- The influence of 3 different navel dips on calf health, growth performance, and umbilical infection assessed by clinical and ultrasonographic examination. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dairy Sci 2017; 100(1):513-524
- The objectives were to investigate the effect of 3 navel dips on (1) umbilical infection, (2) health events (pneumonia, diarrhea, and arthritis), and (3) average daily gain (ADG) in newborn dairy cal…
The objectives were to investigate the effect of 3 navel dips on (1) umbilical infection, (2) health events (pneumonia, diarrhea, and arthritis), and (3) average daily gain (ADG) in newborn dairy calves. A secondary aim was to compare the agreement of standardized ultrasonographic examination with clinical examination for the diagnosis of umbilical infection. In a randomized block design, newborn calves were assigned by birth order to 3 treatment groups: Navel Guard (NG; SCG-Solutions Inc., McDonough, GA), 7% iodine tincture (SI), and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CH). Treatment consisted of a single dip administration of the umbilicus immediately after removal of the newborn from the calving pen with 1 of the 3 navel dips. Weekly clinical examinations were carried out during the first 4wk of life with special attention being paid to the umbilicus, joints, respiratory tract, and fecal consistency, and included ultrasonographic evaluation of the umbilical structures. Body weight was assessed by using a girth tape at first and last evaluation. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated no statistical differences in umbilical infection or health events. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed statistical differences in ADG (least squares means ± standard errors) between groups, with 494±29, 571±29, and 516±29g/d in groups NG, SI, and CH, respectively. Overall mortality during the study period was 9.5% (n=40). Postmortem examination identified diarrhea (80%) as the main disorder with 19, 4, and 9 calves in groups NG, SI, and CH, respectively. Kappa values yielded fair [0.30 (95% CI: -0.03-0.63)], good [0.61 (95% CI 0.46-0.75)], moderate [0.53 (95% CI 0.31-0.74)], and moderate [0.49 (95% CI 0.19-0.79)] agreement for detection of omphalitis between clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation in wk 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Agreement was very good for detection of omphaloplebitis, with kappa values (95% CI) of 0.91 (0.80-1.00), 0.87 (0.75-0.98), and 0.90 (0.76-1.00) in wk 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when omphalophlebitis was diagnosed. We detected no difference in the effectiveness of the 3 treatments in the prevention of umbilical infection, pneumonia, diarrhea, or arthritis.
- Surgical Management of Omphalophlebitis and Long Term Outcome in Calves: 39 Cases (2008-2013). [Journal Article]
- VSVet Surg 2016; 45(2):194-200
- CONCLUSIONS: The overall survival is good with both surgical options, and even calves with liver involvement and septic arthritis associated can be successfully treated with a combination of long term antibiotics and umbilical vein marsupialization.
- MANAGEMENT OF OMPHALOPHLEBITIS AND UMBILICAL HERNIA IN THREE NEONATAL GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS). [Case Reports]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2015; 46(4):938-40
- Umbilical disorders, including omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, external umbilical abscesses, urachal abscesses, patent urachus, and umbilical hernias, represent a significant challenge to the hea…
Umbilical disorders, including omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, external umbilical abscesses, urachal abscesses, patent urachus, and umbilical hernias, represent a significant challenge to the health and well-being of a neonate. The three neonatal giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in this report were evaluated for umbilical swellings. Two developed omphalophlebitis, and one had an uncomplicated umbilical hernia. Omphalophlebitis is an inflammation and/or infection of the umbilical vein. Giraffe calves with a failure of passive transfer may be predisposed and should be thoroughly evaluated for the condition. Umbilical hernias result from a failure of the umbilical ring to close after parturition or from malformation of the umbilical ring during embryogenesis. These problems were surgically corrected for all three individuals, although one died due to postsurgical complications. The risks involved include anesthetic complications, surgical dehiscence, and maternal rejection. Early detection and surgical intervention are recommended for the correction of omphalophlebitis and umbilical hernias in neonatal giraffe.
