- Physical activity and advanced cancer: The views of chartered physiotherapists in Ireland. [Journal Article]
- PTPhysiother Theory Pract 2018; 34(7):534-541
- CONCLUSIONS: The majority of physiotherapists perceived physical activity to be of benefit for patients living with advanced cancer. There is a need for more education and training around the prescription of physical activity programs to advanced cancer populations. Physiotherapists' responses suggest patients with advanced cancer have limited exposure to factors that may prompt increased physical activity levels post diagnosis.
- Evaluation of Different Screening Tools for Predicting Femoral Neck Osteoporosis in Rural South Indian Postmenopausal Women. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Densitom 2018 Jan - Mar; 21(1):119-124
- The measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, which has limited availability in many parts of India. This …
The measurement of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of osteoporosis, which has limited availability in many parts of India. This study was done to assess the diagnostic performance of 6 internationally validated tools (Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation [SCORE], age, bulk, one or never estrogen [ABONE], Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument [ORAI] and Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians [OSTA], Fracture Risk Assessment Tool [FRAX®], and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound [QUS]) for the diagnosis of osteoporosis at the femoral neck (FN). This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2108 ambulatory South Indian rural postmenopausal women who were assessed with SCORE, ABONE, ORAI, OSTA, and FRAX® tools. QUS was performed in 850 subjects. Bone mineral density was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan at the FN, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for all tools for predicting FN osteoporosis. The receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed for each tool and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. FN osteoporosis was seen in 27%. The sensitivities of SCORE, ABONE, OSTA, ORAI, FRAX®, and QUS were 91.3%, 91.0%, 88.5%, 81.0%, 72.7%, and 81.9%, and the specificities were 36.0%, 33.5%, 41.7%, 52.0%, 60.5%, and 50.3%, respectively, for the FN osteoporosis. When the receiver operating characteristics were constructed, the AUC was good only for SCORE (0.806), and the performance of the rest was under fair category (0.713-0.766). In our large cohort of rural postmenopausal women, the SCORE screening tool was found to be useful with good sensitivity and good AUC for predicting FN osteoporosis. Thus, this tool may be used in resource-limited countries to screen the population at risk and to enable treating physicians to make appropriate management decisions.
- Development and validation of the Fracture Risk Scale (FRS) that predicts fracture over a 1-year time period in institutionalised frail older people living in Canada: an electronic record-linked longitudinal cohort study. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2017 Sep 01; 7(9):e016477
- CONCLUSIONS: Our FRS predicts hip fracture over a 1-year time period and should be used as an aid to support clinical decisions in the care planning of LTC residents. Future research should focus on the transformation of our scale to a Clinical Assessment Protocol and to assess the FRS in other healthcare settings.
- EQ-5D studies in musculoskeletal and connective tissue diseases in eight Central and Eastern European countries: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- RIRheumatol Int 2017; 37(12):1957-1977
- EQ-5D is becoming the preferred instrument to measure health-state utilities involved in health technology assessment. The objective of this study is to assess the state of EQ-5D research in musculos…
EQ-5D is becoming the preferred instrument to measure health-state utilities involved in health technology assessment. The objective of this study is to assess the state of EQ-5D research in musculoskeletal disorders in 8 Central and Eastern European countries and to provide a meta-analysis of EQ-5D index scores. Original research articles published in any language between Jan 2000 and Sept 2016 were included, if they reported any EQ-5D outcome from at least two musculoskeletal patients from Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, or Slovenia. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Twenty-nine articles (5992 patients) were included on rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), osteoporosis (n = 5), chronic pain (n = 5), osteoarthritis (n = 4), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 2), psoriatic arthritis (n = 2), total hip replacement (n = 2), and scleroderma (n = 2). Low back pain was under-represented, while studies in neck pain, systemic lupus erythematosus, gout, and childhood disorders were lacking. EQ-5D index scores were reported in 24 studies, while the version of the instrument and the value-set was not specified in 41% and 46% of the articles, respectively. Meta-analysis was performed on 24 disease states involving 6876 observation points. Intervention effect was reported in 22 subgroups, out of which risk of bias was low in 41%. This review provides recommendations to improve reporting standards of EQ-5D results and highlights potential areas for future research. Coordinated research in conditions with greatest public health impact as well as a development of a regional value-set could provide locally relevant health-state utilities that are transferable among countries within the region.
