- Identification of novel genes associated with anti-phagocytic functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. [Journal Article]
- VMVet Microbiol 2019; 233:28-38
- The anti-phagocytic abilities of bacteria often affect bacterial pathogenicity. Here, random mutant library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was constructed using transposon mutagenes…
The anti-phagocytic abilities of bacteria often affect bacterial pathogenicity. Here, random mutant library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was constructed using transposon mutagenesis. After careful screening, 30 transposon mutants with different transposon insertion sites were identified by conducting quantitative phagocytosis and insertion-site confirmation assays, whose anti-phagocytic abilities were significantly reduced relative to the wild-type strain. Insertion sites of 19 strains were monocistronic, including genes coding membrane proteins, transporters, and enzymes with unknown pathological function, such as sadM, adhP, purD, guaA, alpha-galactosidase coding gene, ABC transporter permease coding gene, metallo-beta-lactamase coding gene, and three secreted enzyme coding genes spuZ, slaB, and endoS, as well as known virulence factor coding genes, such as hasA and szM. The insertion sites of another 11 strains were polycistronic. We focused on four monocistronic-mutant strains: MhtpZ, MspuZ, MslaB, and MendoS. The anti-phagocytic abilities of not only the mutants that were precoincubated with the recombinant proteins, but also the complement strains were significantly more pronounced than those of all four corresponding mutants. The polyclonal antiserum against SlaB or EndoS also significantly decreased the anti-phagocytic capacity of wild-type SEZ. All four mutants exhibited significantly decreased viability in whole blood and reduced lethality in mice relative to the wild-type strain. Thus, we identified a variety of new anti-phagocytic factors, particularly multiple SEZ secreted enzymes. These factors are instrumental in the phagocytic resistance of SEZ in the absence of opsonin. Our results provide a framework for further studies of SEZ pathogenesis and relevant vaccine development for novel potential targets.
- Binding and uptake of single and dual-opsonized targets by macrophages. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2019 Jun 06
- Our current understanding of phagocytosis is largely derived from studies of individual receptor-ligand interactions and their downstream signaling pathways. Because phagocytes are exposed to a varie…
Our current understanding of phagocytosis is largely derived from studies of individual receptor-ligand interactions and their downstream signaling pathways. Because phagocytes are exposed to a variety of ligands on heterogeneous target particles in vivo, it is important to observe the engagement of multiple receptors simultaneously and the triggered involvement of downstream signaling pathways. Potential crosstalk between the two well-characterized opsonic receptors, FcγR and CR3, was briefly explored in the early 1970s, where macrophages were challenged with dual-opsonized targets. However, subsequent studies on receptor crosstalk were primarily restricted to using single opsonins on different targets, typically at saturating opsonin conditions. Beyond validating these initial explorations on receptor crosstalk, we identify the early signaling mechanisms that underlie the binding and phagocytosis during the simultaneous activation of both opsonic receptors, through the presence of a dual-opsonized target (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and C3bi), compared with single receptor activation. For this purpose, we used signaling protein inhibitor studies as well as live cell brightfield and fluorescent imaging to fully understand the role of tyrosine kinases, F-actin dynamics and internalization kinetics for FcγR and CR3. Importantly, opsonic receptors were studied together and in isolation, in the context of sparsely opsonized targets. We observed enhanced particle binding and a synergistic effect on particle internalization during the simultaneous activation of FcγR and CR3 engaged with sparsely opsonized targets. Inhibition of early signaling and cytoskeletal molecules revealed a differential involvement of Src kinase for FcγR- vs CR3- and dual receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Src activity recruits Syk kinase and we observed intermediate levels of Syk phosphorylation in dual-opsonized particles compared with those opsonized with IgG or C3bi alone. These results likely explain the intermediate levels of F-actin that is recruited to sites of dual-opsonized particle uptake and the notoriously delayed internalization of C3bi-opsonized targets by macrophages.
- Low-density lipoprotein as an opsonin promoting the phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by U937 cells. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microbiol 2019 May 11
- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was recently reported to be an opsonin, enhancing the phagocytosis of group A Streptococcus (GAS) by human monocytic leukemia U937 cells due to the binding of LDL to som…
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was recently reported to be an opsonin, enhancing the phagocytosis of group A Streptococcus (GAS) by human monocytic leukemia U937 cells due to the binding of LDL to some GAS strains. We postulated that LDL might also promote the opsonophagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by U937 cells since this bacterium interacts with LDL. In this study, P. aeruginosa (CMCC10104), U937 cells, and human LDL were used in phagocytosis assays to test our hypothesis. Escherichia coli strain BL21, which does not interact with LDL, was used as a negative control. Colony counting and fluorescence microscopy were used to determine the bacterial quantity in the opsonophagocytosis assays. After incubation of U937 cells and P. aeruginosa with LDL (100 µg/ml) for 15 and 30 min, phagocytosis was observed to be increased by 22.71% and 32.90%, respectively, compared to that seen in the LDL-free group. However, LDL did not increase the phagocytosis of E. coli by U937 cells. In addition, we identified CD36 as a major opsonin receptor on U937 cells, since an anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody, but not an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody, almost completely abolished the opsonophagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by U937 cells.