- Quantification of antimicrobial usage in dairy cows and preweaned calves in Argentina. [Journal Article]
- PVPrev Vet Med 2015 Dec 01; 122(3):273-9
- Antimicrobials are commonly used to treat diseases in dairy cows and in calves. In Argentina information about veterinary antimicrobial usage at herd level is still limited. The purpose of this study…
Antimicrobials are commonly used to treat diseases in dairy cows and in calves. In Argentina information about veterinary antimicrobial usage at herd level is still limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify antimicrobial usage at herd level of most used drugs to treat lactating cows (LC) and preweaned calves (PWC). Prevalence of diseases and antimicrobial drug usage in 18 milking herds and in 11 calves rearing units (CRUs) were assessed through a survey. Drug usage (DU) at herd level was estimated through a standardized indicator, the number of Defined Daily Doses Animal (DDDA) per year, considering a standardized body weight of 600kg for LC and of 60kg for PWC. Pearson correlation coefficients were estimated and used to evaluate the association of LC herd size and milk yield (kg/day) with each disease prevalence and with DU. Student t-Test was used to compare disease prevalence and DU with various management practices in CRUs. Clinical mastitis was the most prevalent disease followed by foot, uterine and respiratory diseases in adult dairy cows. More involvement of veterinarians in treatment decisions was observed in larger dairy herds. Most used antimicrobials were beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Especially for intramammary compounds, there was a trend towards multidrug formulations. The median DU was 5.21 DDDA/LC/year (range=2.88-10.88), the intramammary usage for clinical mastitis (IM-CM) and dry cow therapy (IM-DRY), representing 85.4% of total drug usage. No significant correlations were observed between herd size or milk yield with disease prevalence and with DU for all considered uses (IM-CM, IM-DRY and parental (PAR)). Enteritis was reported in all CRUs, followed by respiratory disease (91%), and omphalophlebitis (3%). The median DU for all drugs used at CRU level was 0.49 DDDA/PWC/year. Prevalences and DU for treatment of enteritis and respiratory diseases did not differ significantly between rearing systems, colostrum management or permanence time of the calf with the mother after birth. Although it was possible to estimate the drug usage at farm level, it was observed that the diversity of drug compounds and dose heterogeneity presented by the various manufacturers made the calculation of those indicators complex.
- Reference values for acute phase proteins in calves and its clinical application. [Journal Article]
- VRVet Rec 2013 Oct 05; 173(13):319
- Salmonella Newport omphaloarteritis in a stranded killer whale (Orcinus orca) neonate. [Case Reports]
- JWJ Wildl Dis 2010; 46(4):1300-4
- Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (Salmonella Newport) was isolated from multiple tissues in a neonate killer whale (Orcinus orca) that stranded dead in 2005 along the central coast of California, …
Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (Salmonella Newport) was isolated from multiple tissues in a neonate killer whale (Orcinus orca) that stranded dead in 2005 along the central coast of California, USA. Necrotizing omphaloarteritis and omphalophlebitis was observed on histologic examination suggesting umbilical infection was the route of entry. Genetic analysis of skin samples indicated that the neonate had an offshore haplotype. Salmonellosis has rarely been identified in free-ranging marine mammals and the significance of Salmonella Newport infection to the health of free-ranging killer whales is currently unknown.
- Rib osteomyelitis in three foals. [Case Reports]
- AVAust Vet J 2010; 88(3):96-100
- Three foals aged between 21 and 44 days were presented for evaluation of pyrexia and lameness. Each had subcutaneous abscessation associated with osteomyelitis of a rib at the costochondral junction …
Three foals aged between 21 and 44 days were presented for evaluation of pyrexia and lameness. Each had subcutaneous abscessation associated with osteomyelitis of a rib at the costochondral junction and pathological fracture of the affected rib; one foal had more than one rib affected. Other localised sites of infection included other sites of osteomyelitis, omphalophlebitis, uveitis, enterocolitis, and calcaneal bursitis. The subcutaneous abscessation and rib osteomyelitis was treated surgically in two foals. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the subcutaneous abscess in one foal and from the faeces of another. Two of the three foals were euthanased. Ultrasonography was a more useful modality than radiography for establishing the diagnosis of costal osteomyelitis.
