (pH 2.0 to 2.5) and neutral pH (pH 7.0 to 7.5) conditions. We found that the amyloid formation of β2m at acidic pH was significantly accelerated by the addition of polyPs at an optimal polyP concentration, which decreased with an increase in chain length. The results obtained indicated that electrostatic interactions between positively charged β2m and negatively charged polyPs play a major role in amyloid formation. Under neutral pH conditions, long polyP with 60 to 70 phosphates induced the amyloid formation of β2m at several micromoles per liter, a similar concentration range to that in vivo. Since β2m with an isoelectric point of 6.4 has a slightly negative net charge at pH 7, polyPs were unlikely to interact with β2m electrostatically. PolyPs appear to dehydrate water molecules around β2m under the unfolded conformation, leading to the preferential stabilization of less water-exposed amyloid fibrils. These results not only revealed the pH-dependent mechanism of the amyloid formation of β2m but also suggested that polyPs play an important role in the development of dialysis-related amyloidosis.