- Integration of diffraction phase microscopy and Raman imaging for label-free morpho-molecular assessment of live cells. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biophotonics 2019; 12(4):e201800291
- Label-free quantitative imaging is highly desirable for studying live cells by extracting pathophysiological information without perturbing cell functions. Here, we demonstrate a novel label-free mul…
Label-free quantitative imaging is highly desirable for studying live cells by extracting pathophysiological information without perturbing cell functions. Here, we demonstrate a novel label-free multimodal optical imaging system with the capability of providing comprehensive morphological and molecular attributes of live cells. Our morpho-molecular microscopy (3M) system draws on the combined strength of quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) and Raman microscopy to probe the morphological features and molecular fingerprinting characteristics of each cell under observation. While the commonr-path geometry of our QPM system allows for highly sensitive phase measurement, the Raman microscopy is equipped with dual excitation wavelengths and utilizes the same detection and dispersion system, making it a distinctive multi-wavelength system with a small footprint. We demonstrate the applicability of the 3M system by investigating nucleated and nonnucleated cells. This integrated label-free platform has a promising potential in preclinical research, as well as in clinical diagnosis in the near future.
- Assessment of Cell Viability with Single-, Dual-, and Multi-Staining Methods Using Image Cytometry. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2017; 1601:27-41
- The ability to accurately measure cell viability is important for any cell-based assay. Traditionally, viability measurements have been performed using the trypan blue exclusion method on a hemacytom…
The ability to accurately measure cell viability is important for any cell-based assay. Traditionally, viability measurements have been performed using the trypan blue exclusion method on a hemacytometer, which allows researchers to visually distinguish viable from nonviable cells. While the trypan blue method can work for cell lines or primary cells that have been rigorously purified, in more complex samples such as PBMCs, bone marrow, whole blood, or any sample with low viability, this method can lead to errors. In recent years, advances in optics and fluorescent dyes have led to the development of automated benchtop image-based cell counters for rapid cell concentration and viability measurement. In this work, we demonstrate the use of image-based cytometry for cell viability detection using single-, dual-, or multi-stain techniques. Single-staining methods using nucleic acid stains such as EB, PI, 7-AAD, DAPI, SYTOX Green, and SYTOX Red, and enzymatic stains such as CFDA and Calcein AM, were performed. Dual-staining methods using AO/PI, CFDA/PI, Calcein AM/PI, Hoechst/PI, Hoechst/DRAQ7, and DRAQ5/DAPI that enumerate viable and nonviable cells were also performed. Finally, Hoechst/Calcein AM/PI was used for a multi-staining method. Fluorescent viability staining allows exclusion of cellular debris and nonnucleated cells from analysis, which can eliminate the need to perform purification steps during sample preparation and improve efficiency. Image cytometers increase speed and throughput, capture images for visual confirmation of results, and can greatly simplify cell count and viability measurements.
- Relationship of Estimated SHIV Acquisition Time Points During the Menstrual Cycle and Thinning of Vaginal Epithelial Layers in Pigtail Macaques. [Journal Article]
- STSex Transm Dis 2015; 42(12):694-701
- CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a detailed picture of dynamic cycle-related changes in the vaginal epithelium of pigtail macaques. Substantial thinning occurred in the superficial, nonnucleated layer, which maintains the vaginal microbiome. The findings support vaginal tissue architecture as susceptibility factor for infection and contribute to our understanding of innate resistance to SHIV infection.
- Population pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and intracellular ribavirin concentrations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2015; 59(4):2179-88
- Ribavirin, a guanosine analog, is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. Ribavirin has been a fundamental component of the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for decades, but there is a very l…
Ribavirin, a guanosine analog, is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. Ribavirin has been a fundamental component of the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection for decades, but there is a very limited understanding of the clinical pharmacology of this drug. Furthermore, it is associated with a major dose-limiting toxicity, hemolytic anemia. Ribavirin undergoes intracellular phosphorylation by host enzymes to ribavirin monophosphate (RMP), ribavirin diphosphate (RDP), and ribavirin triphosphate (RTP). The intracellular forms have been associated with antiviral and toxic effects in vitro, but the kinetics of these phosphorylated moieties have not been fully elucidated in vivo. We developed a model to characterize the plasma pharmacokinetics of ribavirin and the difference between intracellular phosphorylation kinetics in red cells (nonnucleated) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (nucleated). A time-independent two-compartment model with first-order absorption described the plasma data well. The cellular phosphorylation kinetics was described by a one-compartment model for RMP, with the formation rate driven by plasma concentrations and the first-order degradation rate. RDP and RTP rapidly reached equilibrium with RMP. Concomitant telaprevir use, inosine triphosphatase genetics, creatinine clearance, weight, and sex were significant covariates. The terminal ribavirin half-life in plasma and phosphorylated anabolites in cells was approximately 224 h. We found no evidence of time-dependent kinetics. These data provide a foundation for uncovering concentration-effect associations for ribavirin and determining the optimal dose and duration of this drug for use in combination with newer direct-acting HCV agents. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01097395.).