- Septicemia in a neonatal calf associated with Chromobacterium violaceum. [Case Reports]
- VPVet Pathol 2009; 46(1):71-4
- Chromobacterium violaceum infections are highly fatal and rarely reported in domestic animals. This report describes a fatal case of C. violaceum septicemia in a 7-day-old female beef calf. The calf …
Chromobacterium violaceum infections are highly fatal and rarely reported in domestic animals. This report describes a fatal case of C. violaceum septicemia in a 7-day-old female beef calf. The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, necrosuppurative hepatitis and splenitis, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, suppurative polyarthritis, and disseminated hemorrhagic meningitis with multifocal necrotizing encephalitis. Histologically, clusters of gram-negative bacilli were found in many of the lesions. C. violaceum was isolated in high numbers from the lungs, liver, spleen, carpus, and in pure culture from the cerebrospinal fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of chromobacteriosis in a calf.
- Clinical assessment of epidural analgesia induced by xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation in calves. [Journal Article]
- IVIr Vet J 2005 Oct 01; 58(10):567-70
- : The aim of the present study was to investigate whether epidural administration of a xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation would provide satisfactory analgesia for some su…
: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether epidural administration of a xylazine-lidocaine combination accompanied by xylazine sedation would provide satisfactory analgesia for some surgical procedures on 10 calves admitted to the Department of Veterinary Surgery, University of Kafkas with perineal urolithiasis (n:2), rectovaginal fistula (n:1), atresia ani (n:2), omphalophlebitis (n:2), omphaloarteritis (n:1) and umbilical hernia (n:2).Following intramuscular injection of xylazine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg for sedation, xylazine-lidocaine combination (0.2 mg/kg lidocaine + 0.02 mg/kg xylazine + 5 ml 0.9% NaCl) was administrated into the lumbosacral (L6-S1), sacrococcygeal (S5-Co1) or intercoccygeal (Co1-Co2) space. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded prior to and during analgesia at 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Furthermore, depth and duration of analgesia were evaluated during surgical intervention.The study revealed that the combination of epidural xylazine-lidocaine with xylazine sedation was highly satisfactory for surgery of the lower urinary tract and the perineal region, but it was less so for surgery of the umbilical area.
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- Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases. [Journal Article]
- PVPrev Vet Med 2003 May 15; 58(3-4):179-97
- The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in…
The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in individual pens (n=2167), in group pens, with 3-8 calves to a pen and manual feeding of milk (n=440), in group pens with 6-30 calves per pen and an automatic milk-feeding system (n=431), or with their dams (n=43). Disease incidence was recorded by farmers and project veterinarians, who clinically examined the calves and auscultated their lungs every 2-3 months. A disease was graded as 'severe' if the general loss of condition or of appetite in the calf continued for >2 days or if the animal suffered severe weight loss due to the disease. The effects of season, breed, housing, and type of colostrum feeding, and time, place and supervision of calving on the incidences of diarrhea, severe diarrhea, respiratory disease, other infectious disease and moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds, were analyzed by logistic-regression models (with herd as a random effect). The total morbidity rate was 0.081 cases per calf-month at risk. Incidence rates of arthritis, diarrhea, omphalophlebitis, respiratory disease and ringworm were 0.002, 0.035, 0.005, 0.025 and 0.009 cases per calf-months at risk, respectively. The odds ratios for diarrhea and severe diarrhea were increased in Swedish Red and Whites (OR: 1.6, 2.3) and in calves that received colostrum from first-lactation cows (OR: 1.3-1.8), and for severe diarrhea in calves born in summer or that received colostrum through suckling (OR: 1.7, 1.8). The odds ratios for respiratory disease and increased respiratory sounds were increased in calves housed in large-group pens with an automatic milk-feeding system (OR: 2.2, 2.8). Supervision of calving was associated with a decreased odds ratio for respiratory disease (OR: 0.7) and birth in individual maternity pen or tie stalls with a decreased odds ratio for increased respiratory sounds (OR: 0.5-0.6). Cross-breeds with beef breeds were associated with increased odds ratios for increased respiratory sounds (OR: 2.1-4.3) and colostrum from second-lactation cows and birth during night for other infectious disease (OR: 1.6, 1.5).