- Hemolymph C1qDC promotes the phagocytosis of oyster Crassostrea gigas hemocytes by interacting with the membrane receptor β-integrin. [Journal Article]
- DCDev Comp Immunol 2019; 98:42-53
- Phagocytosis constitutes a conserved cellular process for multicellular animals to ingest or engulf other cells or particles, which is facilitated by the use of opsonins to bind foreign particles and…
Phagocytosis constitutes a conserved cellular process for multicellular animals to ingest or engulf other cells or particles, which is facilitated by the use of opsonins to bind foreign particles and interact with cell surface receptors. The invertebrate secreted C1q domain-containing proteins (C1qDCs) have been reported to exhibit opsonic activity, while the detailed mechanisms of opsonization still remain unclear. In the present study, a C1qDC (designated as CgC1qDC-5) with opsonic activity was identified from the hemolymph of oyster Crassostrea gigas. CgC1qDC-5 exhibited the ability to bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Lipid A. It could also bind and agglutinate Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio splendidus and Vibrio anguillarum, whereas the agglutinating activity could be inhibited by LPS. In addition, CgC1qDC-5 could enhance the phagocytosis of hemocytes toward E. coli, V. splendidus, and V. anguillarum. GST pull-down and surface plasmon resonance assays in vitro revealed that CgC1qDC-5 could interact with β-integrin (CgIntegrin). In vivo, CgC1qDC-5 was observed to bind hemocytes and co-localized with CgIntegrin on the cell membrane of hemocytes. Antibody-mediated blockage of CgIntegrin hindered the CgC1qDC-5-enhanced hemocytic phagocytosis. CgIntegrin also exhibited the ability to bind the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, V. splendidus, V. anguillarum and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and PAMP of LPS, but not Lipid A. A phagocytosis assay demonstrated that CgIntegrin could directly mediate phagocytosis toward bacteria as a phagocytic receptor. These results collectively suggested that CgC1qDC-5 could serve as an opsonin to recognize and bind bacteria, and subsequently interact with CgIntegrin on the hemocyte surface to enhance the CgIntegrin-mediated phagocytosis in oyster.
- Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in Ruditapes philippinarum: A versatile receptor with multiple functions. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019; 88:328-334
- In the present study, a scavenger receptor class B type I (designed as RpSR-BI) was cloned and characterized from manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The full-length cDNA of RpSR-BI was of 2000 bp, …
In the present study, a scavenger receptor class B type I (designed as RpSR-BI) was cloned and characterized from manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The full-length cDNA of RpSR-BI was of 2000 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1515 bp. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that RpSR-BI was a member of the scavenger receptors family. The mRNA transcript of RpSR-BI was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, and mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and hemocytes. Generally, Vibrio anguillarum or Micrococcus luteus challenge induced the expression of RpSR-BI transcripts in hemocytes of manila clams. Recombinant protein of RpSR-BI (rRpSR-BI) could bind lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan and glucan, but not chitin in vitro. Coinciding with the PAMPs binding assay, a broad agglutination spectrum was displayed by rRpSR-BI including Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, rRpSR-BI could enhance the phagocytosis and chemotaxis of hemocytes. These results showed that RpSR-BI functioned as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) with distinct recognition spectrum, and also as an opsonin involved in the innate immune response of R. philippinarum.
- Glutaminyl cyclase is an enzymatic modifier of the CD47- SIRPα axis and a target for cancer immunotherapy. [Journal Article]
- NMedNat Med 2019; 25(4):612-619
- Cancer cells can evade immune surveillance through the expression of inhibitory ligands that bind their cognate receptors on immune effector cells. Expression of programmed death ligand 1 in tumor mi…
Cancer cells can evade immune surveillance through the expression of inhibitory ligands that bind their cognate receptors on immune effector cells. Expression of programmed death ligand 1 in tumor microenvironments is a major immune checkpoint for tumor-specific T cell responses as it binds to programmed cell death protein-1 on activated and dysfunctional T cells1. The activity of myeloid cells such as macrophages and neutrophils is likewise regulated by a balance between stimulatory and inhibitory signals. In particular, cell surface expression of the CD47 protein creates a 'don't eat me' signal on tumor cells by binding to SIRPα expressed on myeloid cells2-5. Using a haploid genetic screen, we here identify glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase-like protein (QPCTL) as a major component of the CD47-SIRPα checkpoint. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that QPCTL is critical for pyroglutamate formation on CD47 at the SIRPα binding site shortly after biosynthesis. Genetic and pharmacological interference with QPCTL activity enhances antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis and cellular cytotoxicity of tumor cells. Furthermore, interference with QPCTL expression leads to a major increase in neutrophil-mediated killing of tumor cells in vivo. These data identify QPCTL as a novel target to interfere with the CD47 pathway and thereby augment antibody therapy of cancer.
