- A comprehensive review of the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents against drug-resistant microbial pathogens. [Review]
- MPMicrob Pathog 2019 Jun 10; :103580
- Essential oils are a complex mixture of odoriferous, volatile organic compounds. There are an extensive number of published articles which highlight the antimicrobial action of a variety of essential…
Essential oils are a complex mixture of odoriferous, volatile organic compounds. There are an extensive number of published articles which highlight the antimicrobial action of a variety of essential oils from various parts of the world. The main aim of this review article is to compile these antimicrobial essential oils and their constituents from reliable sources and put them together. The published literature indicates that essential oils possess a wide-spectrum of antibacterial, antifungal and even anti-viral activity. Essential oils have also been shown to inhibit the growth of drug-resistant microbial strains which are even difficult to be treated by conventional antibiotics. As for as their mode of action is concerned, in fungal pathogens, essential oils establish a membrane potential across cell wall and disrupt ATP assembly, leading to cell wall damage. Essential oils can also disintegrate mitochondrial membrane interfering with the electron transport system (ETS) pathway. In bacterial pathogens, essential oils primarily destabilize the cellular architecture, leading to breakdown of membrane integrity, disrupting many cellular activities including energy production and membrane transport. Membrane rupture induced by essential oils can lead to leakage of cellular components and loss of ions. Several essential oils have antiviral activities against many RNA and DNA viruses, such as type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2), dengue virus type 2, influenza virusadeno virus type 3, poliovirus, Junin virus, and coxsackievirus B1. In conclusion, the current review article discusses in detail the various aspects of antimicrobial activity of essential oils in a comprehensive manner.
- The power of odour volatiles from unifloral melipona honey evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry Osme techniques. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2019; 99(9):4493-4497
- CONCLUSIONS: These results are important since, in addition to revealing the presence of compounds that are not identified by other analytical methods, they can also assist in the verification of monofloral honeys compliance. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
- Quantitation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in aseptic-packaged cooked fragrant rice by HS-SPME/GC-MS. [Journal Article]
- FSFood Sci Nutr 2019; 7(1):266-272
- Aseptic-packaged cooked rice (APCR) is a rice-based food product with a rapidly increasing market size, and APCR made of fragrant rice (FR) has recently appeared on the market. The fragrance of FR is…
Aseptic-packaged cooked rice (APCR) is a rice-based food product with a rapidly increasing market size, and APCR made of fragrant rice (FR) has recently appeared on the market. The fragrance of FR is produced by a combination of odoriferous compounds, among which 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been identified as the most important contributor to overall aroma. This study describes the development of a method to quantify 2AP in FR-based APCR using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recovery of 2AP spiked into APCR was lower than 10%, which suggests significant matrix effects and inappropriateness of external standard-based calibration. For standard addition calibration method, up to 1,000 ng of 2AP were spiked into APCR containing 0% to 100% FR. Subsequent regression analyses of recovered peak area (Y) as a function of the amount of 2AP spiked (X) yielded highly linear calibration curves (R2 > 0.9917) with consistent slopes (RSD = 2.7%), regardless of FR composition. Y-intercepts, however, which represent the amount of 2AP in APCR without spiking, increased linearly (R2 = 0.9898) in proportion to the composition of FR in the APCR. The amount of 2AP in APCR, determined by extrapolating the standard addition calibration curves, also increased linearly (R2 = 0.9963) as a function of FR composition. Practicality of developed method was tested by monitoring 2AP contents in APCR under realistic storage conditions, which successfully demonstrated 38% and 60% 2AP reductions in APCR of 20% FR after 1 and 2 months of storage at 25°C, respectively. The present study demonstrates that a standard addition method, whereby up to 1,000 ng of 2AP standard is spiked into 4 g of APCR containing 5%-100% FR in a 20-mL headspace vial followed by SPME/GC-MS, may serve as an effective means of quantitating 2AP in fragrant rice-based APCR.
