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707,590 results
  • StatPearls: Exophthalmos [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Butt Shamus S University of Bristol Patel Bhupendra C. BC University of Utah BOOK
  • Exophthalmos (also known as proptosis) is the protrusion of one eye or both anteriorly out of the orbit. It derives from Greek, meaning 'bulging eyes.'[1] It occurs due to an increase in orbital contents in the regular anatomy of the bony orbit.[2] Depending on the underlying cause, exophthalmos may be accompanied by systemic symptoms. Vision may be disturbed if the optic nerve is compressed in c…
  • StatPearls: Ocular Tuberculosis [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Neuhouser Adam J. AJ University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Sallam Ahmed A UAMS BOOK
  • Ocular tuberculosis is a clinical disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). It has various modes of transmission, and it can infect virtually any ocular tissue. Much like the ability of syphilis to mimic various skin conditions, TB should be thought of as “the great imitator” of ocular pathologies. Choroidal tubercles were first anatomically described in 1855 and identified with an ophth…
  • StatPearls: Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Hu Katherine K University of Utah Patel Jay J University of Utah Patel Bhupendra C. BC University of Utah BOOK
  • Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is defined as the failure of drainage of tears down the nasolacrimal system in the neonatal age group. It results in tearing, which is termed "epiphora." The prevalence of CNLDO is between 5% and 20%.[1][2] A comprehensive study of 4792 infants in Great Britain showed that the prevalence of epiphora in the first year of life was 20%, with 95% of th…
  • StatPearls: Cataract Surgery [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Moshirfar Majid M University of Utah/John Moran Eye Center; Hoopes Vision/HDR Research Center; Utah Lions Eye Bank Milner Dallin D University of Colorado School of Medicine Patel Bhupendra C. BC University of Utah BOOK
  • Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most cataracts are age-related. Age-related cataracts are due to the opacification of the lens. The crystalline lens is a biconvex structure that focuses light on the retina. It is transparent with a diameter of 10 mm and an axial length of around 4 mm. T…
  • StatPearls: Herpes Simplex Ophthalmicus [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Kanukollu Venkata M. VM Darlington Memorial Hospital Patel Bhupendra C. BC University of Utah BOOK
  • Herpes simplex ophthalmicus (HSO) is caused by the neurotropic herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 and affects all the structures of the eye. Primary infection occurs in the form of blepharoconjunctivitis both in neonate through birth canal transmission and in children through orofacial mucus membrane transmission. Primary infection is often self-limiting, and the virus ascends through the cut…
  • StatPearls: Radial Keratotomy Correction [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Fu Lanxing L Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester University Foundation Trust Patel Bhupendra C. BC University of Utah BOOK
  • Refractive surgery is surgical or laser procedures to alter the eye's refractive power and decrease the patient's dependence on spectacles and contact lenses. Radial keratotomy (RK) was one of the first and most commonly performed refractive surgical procedures of the 20th century. Approximately 10% of practicing ophthalmologists in the United States have performed several hundred thousand RK pro…
  • StatPearls: Schirmer Test [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Brott Nathan R. NR University of Tennessee HSC Ronquillo Yasmyne Y Hoopes Vision Research Center BOOK
  • The Schirmer test or Schirmer tear test (STT) is used to assess tear production, especially in patients with suspected keratoconjunctivitis sicca, dry eye, or tear overproduction. The test works by the principle of capillary action, which allows the water in tears to travel along the length of a paper test strip in an identical fashion as a horizontal capillary tube. The rate of travel along the …
  • StatPearls: Fuchs Uveitis Syndrome [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Moshirfar Majid M University of Utah/John Moran Eye Center; Hoopes Vision/HDR Research Center; Utah Lions Eye Bank Villarreal Alex A McGovern Medical School Ronquillo Yasmyne Y Hoopes Vision Research Center BOOK
  • Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) is a chronic, typically unilateral mild anterior uveitis that was first described by Ernst Fuchs in 1906. FUS is also referred to as Fuchs heterochromic uveitis and Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. The exact etiology of FUS is unknown. When first described, Fuchs had many theories about what caused this unique pathology; however, over the years, many of these have b…
  • StatPearls: Vitreous Hemorrhage [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Jena Soumya S Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • The vitreous humor is a transparent, colorless, jelly-like, hydrophilic gel, which helps in maintaining the transparency and structure of the eye. Its volume in an adult eye is around 4ml, which is nearly 80% of the globe. It is composed of 98 to 99% water, and the rest is collagen, hyaluronic acid, and electrolytes. Any blood in the vitreous cavity is known as vitreous hemorrhage (VH). By defini…
  • StatPearls: Optic Atrophy [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Ahmad Syed Shoeb SS Kanukollu Venkata M. VM Darlington Memorial Hospital BOOK
