- Imaging the renal mass: a historical review. [Historical Article]
- RRadiology 2014; 273(2 Suppl):S126-41
- A matter of months after Roentgen's landmark discovery in 1895, Roentgen's rays were focused on diseases and disorders of the urinary tract, specifically the kidney. At the dawn of the 20th century, …
A matter of months after Roentgen's landmark discovery in 1895, Roentgen's rays were focused on diseases and disorders of the urinary tract, specifically the kidney. At the dawn of the 20th century, urologists in the United States and around the world quickly recognized that by using a variety of metal stylets and radiopaque contrast agents, such as silver salts, the upper urinary tract, namely the ureter, pelvis, and calyces, could be depicted with radiography. Renal cysts and tumors were diagnosed on the basis of deformities in the kidney. Retrograde pyelography dominated the imaging evaluation of the kidney until the discovery of a safe intravenous method for urinary tract imaging (ie, intravenous pyelography). Pioneers and pathfinders in the field of contrast media development and radiologic procedures helped give radiologists the lead role in the work-up of renal masses, an area where urologists once held forth. The subspecialty of uroradiology was born in the middle of the 20th century. Intravenous urography, nephrotomography, and diagnostic angiography with pharmacologic manipulation followed by cyst or mass puncture and biopsy yielded unrivaled specificity for the diagnosis and staging of benign and malignant renal masses. The advent of cross-sectional and multiplanar imaging and the profound effects they had and continue to have on the discovery and characterization of renal masses has been detailed in the pages of Radiology since the 1920s. Ultrasonography, nuclear imaging, computed tomographic scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography each have made a claim to a part of the imaging algorithm of modern uroradiologic practice.
- Patient radiation dose at CT urography and conventional urography. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 2004; 232(1):126-32
- CONCLUSIONS: Standard protocol for CT urography led to higher mean effective dose, approximately 1.5 times the radiation risk for conventional urography. Patient dose estimates should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.
- Is there a learning curve in diagnosing urolithiasis with noncontrast helical computed tomography? [Journal Article]
- CACan Assoc Radiol J 2000; 51(3):177-81
- CONCLUSIONS: HCT offers excellent, rapid diagnostic accuracy without the need for intravenous contrast medium and with a lower radiation exposure level than IVP in evaluating patients with acute flank pain. There is a small but real learning curve in evaluating patients with acute flank pain with HCT.
- Accuracy of detection and measurement of renal calculi: in vitro comparison of three-dimensional spiral CT, radiography, and nephrotomography. [Journal Article]
- RRadiology 1997; 204(1):19-25
- CONCLUSIONS: 3D spiral CT enabled highly accurate determination of the volumes and all three linear dimensions of renal calculi. In addition, 3D spiral CT depicted calculi more sensitively than traditional techniques and provided new information and improved accuracy in the evaluation of nephrolithiasis.
- Locating the kidneys on CT to guide nephrotomography. [Journal Article]
- RTRadiol Technol 1997 Mar-Apr; 68(4):329-31
- Tomography of the kidneys is a routine procedure performed during intravenous urography. Precisely locating the kidneys, however, can be difficult. This article describes a study performed to determi…
Tomography of the kidneys is a routine procedure performed during intravenous urography. Precisely locating the kidneys, however, can be difficult. This article describes a study performed to determine a simple and accurate measurement for kidney location as a guide to obtaining initial nephrotomographic sections. The authors measured the distance from the midplane of the kidney to the posterior skin line on abdominal CT images in 26 patients. This distance averaged one-third the thickness of the abdominal region. The best depth for the nephrotomographic cut was found to be one-third the thickness of the abdomen plus the thickness of any table pad.
- Radiographic prognostic criteria for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: a study of 485 patients. [Journal Article]
- UUrology 1996; 48(4):556-60; discussion 560-1
- CONCLUSIONS: We propose that patients with dense, smooth calculi located in the lower calyx and larger than 15 mm be treated by other techniques, such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This would not only increase the ESWL effectiveness rate, but would also reduce the cost of treating kidney stones.
