- Revisiting personality in epilepsy: Differentiation of personality in two epilepsies starting in adolescence. [Journal Article]
- EBEpilepsy Behav 2019 Jun 10; 97:75-82
- CONCLUSIONS: Specific personality features were linked to each epileptic disease. These findings highlight the importance of considering unique features linked to epilepsy conditions in daily clinical observation to develop support programmes.
- An Opposition-Based Evolutionary Algorithm for Many-Objective Optimization with Adaptive Clustering Mechanism. [Journal Article]
- CIComput Intell Neurosci 2019; 2019:5126239
- Balancing convergence and diversity has become a key point especially in many-objective optimization where the large numbers of objectives pose many challenges to the evolutionary algorithms. In this…
Balancing convergence and diversity has become a key point especially in many-objective optimization where the large numbers of objectives pose many challenges to the evolutionary algorithms. In this paper, an opposition-based evolutionary algorithm with the adaptive clustering mechanism is proposed for solving the complex optimization problem. In particular, opposition-based learning is integrated in the proposed algorithm to initialize the solution, and the nondominated sorting scheme with a new adaptive clustering mechanism is adopted in the environmental selection phase to ensure both convergence and diversity. The proposed method is compared with other nine evolutionary algorithms on a number of test problems with up to fifteen objectives, which verify the best performance of the proposed algorithm. Also, the algorithm is applied to a variety of multiobjective engineering optimization problems. The experimental results have shown the competitiveness and effectiveness of our proposed algorithm in solving challenging real-world problems.
- Evaluation of Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue and Bone Mineralization on Broiler Chickens Affected by Wooden Breast Myopathy. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2019; 10:674
- In humans, alterations in bone metabolism have been associated with myopathies. We postulate the hypothesis that perhaps similar pathologies can also be associated in modern chickens. Hence, this stu…
In humans, alterations in bone metabolism have been associated with myopathies. We postulate the hypothesis that perhaps similar pathologies can also be associated in modern chickens. Hence, this study aimed to assess the fat infiltration in bone marrow and its repercussion on broiler chicken affected by Wooden Breast (WB) myopathy. Ten Cobb 500 live birds with extreme rigidity of the Pectoralis major (PM) muscle were selected as WB affected chickens by physical examination of the muscle at 49 days of age, whereas ten chickens healthy with no physical signs of hardness in the breast muscle were considered to be unaffected. Macroscopic lesions in affected chickens included areas of firm and inflamed muscle with pale appearance, hemorrhaging, and viscous exudate on the surface. Bone marrow and sections of the PM muscle were collected and analyzed for light microscopy. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy was conducted in affected or unaffected muscle. Chickens affected with WB showed significant reductions (P < 0.05) in femur diameter, calcium, and phosphorous percentage but increased breast weight, compression force and filet thickness when compared with non-affected chickens. Interestingly, bone marrow from WB chicken had subjectively, more abundant infiltration of adipose tissue, when compared with non-affected chickens. Histology of the Pectoralis major of birds with WB showed abundant infiltration of adipose tissue, muscle fibers degeneration with necrosis and infiltration of heterophils and mononuclear cells, connective tissue proliferation, and vasculitis. Ultrastructural changes of WB muscle revealed lack definition of bands in muscle tissue, or any normal ultrastructural anatomy such as myofibrils. The endomysium components were necrotic, and in some areas, the endomysium was notable only as a string of necrotic tissue between degraded myofibrils. The fascia appeared hypertrophied, with large areas of necrosis and myofiber without structural identity with degraded mitochondria adjacent to the disrupted muscle tissue. As far as we know, this is the first study that describes a subjective increase in adipose tissue in the bone marrow of chickens affected with WB when compared with non-affected chickens, and reduced bone mineralization.
- Animal Models and Animal Experimentation in the Development of Deep Brain Stimulation: From a Specific Controversy to a Multidimensional Debate. [Review]
- FNFront Neuroanat 2019; 13:51
- In this article, we explore a specific controversy about animal experimentation and animal models in the recent history of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we question its ramifications. DBS develop…
In this article, we explore a specific controversy about animal experimentation and animal models in the recent history of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we question its ramifications. DBS development intertwines clinical practice with fundamental research and stands at the crossroads of multiple legacies. We take up the various issues and controversies embedded in this rarely addressed dispute, from a standpoint that combines socio-anthropological and legal aspects. Our starting point is a debate on the role of animal experimentation in the development of DBS between Jarrod Bailey, a researcher promoting the abolition of animal experimentation, and Alim Louis Benabid, Marwan Hariz, and Mahlon DeLong, three key figures in the area of DBS and neuroscience. By clarifying the positions of the different protagonists and retracing the issues raised in these discussions, our objective is to show how this specific debate has extended from its initial space and how it provides an object of study with heuristic scope. We first present this partially polemic discussion about the history of DBS, and its link with a more general debate on the validity and use of animal models and the need for animal experiments. Then, we raise the issue of the relations and interactions between experiments on animals and on humans in the logics of biomedical innovation. The third step is to situate the discussion within the wider framework of opposition towards animal experimentation and the promotion of animal' rights. Finally, combining these interweaved issues, possible implications emerge regarding the future of DBS. We show that behind these several controversies lie the question of translational research and the model of medicine upheld by DBS. We describe how the technology contributes to blurring the lines between research (fundamental, preclinical and clinical research) and care, as well as between humans and animals as substrates and objects of knowledge. The dynamics of DBS future development might then become a point of convergence for neuroscientists and animal rights defenders' interests.
