- Partitioning of Alkali Metal Salts and Boric Acid from Aqueous Phase into the Polyamide Active Layers of Reverse Osmosis Membranes. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2017 Jan 13
- The partition coefficient of solutes into the polyamide active layer of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is one of the three membrane properties (together with solute diffusion coefficient and active l...
The partition coefficient of solutes into the polyamide active layer of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is one of the three membrane properties (together with solute diffusion coefficient and active layer thickness) that determine solute permeation. However, no well-established method exists to measure solute partition coefficients into polyamide active layers. Further, the few studies that measured partition coefficients for inorganic salts report values significantly higher than one (~3-8), which is contrary to expectations from Donnan theory and the observed high rejection of salts. As such, we developed a bench-top method to determine solute partition coefficients into the polyamide active layers of RO membranes. The method uses a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to measure the change in the mass of the active layer caused by the uptake of the partitioned solutes. The method was evaluated using several inorganic salts (alkali metal salts of chloride) and a weak acid of common concern in water desalination (boric acid). All partition coefficients were found to be lower than 1, in general agreement with expectations from Donnan theory. Results reported in this study advance the fundamental understanding of contaminant transport through RO membranes, and can be used in future studies to decouple the contributions of contaminant partitioning and diffusion to contaminant permeation.
- Nanoscale Dynamics versus Surface Interactions: What Dictates Osmotic Transport? [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem Lett 2017 Jan 09; :478-483
- The classical paradigm for osmotic transport has long related the induced-flow direction to the solute membrane interactions, with the low-to-high concentration flow a direct consequence of the solut...
The classical paradigm for osmotic transport has long related the induced-flow direction to the solute membrane interactions, with the low-to-high concentration flow a direct consequence of the solute rejection from the semipermeable membrane. In principle, the same was thought to occur for the newly demonstrated membrane-free osmotic transport named diffusio-osmosis. Using a recently proposed nanofluidic setup, we revisit this cornerstone of osmotic transport by studying the diffusio-osmotic flows generated at silica surfaces by either poly(ethylene)glycol polymers or ethanol molecules in aqueous solutions. Strikingly, both neutral solutes yield osmotic flows in the usual low to high concentration direction, in contradiction with their propensity to adsorb on silica. Considering theoretically and numerically the intricate nature of the osmotic response that combines molecular-scale surface interaction and near-wall dynamics, these findings are rationalized within a generalized framework. These elements constitute a step forward toward a finer understanding of osmotically driven flows, at the core of rapidly growing fields ranging from energy harvesting to active matter.
- Enhanced bacterial affinity of PVDF membrane: its application as improved sea water sampling tool for environmental monitoring. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jan 05
- Isolation of diversified bacteria from seawater is a major challenge in the field of environmental microbiology. In the present study, an attempt has been made to select specific membrane with improv...
Isolation of diversified bacteria from seawater is a major challenge in the field of environmental microbiology. In the present study, an attempt has been made to select specific membrane with improved property of attaching diversified bacteria. Initially, different concentrations (15, 18, and 20% W/W) of polysulfone (PSF) were used to check their affinity for the attachment of selected gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Among these, 20% W/W PSF showed maximum attachment. Therefore, membrane prepared with other materials such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyether sulfone (PES) were used with the same concentration (20% W/W) to check their improved bacterial attachment property. Comparative study of bacterial attachment on three different membranes revealed that PVDF possessed the highest affinity towards both the groups of bacteria. This property was confirmed by different analytical methods viz. contact angle, atomic force microscopy, zeta potential, and flux study and further validated with seawater samples collected from seven sites of western coast and Lakshadweep island of India, using Biolog EcoPlate™. All the samples showed that bacterial richness and diversity was high in PVDF membrane in comparison to surrounding seawater samples. Interestingly, affinity for more diversified bacteria was reported to be higher in water sample with less turbidity and low bacteria load. This finding can facilitate the development of PVDF (20% W/W) membrane as a simple, cheap, and less labor intensive environmental sampling tool for the isolation of diversified bacteria from seawater sample wih different physiochemical properties. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
- Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Manage 2016 Dec 29; 190:132-139
- The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, produc...