- Nephrotomography as a routine part of the excretory urogram. [Letter]
- AAAJR Am J Roentgenol 1995; 165(2):491
- Nephrotomography as a routine part of excretory urogram. [Journal Article]
- AAAJR Am J Roentgenol 1994; 163(4):989
- Intravenous pyelography in penetrating trauma. [Journal Article]
- ASAm Surg 1994; 60(6):384-6
- Intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) are routinely used in the workup of suspected urologic injuries. The indications for obtaining IVPs have not been well characterized. This study examined 67 patients wit…
Intravenous pyelograms (IVPs) are routinely used in the workup of suspected urologic injuries. The indications for obtaining IVPs have not been well characterized. This study examined 67 patients with penetrating trauma who received formal IVPs with nephrotomography in the radiology department. Of 35 stab wounds, 19 patients presented without hematuria and accounted for only one positive IVP. No intervention was undertaken in this patient. There were 14 stab wound patients with microscopic hematuria, with three positive IVPs. No intervention was necessary in any of these patients. The two remaining stab wound patients both had gross hematuria and renal injuries requiring intervention. However, only one of the two had a positive IVP, showing a blurred kidney margin. One patient had a pseudoaneurysm of a branch of the renal artery, and the other had an arteriovenous fistula. Of 32 patients with gunshot wounds, 15 presented without hematuria. Of the 15, one had a positive IVP but did not have a renal injury on exploration. None of the other 13 patients in this group undergoing exploration had renal injuries. Of the 11 patients with microscopic hematuria, three had hematomas and one had gross extravasation on IVP. Of the six patients with gross hematuria, three had positive IVPs, showing a hematoma, a renal fracture, and indistinct renal outline, respectively. In this limited study, omitting IVPs on the patients with negative urinalyses would not have missed any significant injuries. We suggest that more study is needed in this area because our present standard may lead to unnecessary expense and delay.
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- [The imaging diagnosis of adrenal tumors]. [Journal Article]
- AEArch Esp Urol 1992; 45(4):331-9
- From 1967 to 1991 we have diagnosed and treated 73 adrenal tumors in 63 patients: 12 pheochromocytomas, 24 adrenal cortical adenomas, 15 hyperplasias, 16 carcinomas, 3 myelolipomas, 2 cysts and 1 neu…
From 1967 to 1991 we have diagnosed and treated 73 adrenal tumors in 63 patients: 12 pheochromocytomas, 24 adrenal cortical adenomas, 15 hyperplasias, 16 carcinomas, 3 myelolipomas, 2 cysts and 1 neuroblastoma. We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the preoperative images obtained by different diagnostic techniques and attempted to correlate tumor size and site with the results of the histological analysis of the surgical specimen. Nephrotomography with pneumoretroperitoneum and IV Nephrotomography were useful in detecting the increase of the size of the gland in 10 of 25 cases submitted to these procedures (40%). Arteriography as second or third technique of choice confirmed the presence of an adrenal tumor in 15 of the 21 cases evaluated by this procedure (70%). US and CT detected 94% (31/33) and 100% (33/33) of the cases, respectively. Fourteen cases were incidentally discovered by CT (7) and US (7). A direct relationship between tumor size and degree of malignancy could be established since the carcinomas had a mean diameter of 7 cm (range 5 to 12 cm). Concerning the histologic nature of the disease, specific images were found in 3 cases of adrenal myelolipoma (hyperechoic on US and of low density similar to fat on CT) and 2 cysts (anechoic with posterior band evidenced on us and liquid on CT). Radioisotopes were also utilized for tumor localization and there was positive uptake of I-131-IMBG in 2 cases of adrenal pheochromocytoma; 1 extra-adrenal (left lateral aortic paraganglioma) and 1 case of malignant adrenal pheochromocytoma with metastasis to the lungs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)