- The dendritic cell receptor Clec9A binds damaged cells via exposed actin filaments. [Journal Article]
- IImmunity 2012 Apr 20; 36(4):646-57
- The immune system must distinguish viable cells from cells damaged by physical and infective processes. The damaged cell-recognition molecule Clec9A is expressed on the surface of the mouse and human…
The immune system must distinguish viable cells from cells damaged by physical and infective processes. The damaged cell-recognition molecule Clec9A is expressed on the surface of the mouse and human dendritic cell subsets specialized for the uptake and processing of material from dead cells. Clec9A recognizes a conserved component within nucleated and nonnucleated cells, exposed when cell membranes are damaged. We have identified this Clec9A ligand as a filamentous form of actin in association with particular actin-binding domains of cytoskeletal proteins. We have determined the crystal structure of the human CLEC9A C-type lectin domain and propose a functional dimeric structure with conserved tryptophans in the ligand recognition site. Mutation of these residues ablated CLEC9A binding to damaged cells and to the isolated ligand complexes. We propose that Clec9A provides targeted recruitment of the adaptive immune system during infection and can also be utilized to enhance immune responses generated by vaccines.
- Expression of Anaplasma marginale ankyrin repeat-containing proteins during infection of the mammalian host and tick vector. [Journal Article]
- IIInfect Immun 2011; 79(7):2847-55
- Transmission of tick-borne pathogens requires transition between distinct host environments with infection and replication in host-specific cell types. Anaplasma marginale illustrates this transition…
Transmission of tick-borne pathogens requires transition between distinct host environments with infection and replication in host-specific cell types. Anaplasma marginale illustrates this transition: in the mammalian host, the bacterium infects and replicates in mature (nonnucleated) erythrocytes, while in the tick vector, replication occurs in nucleated epithelial cells. We hypothesized that proteins containing ankyrin motifs would be expressed by A. marginale only in tick cells and would traffic to the infected host cell nucleus. A. marginale encodes three proteins containing ankyrin motifs, an AnkA orthologue (the AM705 protein), AnkB (the AM926 protein), and AnkC (the AM638 protein). All three A. marginale Anks were confirmed to be expressed during intracellular infection: AnkA is expressed at significantly higher levels in erythrocytes, AnkB is expressed equally by both infected erythrocytes and tick cells, and AnkC is expressed exclusively in tick cells. There was no evidence of any of the Ank proteins trafficking to the nucleus. Thus, the hypothesis that ankyrin-containing motifs were predictive of cell type expression and nuclear localization was rejected. In contrast, AnkA orthologues in the closely related A. phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis have been shown to localize to the host cell nucleus. This difference, together with the lack of a nuclear localization signal in any of the AnkA orthologues, suggests that trafficking may be mediated by a separate transporter rather than by endogenous signals. Selection for divergence in Ank function among Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. is supported by both locus and allelic analyses of genes encoding orthologous proteins and their ankyrin motif compositions.
- HPV-DNA hybrid capture test: influence of cellularity in penile samples. [Journal Article]
- ACActa Cytol 2010 Jul-Aug; 54(4):546-50
- CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the presence of non-nucleated and nucleated squamous cells on cytologic smears prior to performing an HPV-DNA test is a useful tool for quality control in penile samples.