The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste.
- Forward osmosis as an approach to manage oil sands tailings water and on-site basal depressurization water. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2016 Dec 21; 327:18-27
- As the volume of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in tailings ponds increases, it is urgent to seek for water management approaches to alleviate the environmental impact caused by large...
As the volume of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) stored in tailings ponds increases, it is urgent to seek for water management approaches to alleviate the environmental impact caused by large quantity of toxic water. Forward osmosis (FO) utilizes osmotic pressure difference between two solutions, thereby giving a potential to manage two wastewaters. In this study, FO was proposed to manage OSPW, using on-site waste basal depressurization water (BDW) as draw solution. To investigate its feasibility, both short and long-term OSPW desalination experiments were carried out. By applying this process, the volume of OSPW was decreased>40% and high rejections were achieved, especially, the major organic toxicity source - naphthenic acids (NAs). Although comparative low water flux (≤3L/m(2)h) was obtained, water flux caused by membrane fouling can be completely recovered using water physical cleaning. Moreover, calcium carbonate precipitation was observed on the OSPW-oriented membrane side. With respect to flux decline, the active layer facing the feed solution (FO mode) and active layer facing draw solution (PRO mode) did not demonstrate a significant difference on anti-fouling performance. The advantages provided by this approach include zero draw solution cost, less reversible membrane fouling and beneficial reuse/recycle of diluted BDW.
- Assessment of the carcinogenic potential of high intense-sweeteners through the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones (warts) in Drosophila melanogaster. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2016 Dec 24; 101:1-7
- High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesit...
High intensity-sweeteners (HIS) are natural or synthetic substances, sweeter than sugar, providing sweetness without calories. Sweeteners are mainly used as an aid in losing weight, preventing obesity and controlling blood sugar levels for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of the sweeteners aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside, using the test for detection of epithelial tumor clones in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae of 72 ± 4h, obtained from wts/TM3 female mated with mwh/mwh males, were treated for approximately 48h with different concentrations of aspartame (0.85, 1.7, 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6 mM ); sucralose (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mM); sodium saccharin (25; 50; 100; 200 or 400 mM) and steviol glycoside (2.5; 5.0; 10; 20 or 40 mM). Water (Reverse Osmosis) and doxorubicin (DXR 0.4 mM) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) in tumor frequencies in individuals treated with all concentrations of these sweeteners when compared to negative control. It was therefore concluded that, in these experimental conditions, aspartame, sucralose, sodium saccharin and steviol glycoside have no carcinogenic effect in D. melanogaster.
- Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2016 Dec 21; 110:281-287
- Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of ...
Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.
- Dilution-Induced Formation of Hybrid Perovskite Nanoplatelets. [Journal Article]
- ANACS Nano 2016 Dec 27; 10(12):10936-10944
- Perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are an important extension to the fascinating field of hybrid halide perovskites. Showing significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and emission wavelengt...
Perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are an important extension to the fascinating field of hybrid halide perovskites. Showing significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and emission wavelengths tunable through halide content and size, they hold great promise for light-emitting applications. Despite the rapid advancement in this field, the physical nature and size-dependent excitonic properties have not been well investigated due to the challenges associated with their preparation. Herein we report the spontaneous formation of highly luminescent, quasi-2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoplatelets (NPls) upon dilution of a dispersion of bulk-like NCs. The fragmentation of the large NCs is attributed to osmotic swelling induced by the added solvent. An excess of organic ligands in the solvent quickly passivates the newly formed surfaces, stabilizing the NPls in the process. The thickness of the NPls can be controlled both by the dilution level and by the ligand concentration. Such colloidal NPls and their thin films were found to be extremely stable under continuous UV light irradiation. Full tunability of the NPl emission wavelength is achieved by varying the halide ion used (bromide, iodide). Additionally, time-resolved PL measurements reveal an increasing radiative decay rate with decreasing thickness of the NPls, likely due to an increasing exciton binding energy. Similarly, measurements on iodide-containing NPls show a transformation from biexponential to monoexponential PL decay with decreasing thickness, likely due to an increasing fraction of excitonic recombination. This interesting phenomenon of change in fluorescence upon dilution is a result of the intricate nature of the perovskite material itself and is uncommon in inorganic materials. Our findings enable the synthesis of halide perovskite NCs with high quantum efficiency and good stability as well as a tuning of both their optical and morphological properties.
