- Concentrations of organohalogens (PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs) in hunted and stranded Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska from 1992 to 2010: Links to pathology and feeding ecology. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 04; 691:789-798
- Many organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) found in appreciable concentrations in marine predators. While production of some POPs has declined or ceased in recent de…
Many organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) found in appreciable concentrations in marine predators. While production of some POPs has declined or ceased in recent decades, their capacity for global transport and bioaccumulation results in observations of unchanging or increasing concentrations in marine systems. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been advocated as an environmental sentinel for contaminants due to their longevity, site fidelity and prey species that often overlap with human consumption. Using archived (1992-2010) samples of livers from Northern sea otters (n = 50) from Alaska we examine concentrations of chlordanes (CHLs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and associated metabolites. We found some evidence for declining ΣPCBs over the two decades, however for most animals concentrations were low compared to toxicological thresholds. Six animals had relatively high concentrations of ΣPCBs (mean = 262,000 ng/g lipid weight), ΣDDTs (mean = 8,800 ng/g lw), and ΣPBDEs (mean = 4,600 ng/g lw), with four of these six animals experiencing hepatic parasitism or hepatitis. In order to assess whether differences in POP concentrations are associated with feeding ecology, we examined stable isotopes of C and N in archived muscle and whisker samples. In general, there were no significant relationships between ΣPOP concentrations and stable isotope ratios. There were small differences in stable isotope profiles in animals with high POP concentrations, although it was unclear if these differences were due to feeding ecology or disease processes. This study highlights the importance of considering feeding ecology and necropsy (health and disease status) data while conducting contaminant surveys, and confirms some previous reports of trends in OHCs in Alaska marine mammals.
- Simple and complex febrile seizures: is there such a difference? Management and complications in an emergency department. [Journal Article]
- NNeurologia 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The systematic indication of complementary tests or hospital admission of patients with complex febrile seizures is unnecessary. The risk of epilepsy in patients with complex forms gives rise to the need for follow-up in paediatric neurology departments.
- Deficient head motor control in functional dizziness: Experimental evidence of central sensory-motor dysfunction in persistent physical symptoms. [Journal Article]
- PBProg Brain Res 2019; 249:385-400
- Understanding the mechanisms of symptoms that are insufficiently explained by organic dysfunction remains challenging. Recently, it has been proposed that such "functional symptoms" are based on erro…
Understanding the mechanisms of symptoms that are insufficiently explained by organic dysfunction remains challenging. Recently, it has been proposed that such "functional symptoms" are based on erroneous sensory processing in the central nervous system (CNS), with internal expectations dominating sensory inputs. In a pilot study, we used a head motor control set-up to assess the interplay between sensory input and expectation on the example of patients with functional dizziness. Eight patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls performed large active eye-head gaze shifts towards visual targets in the natural situation and with the head moment of inertia 3.3-fold increased. The latter induces head oscillations and the expected sensory outcome of the movement, estimated in the CNS, does not match the actual sensory input. Head oscillations were assessed in patients and in healthy subjects and compared to prior results from patients with organic disease (vestibular loss and cerebellar ataxia). Head oscillations in patients with functional dizziness were different from those of healthy subjects (F(1,17)=27.26, P<0.001, partial η2=0.62), and similar to those of patients with cerebellar ataxia, and with vestibular loss (F(2,19)=0.56, P=0.58). Even in the natural, unweighted, condition, head oscillations were higher in functional dizziness patients than in healthy subjects (P=0.001). Since an extensive work-up failed to demonstrate any explanatory peripheral vestibular, motor, or cerebellar organic dysfunction, these motor control deficits are a first indication of erroneous interplay between expectations and sensory input in the CNS that could account for persistent physical symptoms.
- Selenomethionine relieves inflammation in the chicken trachea caused by LPS though inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. [Journal Article]
- BTBiol Trace Elem Res 2019 Jul 19
- Selenomethionine is able to relieve the effect of inflammation in various tissues and organs. However, there are few studies about the influences of organic selenium resisting inflammation induced by…
Selenomethionine is able to relieve the effect of inflammation in various tissues and organs. However, there are few studies about the influences of organic selenium resisting inflammation induced by LPS in chicken trachea. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment is to explore the organic selenium (selenomethionine) can raise immune function and relieve the LPS-induced inflammation of chicken trachea via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. To investigate the mechanism of organic selenium on chicken trachea, the supplement of selenomethionine and/or LPS-induced chicken models were established. One hundred 46-week-old isa chickens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 25). The four groups were the control group, the selenomethionine group (Se group), the LPS-induced group (LPS group), and the Se and LPS interaction group (Se + LPS group). Then, the expressions of inflammatory factors (including induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E (PTGEs) synthase), inflammation-related cytokines (including interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17) and immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgY)), the marker of immune function (avian β-defensins (AvBD6, AvBD7)), heat shock proteins (including HSP60, HSP90), and selenoproteins (including Selo, Sels, Selm, Selh, Selu, Seli, SPS2, GPx1, GPx2, Dio1, Sepx1, Sep15, Sepp1, Txnrd1) were detected in our experiment. The above genes were significantly changed in different groups (p < 0.05). We can conclude that organic selenium can increase the function of immunity and the expression of selenoproteins, and mitigate the inflammation induced by LPS via suppression of the NF-κB pathway.
