- Optograms and criminology: science, news reporting, and fanciful novels. [Historical Article]
- PBProg Brain Res 2013; 205:55-84
- A persistent nineteenth-century urban legend was the notion that photograph-like images of the last-seen object or person would be preserved in the eyes of the dead. This popular notion followed tech…
A persistent nineteenth-century urban legend was the notion that photograph-like images of the last-seen object or person would be preserved in the eyes of the dead. This popular notion followed technological developments (the daguerreotype and ophthalmoscope) that antedated by decades a basic understanding of retinal physiology. From 1876 to 1877, Boll described photochemical bleaching of the retina and produced a crude retinal image that remained briefly visible after death in an experimental animal. From 1877 to 1881, Kühne elaborated the processes involved in photochemical transduction, and created more complex retinal images, or "optograms," that were visible after the death of experimental animals under special laboratory circumstances. In 1880, Kühne reported the first human "optogram" when he examined the eyes following the state execution of a convicted murderer. Although the work of these physiologists increased public interest in "optography" as a potential tool in forensic investigations, Kühne and his student, Ayres, concluded after an extensive series of investigations that optography would never be useful for this purpose. Nevertheless, because of the prior tantalizing results, optography became a frequent consideration in speculative news reports of sensational unsolved murders, and as a plot device in works of fiction, some quite fantastical. Fictional portrayals included works by Rudyard Kipling and Jules Verne. Despite denouncement of optography for forensic investigations by Kühne, and by numerous physicians, the general public and mass media continued to press for examination of the retinae of murder victims well into the twentieth century, particularly in high-profile unsolved cases.
- Cell culture procedure and the optometric method to study cells in vitro. [Journal Article]
- RARoum Arch Microbiol Immunol 1999 Apr-Jul; 58(2):147-55
- The cells are cultivated using an original licensed procedure named "homogeneous sets". This consists of cell growth in monolayer using as holder several plates specially designed to enable the study…
The cells are cultivated using an original licensed procedure named "homogeneous sets". This consists of cell growth in monolayer using as holder several plates specially designed to enable the study both by use of the optometric method we elaborated and by classical techniques (microscopy). Using the suggested method, a stress can be induced under control. Stress induction is undertaken through physical, chemical, biological factors or all of these taken together. The reactivity to stress consists of changes in cell morphology, which can be evidenced by graphically recording the optical density variation in time, contraction curves being thus obtained. Dimensions, the initial and final values, the characteristic zones, angles and the arrow are thus chosen as to characterize the cell reactivity and the most significant periods of time during the experiment. The contraction curves can be interpreted somewhat similarly to the electrocardiogram, so that the term we chose is the "OPTOGRAM". The recovery to the cells normal state is ascertained by the relaxation curves. The cell culture procedure and the optometric evaluation method provide the means to study cell reactivity to different aggressive or protective agents.
- Clinical assessment of rhodopsin in the eye. Using a standard fundus camera and a photographic technique. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Ophthalmol 1976; 60(2):135-41
- A technique based on the method of differential fundus reflectometry is used to assess the availability of rhodopsin in the eye. A defined part of the dark adapted fundus is bleached by a short inten…
A technique based on the method of differential fundus reflectometry is used to assess the availability of rhodopsin in the eye. A defined part of the dark adapted fundus is bleached by a short intense flash of light. The fundus is subsequently photographed in order to record the flux reflected from the bleached area, the optogram, and the surrounding unbleached region. This procedure requires only a few simple modifications to a Zeiss fundus camera before it can be used routinely in the clinic.
- Red-free light fundus photography. Photographic optogram. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol 1968; 7(3):241-9