- Reactions of Quinones-Mechanisms, Structures, and Prospects for Food Research. [Review]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 19; 66(50):13051-13055
- Oxidation of plant phenolics leads to quinones, which are unstable intermediates that may react with nucleophiles. Quinones play an important role in the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables a…
Oxidation of plant phenolics leads to quinones, which are unstable intermediates that may react with nucleophiles. Quinones play an important role in the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and may form covalent adducts with amino acids, peptides, and proteins. These reactions may alter both the physicochemical and immunological properties of food proteins. Quinones trap odoriferous compounds and contribute to the formation of aroma compounds through Strecker degradation of amino acids. Oxidative dimerization of chlorogenic acids in the presence of amino acids leads to the formation of green benzacridines, which are a promising alternative to chlorophylls as food colorants.
- Characterization of 3-Methylindole as a Source of a "Mud"-like Off-Odor in Strong-Aroma Types of Base Baijiu. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 05; 66(48):12765-12772
- The "mud"-like off-odor, which is an odor reminiscent of musty and strong animal fecal odors, affects the quality classification of the strong-aroma types of baijiu (SAB), but little is known about w…
The "mud"-like off-odor, which is an odor reminiscent of musty and strong animal fecal odors, affects the quality classification of the strong-aroma types of baijiu (SAB), but little is known about which compounds are responsible for this aroma, except for certain phenolic compounds. However, not all mud-like off-odor expressions in SAB can be attributed to those phenolic compounds. In this work, volatile compounds in pit mud and SAB samples were isolated by headspace solid-phase microextraction and liquid-liquid extraction. An odoriferous zone was detected by GC-MS/olfactometer and GC-MS and was attributed to 3-methylindole rather than ethyl oleate on the basis of their odor characteristics, MS data, and retention indices. Combined with the detection threshold of 3-methylindole determined by a three-alternative forced-choice (6.09 μg/L) procedure, odor activity values in the tested base SAB were from 1 to 23. Sensory studies and the prepared heat map highlighted the contribution of this compound to the odor characteristics for the first time.
- Complementary use of GCxGC-TOF-MS and statistics for differentiation of variety in biosolid samples. [Journal Article]
- MCMonatsh Chem 2018; 149(9):1587-1594
- Male Scent Gland Signals Mating Status in Greater Spear-Nosed Bats, Phyllostomus hastatus. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chem Ecol 2018; 44(11):975-986
- Chemical signals are ubiquitous, but often overlooked as potentially important for conveying information relevant for sexual selection. The male greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus, posses…
Chemical signals are ubiquitous, but often overlooked as potentially important for conveying information relevant for sexual selection. The male greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus, possesses a sexually dimorphic gland on the chest that produces an odoriferous secretion. Here, we investigate the potential for this glandular secretion to act as a sexually selected olfactory signal by examining gland activity in and out of the mating season and determining if variation in its chemical composition reflects variation in male mating status or attributes of the individual. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements of samples collected from wild bats roosting in caves in Trinidad, West Indies, we find that males that defend and roost with groups of females (harem holders) have significantly different chemical profiles from males found roosting in all male groups (bachelors). Additionally, profiles differed significantly among individuals. Taken together, these results suggest that this chemical signal has the potential to communicate both mating status and individual identity and thus could be used to mediate interactions among individuals within this harem-based social mating system.
- Buffalo nasal odorant-binding protein (bunOBP) and its structural evaluation with putative pheromones. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jun 19; 8(1):9323
- Pheromones are odoriferous volatile chemical cues produced by animals for communication among conspecifics so as to regulate their social behaviors. In general, the odor compounds are recognized by r…
Pheromones are odoriferous volatile chemical cues produced by animals for communication among conspecifics so as to regulate their social behaviors. In general, the odor compounds are recognized by receptors in the nasal cavity. Odorant-binding protein (OBP), a lipocalin family protein, mediates the air-borne odor cues to nasal receptors through nasal mucus. The presence of OBP in several mammalian species is well documented but to-date there is no report of a nasal OBP in buffalo. Hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate if OBP is present in buffalo nasal mucus. Uni- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the nasal mucus suggested the presence of OBP, which was confirmed using mass spectrometry. In silico homology model of the OBP was generated and its structural similarity with other mammalian OBPs was assessed. Finally, molecular-docking and -dynamics simulations analysis revealed the efficiency of buffalo nasal OBP (bunOBP) to bind with buffalo pheromones as well as other reported chemical cues. Taken together, the occurrence of nasal OBP in buffalo and its putative role in odor binding are reported for the first time. The potential association of this protein with estrus-specific volatiles could be taken to advantage for non-invasive detection of estrus in buffaloes.
