- Drought Stress Effects and Olive Tree Acclimation under a Changing Climate. [Review]
- PPlants (Basel) 2019 Jul 17; 8(7)
- Increasing consciousness regarding the nutritional value of olive oil has enhanced the demand for this product and, consequently, the expansion of olive tree cultivation. Although it is considered a …
Increasing consciousness regarding the nutritional value of olive oil has enhanced the demand for this product and, consequently, the expansion of olive tree cultivation. Although it is considered a highly resilient and tolerant crop to several abiotic stresses, olive growing areas are usually affected by adverse environmental factors, namely, water scarcity, heat and high irradiance, and are especially vulnerable to climate change. In this context, it is imperative to improve agronomic strategies to offset the loss of productivity and possible changes in fruit and oil quality. To develop more efficient and precise measures, it is important to look for new insights concerning response mechanisms to drought stress. In this review, we provided an overview of the global status of olive tree ecology and relevance, as well the influence of environmental abiotic stresses in olive cultivation. Finally, we explored and analysed the deleterious effects caused by drought (e.g., water status and photosynthetic performance impairment, oxidative stress and imbalance in plant nutrition), the most critical stressor to agricultural crops in the Mediterranean region, and the main olive tree responses to withstand this stressor.
- Modulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Signaling Pathways by Olea Europaea and Its Active Compounds. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 16; 20(14)
- Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a significant dynamic process that causes changes in the phenotype of epithelial cells, changing them from their original phenotype to the mesenchymal cell …
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a significant dynamic process that causes changes in the phenotype of epithelial cells, changing them from their original phenotype to the mesenchymal cell phenotype. This event can be observed during wound healing process, fibrosis and cancer. EMT-related diseases are usually caused by inflammation that eventually leads to tissue remodeling in the damaged tissue. Prolonged inflammation causes long-term EMT activation that can lead to tissue fibrosis or cancer. Due to activation of EMT by its signaling pathway, therapeutic approaches that modulate that pathway should be explored. Olea europaea (OE) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects and abundant beneficial active compounds. These properties are presumed to modulate EMT events. This article reviews recent evidence of the effects of OE and its active compounds on EMT events and EMT-related diseases. Following evidence from the literature, it was shown that OE could modulate TGFβ/SMAD, AKT, ERK, and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in EMT due to a potent active compound that is present therein.
- IgA Nephropathy in Elderly Patients. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of IgA nephropathy among older adults in Spain has progressively increased in recent years, and anticoagulant therapy may be partially responsible for this trend. Prognosis was poor.
- Evaluation of the anti-malarial activity of crude extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Olea europaea (Oleaceae) in mice. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Jul 11; 19(1):171
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings collectively indicate that the plant is endowed with antimalarial activity, the activity being more in the crude extract than the fractions, owing to the presence of secondary metabolites that act independently or in synergy. The varying degree of antimalarial activity in the fractions suggests that non-polar and medium polar principles could be responsible for the observed activity.
- The Paradox of Self-Fertile Varieties in the Context of Self-Incompatible Genotypes in Olive. [Review]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2019; 10:725
- Olive, representing one of the most important fruit crops of the Mediterranean area, is characterized by a general low fruit yield, due to numerous constraints, including alternate bearing, low flowe…
Olive, representing one of the most important fruit crops of the Mediterranean area, is characterized by a general low fruit yield, due to numerous constraints, including alternate bearing, low flower viability, male-sterility, inter-incompatibility, and self-incompatibility (SI). Early efforts to clarify the genetic control of SI in olive gave conflicting results, and only recently, the genetic control of SI has been disclosed, revealing that olive possesses an unconventional homomorphic sporophytic diallelic system of SI, dissimilar from other described plants. This system, characterized by the presence of two SI groups, prevents self-fertilization and regulates inter-compatibility between cultivars, such that cultivars bearing the same incompatibility group are incompatible. Despite the presence of a functional SI, some varieties, in particular conditions, are able to set seeds following self-fertilization, a mechanism known as pseudo-self-compatibility (PSC), as widely reported in previous literature. Here, we summarize the results of previous works on SI in olive, particularly focusing on the occurrence of self-fertility, and offer a new perspective in view of the recent elucidation of the genetic architecture of the SI system in olive. Recent advances in research aimed at unraveling the molecular bases of SI and its breakdown in olive are also presented. The clarification of these mechanisms may have a huge impact on orchard management and will provide fundamental information for the future of olive breeding programs.