- Comparative gene evolution in haemosporidian (apicomplexa) parasites of birds and mammals. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Biol Evol 2010; 27(3):537-42
- Haemosporidian parasites of birds and mammals reproduce asexually inside nucleated and nonnucleated host erythrocytes, respectively. Because of these different parasite environments and because bird …
Haemosporidian parasites of birds and mammals reproduce asexually inside nucleated and nonnucleated host erythrocytes, respectively. Because of these different parasite environments and because bird parasites are paraphyletic, we evaluated whether patterns of parasite molecular evolution differ between host groups. We compared two mitochondrial (mt) genes and one apicoplast gene across mammal Plasmodium, bird Plasmodium, and bird Parahaemoproteus. Using a molecular phylogenetic approach, we show that the parasite mt cytochrome b (cyt b), mt cytochrome oxidase I (COI), and the apicoplast caseinolytic protease C (ClpC) exhibit similar levels of sequence divergence, yet each gene tree presents a strikingly different pattern of internal versus terminal branch lengths. In cyt b, the ratio of nonsynonymous (NS)-to-synonymous substitutions (d(N)/d(S)) is markedly elevated along the internal branch linking mammalian and avian parasites despite the sister relationship between mammal and bird Plasmodium. This is not the case for either COI or ClpC. When NS substitutions are excluded from the parasite cyt b alignment, the resulting phylogenetic tree resembles that of COI (both with and without NS substitutions). The high d(N)/d(S) ratio in the cyt b branch separating avian and mammalian parasites and a mammal-parasite codon bias suggest that adaptive evolution has distinguished mammal and bird parasites.
- Resolving the distinct stages in erythroid differentiation based on dynamic changes in membrane protein expression during erythropoiesis. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Oct 13; 106(41):17413-8
- Erythropoiesis is the process by which nucleated erythroid progenitors proliferate and differentiate to generate, every second, millions of nonnucleated red cells with their unique discoid shape and …
Erythropoiesis is the process by which nucleated erythroid progenitors proliferate and differentiate to generate, every second, millions of nonnucleated red cells with their unique discoid shape and membrane material properties. Here we examined the time course of appearance of individual membrane protein components during murine erythropoiesis to throw new light on our understanding of the evolution of the unique features of the red cell membrane. We found that the accumulation of all of the major transmembrane and all skeletal proteins of the mature red blood cell, except actin, accrued progressively during terminal erythroid differentiation. At the same time, and in marked contrast, accumulation of various adhesion molecules decreased. In particular, the adhesion molecule, CD44 exhibited a progressive and dramatic decrease from proerythroblast to reticulocyte; this enabled us to devise a new strategy for distinguishing unambiguously between erythroblasts at successive developmental stages. These findings provide unique insights into the genesis of red cell membrane function during erythroblast differentiation and also offer a means of defining stage-specific defects in erythroid maturation in inherited and acquired red cell disorders and in bone marrow failure syndromes.
New Search Next
- [Platelets "Toll-like receptor" engagement stimulates the release of immunomodulating molecules]. [Review]
- TCTransfus Clin Biol 2008; 15(4):139-47
- Platelets are nonnucleated cellular elements that play a role in the process of haemostasis, and also in various ways in innate immunity and in inflammation. Platelets also contain numerous secretory…
Platelets are nonnucleated cellular elements that play a role in the process of haemostasis, and also in various ways in innate immunity and in inflammation. Platelets also contain numerous secretory products and can exert critical roles in several aspects of haemostasis. In addition, they house and secrete a variety of cytokines, chemokines and associated molecules which behave as ligands for receptors/counterparts displayed by endothelial cells lining tissue vessels and most leukocyte subsets. These latter studies show that platelets have an important role in innate as well as adaptive immunity; thus platelets can take part in an immune directive response. Moreover, platelets display receptors for several types of cytokines/chemokines along with FcgammaRII receptors. Finally, platelets not only express a variety of Toll-like receptors, with recently identified functions or not as-yet fully identified, but have also been demonstrated to express the key tandem pair of inflammatory and antigen presentation molecules (CD40 and CD40-ligand/CD154), this latter function making them the major purveyors of soluble CD40L in the plasma. It appears that platelets may be regarded as one of the neglected components of immune cell regulators, and platelets contribute to some interesting aspects in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. We propose that platelets discriminate danger signals and adapt the subsequent responses, with polarized cytokine secretion. Platelets may recognize several types of infectious pathogens and limit microbial colonization by sequestering these pathogens and releasing immunomodulatory factors. This review allows us to re-explore indications that platelets exert direct anti-infection immunity and we will present experimentally-driven arguments in favour of a role of platelet TLR in regulating certain immune activities.