- Evaluation of the chemical, sensory and volatile composition of sapota-do-Solimões pulp at different ripening stages. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2018; 109:159-167
- The aim of this study was to evaluate sapota-do-Solimões (Quararibea cordata Vischer) during ripening, verifying physical, chemical and sensory parameters, bioactive and volatile compounds. The pulps…
The aim of this study was to evaluate sapota-do-Solimões (Quararibea cordata Vischer) during ripening, verifying physical, chemical and sensory parameters, bioactive and volatile compounds. The pulps were obtained from fruits from the city of Tefé, AM, Brazil and collected at three different ripening stages: unripe (U); ripe collected from the tree (R); and ripe collected from the ground (RG). The biometric and quality parameters, total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, chemical composition, fatty acids and volatile profiles were analyzed. The sapota-do-Solimões fruits showed positive correlation with evolution of ripened stage of the variables water activity (0.977-0.996), pH (6.53-7.04), soluble solids (8.53-12.65%), total sugars (4.26-7.98%), reducing sugars (0.99-3.14%), non-reducing sugars (3.11-4.60%) and total carotenoids (0.67-1.24 μg/g). Longitudinal and transversal diameters and fruit mass were higher in RG compared with the other ripening stages. The lipids contents increased from 0.16% for U to 0.30% for RG. The palmitic (47.1-86.4), stearic (3.1-5.9), oleic (44.4-131.1) and vaccenic (25.3-37.7) increased while palmitoleic (16.4-10.0) and linoleic (6.6-3.5) decreased. A total of 86 volatile compounds were identified, of which 57 were found in U fruits, 54 in R fruits and 68 in RG fruits. The classes most relevant found were alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans and terpenes. An increase in the terpenes (0.4-5.6%) from U fruit to RG fruit showed potentials odoriferous characteristics, as well the increased furans (2.3-20.9%) from U fruit to RG fruit that characterized a sweet and fruity aroma. Consumers didn't detect differences in sensory attributes of the analyzed R and RG fruits. The data showed that the chemical and volatile composition of the fruit was influenced by the ripening stage of the pulp. This is the first time that a study about ripening in sapota-do-Solimões has been reported.
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- The predominant phytoplankton of Pseudoanabaena holding specific biosynthesis gene-derived occurrence of 2-MIB in a drinking water reservoir. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018; 25(19):19134-19142
- With the increasing occurrence of water eutrophication and blooms, earthy-musty odor problems caused by cyanobacteria have been more and more apparent. These problems have a serious impact on aquatic…
With the increasing occurrence of water eutrophication and blooms, earthy-musty odor problems caused by cyanobacteria have been more and more apparent. These problems have a serious impact on aquatic ecosystems and drinking water safety and become one of the priorities of the water environment researches and managements. In the present study, genes associated with 2-MIB synthesis in cyanobacteria were studied by systematic investigation on molecular characterization and quantity of 2-MIB-producing cyanobacteria in China. Our results founded that Pseudoanabaena is an important 2-MIB-producing phytoplankton and predominant in summer in Qingcaosha reservoir, and the copy number of mic and 2-MIB concentration have strongly positive correlation. We also demonstrated that abundance of mic in water was significant correlation with that in sediment. These results will help us to understand the main taxa of the odoriferous cyanobacteria in the water bodies in China, understand the genetic basis of the odor substances in the cyanobacteria. Rapid, reliable monitoring and ecological research methods for the production of odor cyanobacteria in water bodies can be established based on these results.