- HIV-1 Epidemic Control - Insights from Test-and-Treat Trials. [Editorial]
- NEJMN Engl J Med 2019 07 18; 381(3):286-288
- The emerging role of human cytomegalovirus infection in human carcinogenesis: a review of current evidence and potential therapeutic implications. [Review]
- OOncotarget 2019 Jul 02; 10(42):4333-4347
- It is well-established that infections with viruses harboring oncogenic potential increase the cancer risk. Virus induced oncogenic processes are influenced by a complex and unique combination of hos…
It is well-established that infections with viruses harboring oncogenic potential increase the cancer risk. Virus induced oncogenic processes are influenced by a complex and unique combination of host and environmental risk factors that are currently not fully understood. Many of the oncogenic viruses exhibit a prolonged, asymptomatic latency after a primary infection, and cause cancer in only a minority of carriers. From an epidemiologic point of view, it is therefore difficult to determine their role in cancer development. However, recent evidence suggests a neoplastic potential of one additional ubiquitous virus; human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Emerging data presents HCMV as a plausible cancer-causing virus by demonstrating its presence in >90% of common tumor types, while being absent in normal tissue surrounding the tumor. HCMV targets many cell types in tumor tissues, and can cause all the ten proposed hallmarks of cancer. This virus exhibits cellular tumor-promoting and immune-evasive strategies, hijacks proangiogenic and anti-apoptotic mechanisms and induces immunosuppressive effects in the tumor micro-environment. Recognizing new cancer-causing mechanisms may increase the therapeutic potential and prophylactic options for virus associated cancer forms. Such approaches could limit viral spread, and promote anti-viral and immune controlling strategies if given as add on to standard therapy to potentially improve the prognosis of cancer patients. This review will focus on HCMV-related onco-viral mechanisms and the potential of HCMV as a new therapeutic target in HCMV positive cancer forms.
- Thermal stress modifies the marine sponge virome. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Microbiol Rep 2019 Jul 08
- Marine sponges can form stable partnerships with a wide diversity of microbes and viruses, and this high intraspecies symbiont specificity makes them ideal models for exploring how host-associated vi…
Marine sponges can form stable partnerships with a wide diversity of microbes and viruses, and this high intraspecies symbiont specificity makes them ideal models for exploring how host-associated viromes respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we exposed the abundant Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile to elevated seawater temperature for 48 h and utilised a metaviromic approach to assess the response of the associated viral community. An increase in endogenous retro-transcribing viruses within the Caulimorviridae and Retroviridae families was detected within the first 12 h of exposure to 32 °C, and a 30-fold increase in retro-transcribing viruses was evident after 48 h at 32 °C. Thermally stressed sponges also exhibited a complete loss of ssDNA viruses which were prevalent in field samples and sponges from the control temperature treatment. Despite these viromic changes, functional analysis failed to detect any loss or gain of auxiliary metabolic genes, indicating that viral communities are not providing a direct competitive advantage to their host under thermal stress. In contrast, endogenous sponge retro-transcribing viruses appear to be replicating under thermal stress, and consistent with retroviral infections in other organisms, may be contributing to the previously described rapid decline in host health evident at elevated temperature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Prevalence and related factors on diabetes among HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jun 10; 40(6):654-659
- CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rate of diabetes appeared higher in HIV/AIDS patients who were on ART in Dehong. Prevention and control measures should be targeted on HIV/AIDS patients who were with risk factors of diabetes as being elderly, male, HCV positive, overweight and higher TG. Further esearch is needed to evaluate the association between the use of EFV and diabetes.
- [HIV-1 drug resistance and influencing factors among people living with HIV/AIDS before antiretroviral therapy in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jun 10; 40(6):648-653
- CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 drug resistance rate had already been in a high level before antiretroviral therapy was in place. The newly identified recombinant strains of HIV-1 URF_01BC subtype were independently clustered according to the drug resistant mutation sites. It was necessary to strengthen the prevention of the HIV-1 drug resistant strains transmission.