  • Optic atrophy is a pathological term referring to optic nerve shrinkage caused by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. The term “optic atrophy” is regarded as a misnomer since atrophy implies disuse. Therefore, a better term for optic atrophy would be “optic neuropathy.” However, that term is also controversial since, in certain situations, such as primary optic atrophy or traum…
  • StatPearls: Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Dave Soham D. SD College of Physician and Surgeons Meyer Jay J. JJ University of Auckland BOOK
  • Glaucoma is a heterogeneous condition that leads to damage of the optic nerve and may result in visual field loss, including complete blindness. Anatomically, glaucoma is classified into open-angle glaucoma and close angle glaucoma. A closed-angle is an anatomical configuration in which there is a mechanical blockage of the trabecular meshwork by the peripheral iris. Etiologically, it can be clas…
  • StatPearls: Drusen Bodies [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) VanDenLangenberg Adam M. AM Louisiana State University Health Shreveport School of Medicine Carson Michael P. MP Hackensack Meridian Health / Seton Hall BOOK
  • Drusen bodies are extracellular deposits of lipids, proteins, and cellular debris which are found within the layers of the retina and appear as small, yellow deposits on dilated eye exams. Specifically, drusen reside between the basal lamina of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the inner layer of the Bruch membrane (BM). These sub-RPE deposits are seen with the progression of normal aging;…
  • StatPearls: Endophthalmitis [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Simakurthy Sriram S AIIMS, NEW DELHI Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • Endophthalmitis is defined as an inflammation of inner coats of the eye, resulting from intraocular colonization of infectious agents with exudation within intraocular fluids (vitreous and aqueous).[1] Based on the mode of entry of the organism, it is divided into 'exogenous' and 'endogenous.' Depending on the causative event, the exogenous endophthalmitis can be either post-traumatic or postoper…
  • StatPearls: Marcus Gunn Jaw Winking Syndrome [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Senthilkumar Vijayalakshmi A. VA Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • Marcus Gunn jaw-winking syndrome (MGJWS) is noted in congenital blepharoptosis. MGJWS was first described by a Scottish ophthalmologist Dr.Robert Marcus Gunn in the year 1883. This syndrome was initially reported in a 15-year-old girl as unilateral ptosis associated with the upper eyelid contraction on the same side.[1] Other names of MGJWS include Marcus-Gunn jaw winking phenomenon (MGP), Marcus…
  • StatPearls: Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION) [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Raizada Kshitij K Prakash Netra Kendr Margolin Edward E University of Toronto BOOK
  • Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common cause of optic nerve swelling and optic neuropathy in adults over 50 years of age.[1]. Risk factors that have been strongly associated with NAION include hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, cardio- and cerebrovascular disease, and obstructive sleep apnea.[2]. While the exact pathogenesis of a NAION has …
  • StatPearls: Trachoma [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Ahmad Bilal B King Edward University/Mayo Hosp, Lahore Patel Bhupendra C. BC University of Utah BOOK
  • Trachoma is a bacterial infection of the eyes caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection leads to scarring of the inner surface of the eyelids and erosion of the corneal surface, which eventually leads to blindness. Trachoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide today. The bacteria are transmitted via direct or indirect contact. Contact with the affected person's eye or nose are…
  • StatPearls: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Okonkwo Ogugua N. ON Eye Foundation Hospital Tripathy Koushik K Gyasi Michael E. ME St. Thomas Eye Hospital BOOK
  • Onchocerciasis, also known as the African river blindness, is the second most important cause of infectious blindness worldwide after trachoma. It is caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and transmitted by repeated bites of the vector, female black fly of the genus Simulium damnosum. The vector breeds in fast-flowing and oxygen-rich rivers in affected areas with transmission and …
  • StatPearls: Locked-in Syndrome [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) M Das Joe J National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London Anosike Kingsley K Temple University Hospital Asuncion Ria Monica D. RMD University of Santo Tomas, Medicine and Surgery BOOK
  • Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a complex medical condition presenting with quadriplegia, bulbar palsy, and whole-body sensory loss due to damage in the brain stem, most commonly the anterior pons. Cognition, vertical eye movement, blinking, and hearing are classically preserved in patients suffering from the condition. The diagnosis of the locked-in syndrome is often challenging due to its similarit…
  • StatPearls: Physiology, Skeletal Muscle Contraction [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Pham Steven S Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine Puckett Yana Y Texas Tech Un Health Sciences Center BOOK
  • As organs that contain cells that can contract, muscles can generate force and movement. Skeletal muscle works in conjunction with the bones of the skeleton to create body movements. Additionally, it is also associated with the diaphragmatic, esophageal, and eye muscles. Thus, skeletal muscle serves a variety of purposes, including moving of the body, breathing, and swallowing. In contrast to bot…
