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32 results
  • Formation of the initial kidney and mouth opening in larval amphioxus studied with serial blockface scanning electron microscopy (SBSEM). [Journal Article]
    Evodevo 2018; 9:16Holland ND
  • CONCLUSIONS: SBSEM has provided the most accurate and detailed description to date of the tissues at the anterior end of amphioxus larvae. The present study supports the finding of Kaji et al. (2016) that the more dorsal of the cells in the posterior region of the first left somite give rise to the initial kidney. In contrast, the fate of the more ventral cells (called here the oral mesoderm) is less well understood. Although Kaji et al. (2016) implied that all of the oral mesoderm cells joined the rim of the forming mouth, SBSEM reveals that many of them are still present after mouth penetration. Even so, some of those cells go missing during mouth penetration and their fate is unknown. It cannot be ruled out that they were incorporated into the rim of the nascent mouth as proposed by Kaji et al. (2016). On the other hand, they might have degenerated or been shed from the larva during the morphogenetic interaction between the ectoderm and endoderm to form the mouth. The present SBSEM study, like Kaji et al. (2016), is based on static morphological data, and dynamic cell tracer experiments would be needed to decide among these possibilities.
  • The long and winding path to understanding kidney structure in amphioxus - a review. [Review]
    Int J Dev Biol 2017; 61(10-11-12):683-688Holland ND
  • The history of studies on amphioxus kidney morphology is reviewed with special attention to four zoologists who made important early contributions. In 1884, Hatschek described a single anterior nephridial tubule in larval and adult amphioxus. Subsequently, in 1890, Weiss and Boveri independently found multiple branchial nephridia (morphologically similar to Hatschek's nephridium) associated with …
  • Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion. [Journal Article]
    Zoological Lett 2016; 2:2Kaji T, Reimer JD, … Yasui K
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.
  • The nephridial hypothesis of the gill slit origin. [Journal Article]
    J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2015; 324(8):647-52Ezhova OV, Malakhov VV
  • Metameric gill slits are mysterious structures, unique for Chordata and Hemichordata, and also, perhaps, for the extinct Cambrian Calcichordata. There is a discussed hypothesis of the gill slits origin from the metameric nephridia. According to the hypothesis, the hypothetical metameric deuterostome ancestor had in each segment a pair of coelomoducts and a pair of intestinal pockets. In the anter…
  • Effects of environmental factors on sperm motility and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. [Journal Article]
    Acta Biol Hung 2014; 65(3):274-84Sheng Z, Jiang JH, … Zhu JQ
  • The study investigated the effects of environmental factors (salinity, pH, ions and activation media) on sperm motility (activation rate, duration of quick movement, and lifespan) and fertilization rate of Phascolosoma esculenta. The results showed that spermatozoa in the coelom and nephridium are able to move quickly. The optimal salinity was 14.64 to 43.35 and the optimal pH was 6.46 to 9.53 fo…
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