- [Survival analysis on Former Plasma Donors living with HIV/AIDS after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Henan province, 2002-2017]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jun 10; 40(6):638-642
- CONCLUSIONS: The 16-year accumulate survival rate was 61.5% among FPD living with HIV/AIDS after initiation of ART, during 2002 to 2017 in Henan province. The risk factors for FPD death case would include: being males, aged 45 and older years at the initiation of ART, baseline CD(4)<350 cells/μl and the number of baseline opportunistic infections cases ≥1. The protective factors on FPD death appeared as: being married or cohabited as wel as on TMP-SMZ.
- Human papillomavirus and lung cancer: an overview and a meta-analysis. [Review]
- JCJ Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Jun 24
- This review is devoted to assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in lung cancer (LC) in the world. HPV is recognized as the etiological factor of cervical cancer, however, there is wi…
This review is devoted to assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in lung cancer (LC) in the world. HPV is recognized as the etiological factor of cervical cancer, however, there is widespread evidence that this virus is detected not only in gynecological carcinomas, but also in tumors of other organs, in particular the upper respiratory tract and digestive tract.
- Identification of HIV transmitting CD11c+ human epidermal dendritic cells. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 06 21; 10(1):2759
- Langerhans cells (LC) are thought to be the only mononuclear phagocyte population in the epidermis where they detect pathogens. Here, we show that CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) are also present. These…
Langerhans cells (LC) are thought to be the only mononuclear phagocyte population in the epidermis where they detect pathogens. Here, we show that CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) are also present. These cells are transcriptionally similar to dermal cDC2 but are more efficient antigen-presenting cells. Compared to LCs, epidermal CD11c+ DCs are enriched in anogenital tissues where they preferentially interact with HIV, express the higher levels of HIV entry receptor CCR5, support the higher levels of HIV uptake and replication and are more efficient at transmitting the virus to CD4 T cells. Importantly, these findings are observed using both a lab-adapted and transmitted/founder strain of HIV. We also describe a CD33low cell population, which is transcriptionally similar to LCs but does not appear to function as antigen-presenting cells or acts as HIV target cells. Our findings reveal that epidermal DCs in anogenital tissues potentially play a key role in sexual transmission of HIV.
- HIV-1 DNA sequence diversity and evolution during acute subtype C infection. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 06 21; 10(1):2737
- Little is known about the genotypic make-up of HIV-1 DNA genomes during the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection. Here, we use near-full-length, single genome next-generation sequencing to longitudinal…
Little is known about the genotypic make-up of HIV-1 DNA genomes during the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection. Here, we use near-full-length, single genome next-generation sequencing to longitudinally genotype and quantify subtype C HIV-1 DNA in four women identified during acute HIV-1 infection in Durban, South Africa, through twice-weekly screening of high-risk participants. In contrast to chronically HIV-1-infected patients, we found that at the earliest phases of infection in these four participants, the majority of viral DNA genomes are intact, lack APOBEC-3G/F-associated hypermutations, have limited genome truncations, and over one year show little indication of cytotoxic T cell-driven immune selections. Viral sequence divergence during acute infection is predominantly fueled by single-base substitutions and is limited by treatment initiation during the earliest stages of disease. Our observations provide rare longitudinal insights of HIV-1 DNA sequence profiles during the first year of infection to inform future HIV cure research.
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- Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) infection inhibits macrophage formation and survival by counteracting Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF)-induced increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and autophagy. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biochem Cell Biol 2019 Jun 17; 114:105560
- Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) is an oncovirus belonging to the human gammaherpesvirus family, able to infect several immune cell types including B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes. In …
Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) is an oncovirus belonging to the human gammaherpesvirus family, able to infect several immune cell types including B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes. In this study, we found that KSHV infection of monocytes counteracted the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increase induced by Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF), prevented c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) phosphorylation and inhibited autophagy, leading to an impairment of cell survival and differentiation into macrophages. We also show that, to further dysregulate immune response in monocytes, KSHV reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α) while increased the release of the immune suppressive cytokine Interleukin-10 (IL-10). These results unveils new strategies put in place by KSHV to induce immune suppression and to persist into the infected host.