- Magnesium Fluoride Forms Unique Protein Corona for Efficient Delivery of Doxorubicin into Breast Cancer Cells. [Journal Article]
- TToxics 2019 Feb 22; 7(1)
- CONCLUSIONS: Particle size on average was estimated to be <200 nm. The crystals were cubic in shape. The particles were pH-sensitive and capable of releasing doxorubicin in increasing acidic conditions. MgF₂ nanocrystals were safe in lower concentrations, and when bound to doxorubicin, enhanced its uptake. The protein corona formed around MgF₂ nanoparticles lacks typical opsonins but contains some dysopsonins.A drug delivery vector in the form of MgF₂ nanocrystals has been developed to transport doxorubicin into breast cancer cells. It is pH-sensitive (allowing for controlled release), size-modifiable, simple and cheap to produce.
- Association of serum levels of C-reactive protein with CRP-717 T/C polymorphism and viremia in HCV and HBV carriers. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Soc Bras Med Trop 2019 Feb 21; 52:e20180455
- CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrated a close relationship between the ability of the virus to replicate and cause liver damage and low serum concentrations of C-reactive protein. Future research may determine if these results can be interpreted as a possible form of escape for the virus by decreasing its action as an opsonin and decreasing phagocytosis, which are functions of C-reactive protein in the immune response.
- Shape and Phase Transitions in a PEGylated Phospholipid System. [Journal Article]
- LLangmuir 2019 Mar 19; 35(11):3999-4010
- Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers and PEG-conjugated lipids are widely used in bioengineering and drug transport applications. A PEG layer in a drug carrier increases hydrophilic repulsion, inhibi…
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers and PEG-conjugated lipids are widely used in bioengineering and drug transport applications. A PEG layer in a drug carrier increases hydrophilic repulsion, inhibits membrane fusion and serum opsonin interactions, and prolongs the storage and circulation time. It can also change the carrier shape and have an influence on many properties related to the content release of the carrier. In this paper, we focus on the physicochemical effects of PEGylation in the lipid bilayer. We introduce laurdanC as a fluorophore for shape recognition and phase transition detection. Together with laurdanC, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulations, and small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering, we acquire information of the particle/bilayer morphology and phase behavior in systems containing 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:1,2-distearoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG(2000) with different fractions. We find that PEGylation leads to two important and potentially usable features of the system. (1) Spherical vesicles present a window of elevated chain-melting temperatures and (2) lipid packing shape-controlled liposome-to-bicelle transition. The first finding is significant for targets requiring multiple release sequences and the second enables tuning the release by composition and the PEG polymer length. Besides drug delivery systems, the findings can be used in other smart soft materials with trigger-polymers as well.
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- Unaltered prion disease in mice lacking developmental endothelial locus-1. [Journal Article]
- NANeurobiol Aging 2019; 76:208-213
- Progression of prion diseases is driven by the accumulation of prions in the brain. Ablation of microglia or deletion of the eat-me-signal, milk-fat globule epidermal growth factor VIII (Mfge8), acce…
Progression of prion diseases is driven by the accumulation of prions in the brain. Ablation of microglia or deletion of the eat-me-signal, milk-fat globule epidermal growth factor VIII (Mfge8), accelerates prion pathogenesis, suggesting that microglia defend the brain by phagocytosing prions. Similar to Mfge8, developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a secreted protein that acts as an opsonin bridging phagocytes and apoptotic cells to facilitate phagocytosis. We therefore asked whether Del-1 might play a role in controlling prion pathogenesis. We assessed the anti-inflammatory and phagocytosis-promoting functions of Del-1 in prion disease and determined whether Del-1 complements Mfge8 in prion clearance in mice with a C57BL/6J genetic background. We found that Del-1 deficiency did not change prion disease progression or lesion patterns. In addition, prion clearance and scrapie prion protein deposition were unaltered in Del-1-deficient mice. In addition, prion-induced neuroinflammation was not affected by Del-1 deficiency. We conclude that Del-1 is not a major determinant of prion pathogenesis in this context.