- Structures of Bordered Pits Potentially Contributing to Isolation of a Refilled Vessel from Negative Xylem Pressure in Stems of Morus australis Poir.: Testing of the Pit Membrane Osmosis and Pit Valve Hypotheses. [Journal Article]
- PCPlant Cell Physiol 2016 Dec 23
- Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osm...
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanism preventing the refilling vessel water from being drained to the neighboring functional vessels under negative pressure. The pit membrane osmosis hypothesis proposes that the xylem parenchyma cells release polysaccharides that are impermeable to the intervessel pit membranes into the refilling vessel; this osmotically counteracts the negative pressure, thereby allowing the vessel to refill. The pit valve hypothesis proposes that gas trapped within intervessel bordered pits isolates the refilling vessel water from the surrounding functional vessels. Here, using the single-vessel method, we assessed these hypotheses in shoots of mulberry (Morus australis Poir.). First, we confirmed the occurrence of xylem refilling under negative pressure in the potted mulberry saplings. To examine the pit membrane osmosis hypothesis, we estimated the semi-permeability of pit membranes for molecules of various sizes and found that the pit membranes were not semi-permeable to polyethylene glycol of molecular mass <20,000. For the pit valve hypothesis, we formed pit valves in the intervessel pits in the short stem segments and measured the maximum liquid pressure up to which gases in bordered pits were retained. The threshold pressure ranged from 0.025 to 0.10 MPa. These values matched the theoretical value calculated from the geometry of the pit chamber (0.0692-0.101 MPa). Our results suggest that gas in the pits is retained by surface tension, even under substantial positive pressure to resolve gases in the refilling vessel, whereas the molecule size required for the pit membrane osmosis mechanism in mulberry would be unrealistically large.
New Search Next
- Multifunctionalization of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Reactive Copolymer Blend Membranes for Broad Spectrum Applications. [Journal Article]
- AAACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Jan 09
- Simultaneous immobilization and cross-linking of antifouling/low toxic polymers, e.g., poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), dextran (Dex), agarose (Agr), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), PEI-Dex, and PEI-PEG conjug...
Simultaneous immobilization and cross-linking of antifouling/low toxic polymers, e.g., poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), dextran (Dex), agarose (Agr), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), PEI-Dex, and PEI-PEG conjugates, and stimuli-responsive copolymers on a porous membrane surface in mild reaction conditions is desirable for the enhancement of hydrophilicity, antifouling character, cytocompatibility, and inducing stimuli-responsive behavior. Grafting to technique is required since the precursors of most of these macromolecules are not amenable to surface-initiated polymerization. In this work, we report a versatile process for the simultaneous immobilization and cross-linking of a library of macromolecules on and into the blend membrane (PVDF-blend) of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(chloromethylstyrene). Sequential nucleophilic substitution reaction between activated halide moieties of the copolymer and amine groups of different macromolecules readily provided series of modified membranes. These membranes exhibited antifouling property superior to that of the unmodified membrane. The effectiveness of this technique has been demonstrated by the immobilization of pH or both pH- and temperature-responsive copolymer on PVDF-blend membrane for responsive separation of poly(ethylene oxide) and bovine serum albumin. Silver nanoparticles were also anchored on the select modified membranes surfaces for the enhancement of antibiofouling property. Our approach is useful to obtain verities of functional membranes and selection of membrane for a particular application.