  • StatPearls: Somnambulism (Sleep Walking) [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Zergham Azka S. AS Larkin Community Hospital- Hialeah, Florida Chauhan Zeeshan Z Aventura Hospital and Medical Center BOOK
  • Somnambulism is the medical term used for sleepwalking that includes undesirable actions such as walking, that occur during abrupt but limited arousals from deep non-rapid eye movement (NREM) slow-wave sleep.[1] Somnambulism is characterized by: Incomplete arousal occurring during NREM sleep, usually during the earlier third of the night. The ability or inability to recall dream content. Simple o…
  • StatPearls: Epithelial Downgrowth [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Moshirfar Majid M University of Utah/John Moran Eye Center; Hoopes Vision/HDR Research Center; Utah Lions Eye Bank Hall MacGregor MG McGovern Medical School at UT Health Ronquillo Yasmyne Y Hoopes Vision Research Center BOOK
  • Epithelial downgrowth is a rare, but vision-threatening, complication of penetrating ocular trauma or intraocular surgery. In this disease, epithelial cells enter the anterior chamber and proliferate into intraocular structures. Stratified squamous epithelium is not normally present in the interior of the eye but can grow into nearly any intraocular structure. Epithelialization can appear in thre…
  • StatPearls: Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Monserrate Andres E. AE University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine De Jesus Orlando O University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Neurosurgery Section BOOK
  • The visual field test maps the vision in each eye by measuring the entire scope (central and peripheral) of vision when attention is focused on a central point. A visual field deficit can help to localize a lesion along the visual pathway. These deficits are divided, taking into consideration if they are unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral deficits are caused by retinal and optic nerve disease. B…
  • StatPearls: Pinguecula [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Somnath Anjana A Aravind Eye Hospital Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • Pinguecula is a common degeneration of the conjunctiva. Pinguecula has originated from the Latin word "pinguis," which means fat or grease. It is usually bilateral but can be unilateral also.
  • StatPearls: Snellen Chart [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Azzam Daniel D Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA Ronquillo Yasmyne Y Hoopes Vision Research Center BOOK
  • Invented in 1862 by a Dutch ophthalmologist named Herman Snellen, the Snellen chart remains the most widespread technique in clinical practice for measuring visual acuity.[1][2] The Snellen chart serves as a portable tool to quickly assess monocular and binocular visual acuity. Throughout history, there have been several charts utilized by eye care professionals. The most common in clinical pract…
  • StatPearls: Syphilis Ocular Manifestations [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Koundanya Vikram V. VV Indira Gandhi Eye Hospital and Research Center Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • Syphilis was initially called the "French disease" by the people of Naples as they claimed that the disease was spread by French troops during the French invasion in the late 15th century. The disease acquired its current name, syphilis, from the title character of a poem written by Italian physician and poet Girolamo Fracastoro, describing the havoc of the disease in his country in 1530.[1] The …
  • StatPearls: Retinal Traction Detachment [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Mishra Chitaranjan C Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai Tripathy Koushik K BOOK
  • Retinal traction detachment (RTD) or tractional retinal detachment (TRD) is defined as the separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to the traction caused by proliferative membranes present over the retinal surface or vitreous. The proliferative membranes can result from different etiologies of proliferative retinopathies, the most common being prolifera…
  • StatPearls: Pediatric Facial Trauma [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Rogan Daniel T. DT Stanford University Healthcare Fang Andrea A BOOK
  • Trauma is the leading cause of injury and death in the pediatric population.[1] Head trauma is the most common form of pediatric trauma, though reassuringly maxillofacial trauma is less common.[2] Facial trauma ranges from soft tissue, bony, and neurovascular injuries that can be due to any trauma, affecting the face, including the eyes, nose, mouth, bones, and skin. In infants and younger pediat…
  • StatPearls: Homonymous Hemianopsia [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Wolberg Adam A Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine Kapoor Nidhi N University of Arkansas BOOK
  • Homonymous hemianopsia (or homonymous hemianopia, HH) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye. This condition most commonly results from stroke for adults, or tumors/lesions for patients under the age of 18.[1] Often, the cause of HH is located at the occipital lobe, followed by an injury to the optic radiations or optic tract.[1] HH can also be characterized as…
  • StatPearls: Eyelid Coloboma [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Kanukollu Venkata M. VM Darlington Memorial Hospital Ahmad Syed Shoeb SS BOOK
  • The term coloboma derives from a Greek word “koloboma,” which means mutilated or curtailed or a hole or a defect in tissue. An eyelid coloboma is a congenital full-thickness defect of the eyelid margin seen in about 1 in 10000 births and may also involve different structures of the eye: eyelids, iris, lens, ciliary body, choroid, retina, or optic nerve.[1]  Congenital eyelid coloboma is can be un…
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