- Phenolic and Antioxidant Analysis of Olive Leaves Extracts (Olea europaea L.) Obtained by High Voltage Electrical Discharges (HVED). [Journal Article]
- FFoods 2019 Jul 08; 8(7)
- CONCLUSIONS: Ethanol with HVED destroys the linkage between phenolic compounds and components of the plant material to which they are bound. All extracts were compliant with legal requirements regarding content of contaminants, pesticide residues and toxic metals. In conclusion, HVED presents an excellent potential for phenolic compounds extraction for further use in functional food manufacturing.
- Immunochemical and physical quantitation of grass and olive pollen allergens and correlation with asthma admitions in Cáceres, Spain. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2019 Jul 08; :0
- CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a significant correlation between grass and olive pollination and the increase of the number of visits to the emergency room due to asthma crisis. The aerobiological pattern of allergen levels in the air is comparable to the pollen counts during the grass and olive pollination periods.
- Olea europaea L. Flowers as a new promising anticancer natural product: phenolic composition, antiproliferative activity and apoptosis induction. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2019 Jul 08; :1-4
- The aim of this study was to characterise phenolic compounds of olive flower obtained from Olive tree cultivar Chemlali and to investigate their anticancer effect on MCF-7 cells. Phenolic characteris…
The aim of this study was to characterise phenolic compounds of olive flower obtained from Olive tree cultivar Chemlali and to investigate their anticancer effect on MCF-7 cells. Phenolic characterisation was determined using LC/MS-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extract was determined using MTT. Biochemical markers of apoptosis were evaluated by immunoblotting. Our results showed that olive flower contained significant amounts of phenolic compounds mainly flavonoids, secoiridoids and simple phenols. Furthermore, the phenolic extract exerted a significant reduction in MCF-7 cell viability (EC50 values equal to 220.8 μg/ml). Western blot analysis revealed the presence of the cleaved forms of Parp-1. The DAPI staining analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of cells and a considerable change in the morphology of the treated cells. In conclusion, Olea europaea. L flower contained great amounts of different bio-phenols able to reduce the proliferative activity of breast cancer MCF-7 cells by the induction of apoptosis.
- A sustainable approach for the extraction of cholesterol-lowering compounds from an olive by-product based on CO2-expanded ethyl acetate. [Journal Article]
- ABAnal Bioanal Chem 2019 Jul 06
- Olive (Olea europaea) processing results in large amounts of by-products that contain valuable molecules such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols. These molecules have demonstrated to reduce blood…
Olive (Olea europaea) processing results in large amounts of by-products that contain valuable molecules such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols. These molecules have demonstrated to reduce blood cholesterol levels. This work proposes the development of a method to obtain simultaneously phenolic compounds and phytosterols from the olive stone using CO2-expanded liquid extraction. Hansen solubility parameters were employed for the theoretical prediction of the most suitable bio-based solvent to extract target compounds. The Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to select the optimal conditions of pressure (8-25 MPa), the molar fraction of CO2 in ethyl acetate (0.15-0.55), and the temperature (40-80 °C). Extracts showing the highest and the lowest reductions of micellar cholesterol solubility capacity were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to find out the compounds responsible for this activity. Different phenolic compounds, free fatty acids, and phytosterols were identified in the extracts. β-Sitosterol and, especially, tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were the compounds that primarily contributed to the reduction of micellar cholesterol solubility capacity.
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- Phytochemical profile, mineral content, and antioxidant activity of Olea europaea L. cv. Cornezuelo table olives. Influence of in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2019 Nov 01; 297:124933
- The main goals of this study were to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of table olives from Olea europaea L. cv. Cornezuelo, as well as the effect caused by a simulated in v…
The main goals of this study were to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of table olives from Olea europaea L. cv. Cornezuelo, as well as the effect caused by a simulated in vitro digestion to evaluate compounds bioavailability. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array and mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-DAD-MSn) was used to evaluate the phytochemical profile, whereas conventional spectrophotometric methods (ABTS·+ and DPPH) were used to determine the antioxidant activity. The mineral content was also quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Thirty compounds were identified, mainly polyphenols, quantifying the major compounds by HPLC-DAD. After the simulated digestion, the phenolic content suffered an important decrease - more than 50% - reaching losses of up to 75% for oleuropein and comselogoside isomers. This decrease also resulted in a loss of antioxidant activity, observing significant differences for all parameters. However, the analyzed extracts still retained considerable antioxidant potential.