- Trajectories of Verbal and Physical Peer Victimization Among Children with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Problems, Conduct Problems and Hyperactive-Attention Problems. [Journal Article]
- CPChild Psychiatry Hum Dev 2019 Jun 12
- The high levels of comorbidity between oppositional/conduct problems and hyperactivity/attention problems underscore the need for assessing how vulnerability for peer victimization is shaped by overl…
The high levels of comorbidity between oppositional/conduct problems and hyperactivity/attention problems underscore the need for assessing how vulnerability for peer victimization is shaped by overlap among these behavior problems. Children (mean age 8.39, SD = 0.93) participating in a longitudinal study of the development of conduct problems (N = 744; 348 girls) in Quebec, Canada, were evaluated by their teachers regarding experiences of peer verbal and physical victimization every year for 6 years. Parent and teacher ratings of clinically significant oppositional/conduct problems, and hyperactivity/attention problems, as well as cormorbid opposition defiant/conduct problems and hyperactivity/attention problems were regressed onto trajectories of verbal and physical victimization. While behavior problems (both alone and together) were associated with higher levels of verbal and physical victimization, some variation was observed across rater and type of victimization. Ultimately, these findings suggest the importance of adapting programming for reducing victimization to children with oppositional and conduct problems.
- Level and Correlates of Unmet Need of Contraception among Women in Extended Postpartum in Northern Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Reprod Med 2019; 2019:6351478
- CONCLUSIONS: The unmet need for family planning was high. Rural residence, increased maternal postpartum week, and low perceived risk of pregnancy were associated with high unmet need. Opposition from different sects of the community and provider refusal of implant removal were also other factors triggering unmet need. Empowering women with knowledge of the risk of pregnancy and FP use during an extended postpartum period should be enhanced. Further awareness creation should be extended to periphery at different levels of the community.
- Cancer stigma and cancer screening attendance: a population based survey in England. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2019 Jun 11; 19(1):566
- CONCLUSIONS: Cancer stigma is generally low, but some aspects of stigma are more prevalent than others. Stigma is more prevalent in certain population subgroups and is negatively associated with cancer screening uptake. These benchmark findings may help track and reduce cancer stigma over time.
- [Tratamiento conservador de la osteoartrosis de cadera con toxina botulínica tipo A]. [Journal Article]
- GMGac Med Mex 2019; 155(Suppl 1):S56-S61
- CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with BoNT-A provides a conservative and safe option for the management of symptoms and physical restraint caused by hip OA.
- Reducing the Crystallite Size of Spherulites in PEO-Based Polymer Nanocomposites Mediated by Carbon Nanodots and Ag Nanoparticles. [Journal Article]
- NNanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Jun 09; 9(6)
- The PEO-based polymer nanocomposites were prepared by solution cast method. Green approaches were used for synthesis of carbon nanodots (CNDs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). It was found that the…
The PEO-based polymer nanocomposites were prepared by solution cast method. Green approaches were used for synthesis of carbon nanodots (CNDs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). It was found that the crystallite size of spherulites of PEO was greatly scarified upon incorporation of CNDs and Ag NPs. In the present work, in opposition to other studies, broadening of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of metallic Ag NPs in PEO-based polymer composites was observed rather than peak tuning. Various techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL), were used to characterize the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the samples. Increase of amorphous phase for the PEO doped with CND particles was shown from the results of XRD analyses. Upon the addition of suspended Ag NPs to the PEO:CNDs composites, significant change of XRD peak position was seen. A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology of the samples. In the SEM, a significant change in the crystalline structure was seen. The size of PEO spherulites in the PEO nanocomposite samples became smaller and the percentage of amorphous portion became larger, owing to the distribution of CNDs and Ag NPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the PEO-based polymer were found to improve and shift to higher wavelengths upon incorporation of CNDs and Ag NPs into the PEO matrix. The SPR peak broadening in the UV-Vis spectra was observed in the PEO:CNDs composites due to the Ag NPs. The absorption edge value of PEO was found to shift toward lower photon energy as the CNDs and Ag NPs are introduced. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra were also observed for the PEO:CNDs and PEO:CNDs:Ag samples and found to be more intense in the PEO:CNDs system than in the PEO:CNDs:Ag system. Lastly, the optical band gap of the samples was further studied in detail using of Tauc's model and optical dielectric loss parameter. The types of electron transition were specified.
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- Physician activism in American politics: The opposition to the Price nomination. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0215802
- Although a substantial literature considers physician advocacy fundamental to medical professionalism, only a minority of physicians actually pursue it. We analyze the characteristics of 6,402 physic…
Although a substantial literature considers physician advocacy fundamental to medical professionalism, only a minority of physicians actually pursue it. We analyze the characteristics of 6,402 physicians who engaged in political advocacy by signing the Clinician Action Network's 2016 petition objecting to the American Medical Association's endorsement of the nomination of Tom Price as Secretary of Health and Human Services. These physicians were matched to the NPI (all physicians) and PECOS (largely Medicare payment recipients) directories. Physicians in the directories were matched to publicly disclosed campaign contributions. Contributions are used to measure political preferences expressed on a liberal-conservative scale. We document a pronounced generational realignment in the politics of the medical profession, with recent graduates trending sharply Democratic. Petition signing vs. non-signing is responsive to gender, specialty, geographic location, personal liberal-conservative preferences and year of graduation from medical school. Petition signers were more likely to be women (62% of signers versus 34% of non-signers), recent medical school graduates (58% of signers versus 42% of non-signers), and in lower-paying specialties (27% of signers versus 12% of non-signers). The changing face of physician advocacy has important implications for understanding how the medical profession is likely to influence health care policy in coming decades.