- Worldwide Fracture Prediction. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Densitom 2017 Jul - Sep; 20(3):397-424
- The substantial increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases in general and osteoporosis in particular, necessitates the establishment of efficient and targeted diagnosis and treatment strateg…
The substantial increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases in general and osteoporosis in particular, necessitates the establishment of efficient and targeted diagnosis and treatment strategies. This chapter reviews and compares different tools for osteoporosis screening and diagnosis; it also provides an overview of different treatment guidelines adopted by countries worldwide. While access to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density (BMD) is limited in most areas in the world, the introduction of risk calculators that combine risk factors, with or without BMD, have resulted in a paradigm shift in osteoporosis screening and management. To-date, forty eight risk assessment tools that allow risk stratification of patients are available, however only few are externally validated and tested in a population-based setting. These include Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool; Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument; Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation; Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada calculator; Fracture Risk Assessment Calculator (FRAX); Garvan; and QFracture. These tools vary in the number of risk factors incorporated. We present a detailed analysis of the development, characteristics, validation, performance, advantages and limitations of these tools. The World Health Organization proposes a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 as an operational diagnostic threshold for osteoporosis, and many countries have also adopted this cut-off as an intervention threshold in their treatment guidelines. With the introduction of the new fracture assessment calculators, many countries chose to include fracture risk as one of the major criteria to initiate osteoporosis treatment. Of the 52 national guidelines identified in 36 countries, 30 included FRAX derived risk in their intervention threshold and 22 were non-FRAX based. No universal tool or guideline approach will address the needs of all countries worldwide. Osteoporosis screening and management guidelines are best tailored according to the needs and resources of individual counties. While few countries have succeeded in generating valuable epidemiological data on osteoporotic fractures, to validate their risk calculators and base their guidelines, many have yet to find the resources to assess variations and secular trends in fractures, the performance of various calculators, and ultimately adopt the most convenient care pathway algorithms.
- The importance of physical function to people with osteoporosis. [Review]
- OIOsteoporos Int 2017; 28(5):1597-1607
- CONCLUSIONS: More information on how treatments impact physical function would benefit healthcare professionals and persons with OP in making treatment decisions and improving treatment compliance/persistence, as these impacts may be more salient to patients than fracture incidence.
- The relationship between sodium intake and some bone minerals and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument in postmenopausal women. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Islam Repub Iran 2016; 30:377
- CONCLUSIONS: Although urinary calcium and potassium increased with the increase in sodium intake, no relationship was found between sodium and ORAI.
- Comparisons of Different Screening Tools for Identifying Fracture/Osteoporosis Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older People. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(20):e3415
- A prospective study was conducted to compare criterion, predictive, and construct validities of 9 fracture/osteoporosis assessment tools, including calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), Age B…
A prospective study was conducted to compare criterion, predictive, and construct validities of 9 fracture/osteoporosis assessment tools, including calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), Age Bulk One or Never Estrogens (ABONE), body weight criterion (BWC), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), Garvan fracture risk calculator (GARVAN), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), among older men and women in Taiwan.Using the femoral neck dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-score as an external criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for each tool were calculated. The ability of these tools to predict injurious falls was examined. A principal component analysis was applied to understand whether these tools were measuring the same underlying construct.The FRAX, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in men, while the GARVAN, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in women. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE tools in both men and women were 100%, ≥90%, and 0.0, respectively; the specificity and positive predictive value and likelihood ratio were far from satisfactory. The GARVAN displayed the best predictive ability of a fall in both men (AUCs, 0.653-0.686) and women (AUCs, 0.560-0.567), despite being smaller in women. The 9 screening tools and 2 central DXA measurements assessed 5 different factors, while the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE measured the same one.Simple self-assessment tools can serve as initial screening instruments to rule out persons who have osteoporosis; however, these tools may measure a different construct other than fracture/osteoporosis risk.
- Asthma in the elderly: a different disease? [Review]
- BBreathe (Sheff) 2016; 12(1):18-28
- CONCLUSIONS: Asthma in the elderly can be difficult to identify due to modifications of its clinical features and functional characteristics.Several comorbidities are associated with asthma in the elderly, and this association differs from that observed in younger patients.In clinical practice, physicians should treat comorbidities that are correlated with asthma (i.e. rhinitis or gastro-oesophageal reflux), assess comorbidities that may influence asthma outcomes (i.e. depression or cognitive impairment) and try to prevent comorbidities related to -'drug-associated side-effects (i.e. cataracts, arrhythmias or osteoporosis)."Geriatric asthma" should be the preferred term because it implies the comprehensive and multidimensional approach to the disease in the older populations, whereas "asthma in the elderly" is only descriptive of the occurrence of the disease in this age range.
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- Best Practices for Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurement and Reporting: International Society for Clinical Densitometry Guidance. [Practice Guideline]
- JCJ Clin Densitom 2016 Apr-Jun; 19(2):127-40
- Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technology that is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The clinical utility of D…
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technology that is widely used to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). The clinical utility of DXA is highly dependent on the quality of the scan acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Clinicians are best equipped to manage patients when BMD measurements are correct and interpretation follows well-established standards. Poor-quality acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of DXA data may mislead referring clinicians, resulting in unnecessary diagnostic evaluations, failure to evaluate when needed, inappropriate treatment, or failure to provide medical treatment, with potentially ineffective, harmful, or costly consequences. Misallocation of limited healthcare resources and poor treatment decisions can be minimized, and patient care optimized, through meticulous attention to DXA instrument calibration, data acquisition and analysis, interpretation, and reporting. This document from the International Society for Clinical Densitometry describes quality standards for BMD testing at DXA facilities worldwide to provide guidance for DXA supervisors, technologists, interpreters, and clinicians. High-quality DXA testing is necessary for correct diagnostic classification and optimal fracture risk assessment, and is essential for BMD monitoring.