- Effect of a 24-week randomized trial of an organic produce intervention on pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide exposure among pregnant women. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jun 28; :104957
- CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first long-term organic diet intervention study, and the first to include pregnant women. These results suggest that addition of organic produce to an individual's diet, as compared to conventional produce, significantly reduces exposure to pyrethroid insecticides.
- Effect of exposure to phthalates on association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 09; 691:378-392
- CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to certain dose phthalates may attenuate the positive association of PAHs exposure with oxidative DNA damage in the body. DEHP at the certain concentrations enhanced BaP-induced mitochondrial ROS, pro-inflammatory response and the activation of the antioxidant defense system in HepG2 cells.
- Dermatitis among workers in Ontario: results from the Occupational Disease Surveillance System. [Journal Article]
- OEOccup Environ Med 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: ODSS can contribute to occupational dermatitis surveillance in Ontario by identifying occupational groups at risk of dermatitis that can then be prioritised for prevention activities.
- Field Infection of Virus-Free Sugarcane by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus and Effect of Yellow Leaf on Sugarcane Grown on Organic and on Mineral Soils in Florida. [Journal Article]
- PDPlant Dis 2019 Jul 18; :PDIS01190199RE
- Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), the causal agent of yellow leaf, is widespread in Florida. Two field trials were set up, one on organic soil and one on mineral soil, to investigate the rate and …
Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), the causal agent of yellow leaf, is widespread in Florida. Two field trials were set up, one on organic soil and one on mineral soil, to investigate the rate and timing of sugarcane infection by SCYLV under field conditions and the effect of the virus on yield. Each trial consisted of plots planted with healthy or SCYLV-infected seed cane of two commercial cultivars. Virus prevalence varied from 83 to 100% in plots planted with infected seed cane regardless of cultivar, location, and crop season. On organic soil, plants of virus-free plots became progressively infected in plant cane and first ratoon crops. On mineral soil, healthy sugarcane became initially infected in the first ratoon crop. After three crop seasons, the highest SCYLV prevalence rates were 33 and 7% on organic and mineral soils, respectively. No significant negative effect of SCYLV on yield was found in plant cane crop regardless of cultivar and soil type. However, yield reductions in ratoon crops varied from nonsignificant to 27% depending on cultivar and soil type. Low virus prevalence observed after three crop seasons suggested that planting virus-free seed cane should limit the impact of SCYLV on sugarcane production in Florida.
- [Surgical repair of secondary tricuspid regurgitation]. [Journal Article]
- KKhirurgiia (Mosk) 2019; (6):88-93
- Optimal surgical strategy for secondary tricuspid regurgitation is still under discussion. First of all, this is due to rare organic disease of tricuspid valve and tricuspid regurgitation is almost a…
Optimal surgical strategy for secondary tricuspid regurgitation is still under discussion. First of all, this is due to rare organic disease of tricuspid valve and tricuspid regurgitation is almost always classified as secondary insufficiency. Fibrous annulus enlargement of tricuspid valve is the most common cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Annular dilatation may by the result of left ventricular failure due to myocardial or valvular diseases, right ventricular enlargement, pressure or volume overload. No surgical correction of tricuspid insufficiency during cardiac surgery for other leading disease aggravates short- and long-term results. Considering the wide interest and disputes around optimal surgical strategy for tricuspid regurgitation, this review is devoted to modern methods of surgical treatment of secondary tricuspid insufficiency.
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- Italian nationwide survey of pharmacologic treatments in diverticular disease: Results from the REMAD registry. [Journal Article]
- UEUnited European Gastroenterol J 2019; 7(6):815-824
- CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with diverticular disease take medications based on the different clinical settings of disease. We identified different features associated with treatment use in the distinct clinical entities of diverticular disease.ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT03325829.