- From immune checkpoints to vaccines: The past, present and future of cancer immunotherapy. [Journal Article]
- ACAdv Cancer Res 2019; 143:63-144
- Cancer is a worldwide medical problem with significant repercussions on individual patients and societies as a whole. In order to alter the outcomes of this deadly disease the treatment of cancer ove…
Cancer is a worldwide medical problem with significant repercussions on individual patients and societies as a whole. In order to alter the outcomes of this deadly disease the treatment of cancer over the centuries has undergone a unique evolution. However, utilizing the best treatment modalities and achieving cures or long-term durable responses have been inconsistent and limited, that is until recently. Contemporary research has highlighted a fundamental gap in our understanding of how we approach treating cancer, by revealing the intricate relationship between the immune system and tumors. In this atmosphere, the growth of immunotherapy has not only forever changed our understanding of cancer biology, but the manner by which we treat patients. It's paradigm shifting success has led to the approval of over 10 different immunotherapeutic agents, including checkpoint inhibitors, vaccine-based therapies, oncolytic viruses and T cell directed therapies for nearly 20 different indications across countless tumor types. Despite the breakthroughs that have occurred in the field of immunotherapy, it has not been the panacea for all cancers. With a deeper understanding of the immune system we have been able to peer into tumor immune escape and therapy resistance. Simultaneously this understanding has paved the way for the investigation and development of novel immune system altering agents and combinatorial therapies. In this chapter we review the immune system and its intricate relationship with cancer, the evolution of immunotherapy, its current landscape, and future directions in the context of resistance mechanisms and the challenges faced by immunotherapy against cancer.
- Machine-Learning-Based Prediction of Treatment Outcomes Using MR Imaging-Derived Quantitative Tumor Information in Patients with Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinomas: A Preliminary Study. [Journal Article]
- CCancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 10; 11(6)
- The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power for treatment outcome of a machine-learning algorithm combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived data in patients with sinonasa…
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power for treatment outcome of a machine-learning algorithm combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived data in patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Thirty-six primary lesions in 36 patients were evaluated. Quantitative morphological parameters and intratumoral characteristics from T2-weighted images, tumor perfusion parameters from arterial spin labeling (ASL) and tumor diffusion parameters of five diffusion models from multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were obtained. Machine learning by a non-linear support vector machine (SVM) was used to construct the best diagnostic algorithm for the prediction of local control and failure. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using a 9-fold cross-validation scheme, dividing patients into training and validation sets. Classification criteria for the division of local control and failure in nine training sets could be constructed with a mean sensitivity of 0.98, specificity of 0.91, positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.94, negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.97, and accuracy of 0.96. The nine validation data sets showed a mean sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.82, PPV of 0.86, NPV of 1.0, and accuracy of 0.92. In conclusion, a machine-learning algorithm using various MR imaging-derived data can be helpful for the prediction of treatment outcomes in patients with sinonasal SCCs.
- Valuing Health States in Russia: A First Feasibility Study. [Journal Article]
- VHValue Health Reg Issues 2019 Jun 06; 19:75-80
- CONCLUSIONS: Russia is commencing its health technology assessment journey and should proceed cautiously as it moves toward the valuation of health benefits. These results suggest a useful framework for a more in-depth development of health valuation methodologies in Russia.
- [ADAPTHERA-Statewide cross-sectoral care network for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis shows sustained remission in standard care]. [Journal Article]
- ZRZ Rheumatol 2019 Jun 04
- CONCLUSIONS: The approach of a supply network is not a panacea, but it might improve healthcare for patients with early onset RA. In order to minimize resource utilization, a pinpoint referral and accurate triage of potential cases are crucial.
- Fulminating Gold and Silver. [Journal Article]
- ACAngew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Jun 04
- This essay deals with the fascinating and highly explosive compounds fulminating gold and fulminating silver, which are easily made by treatment of gold dissolved in aqua regia with ammonia, and by r…
This essay deals with the fascinating and highly explosive compounds fulminating gold and fulminating silver, which are easily made by treatment of gold dissolved in aqua regia with ammonia, and by reaction of silver oxide or silver salts with ammonia, respectively. Fulminating gold in particular captivated the alchemists in the 16th to 18th centuries. Numerous preparations were described, as well as numerous attempts to make volatile, sublimable or distillable gold, and to use the products so obtained (which were most likely gold chlorides) to make the sought-after tincture, which would "heal" the "impure" metals and transform them into gold, and equally be a panacea to cure all human illnesses.
- Towards a framework for multisector and multilevel collaboration: case of HIV and AIDS governance in South Africa. [Journal Article]
- GHGlob Health Action 2019; 12(1):1617393
- CONCLUSIONS: The framework does not suggest that multisector collaboration is a panacea, but that MSA remains critical to address complex health and development issues. Focus should be on finding innovative ways to inform and strengthen its implementation in practice. The framework can be used by practitioners and policy makers to inform design, implementation, and evaluation of multisector collaborations. It reflects on complexities of MSA, and brings to the fore critical information to assess readiness and to inform the decision whether to engage in MSA or not.
- Effects of herbicide on non-target microorganisms: Towards a new class of biomarkers? [Review]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 May 20; 684:314-325
- Conventional agriculture still relies on the general use of agrochemicals (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides) to control various pests (weeds, fungal pathogens and insects), to ensure the yield…
Conventional agriculture still relies on the general use of agrochemicals (herbicides, fungicides and insecticides) to control various pests (weeds, fungal pathogens and insects), to ensure the yield of crop and to feed a constantly growing population. The generalized use of pesticides in agriculture leads to the contamination of soil and other connected environmental resources. The persistence of pesticide residues in soil is identified as a major threat for in-soil living organisms that are supporting an important number of ecosystem services. Although authorities released pesticides on the market only after their careful and thorough evaluation, the risk assessment for in-soil living organisms is unsatisfactory, particularly for microorganisms for which pesticide toxicity is solely considered by one global test measuring N mineralization. Recently, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) underlined the lack of standardized methods to assess pesticide ecotoxicological effects on soil microorganisms. Within this context, there is an obvious need to develop innovative microbial markers sensitive to pesticide exposure. Biomarkers that reveal direct effects of pesticides on microorganisms are often viewed as the panacea. Such biomarkers can only be developed for pesticides having a mode of action inhibiting a specific enzyme not only found in the targeted organisms but also in microorganisms which are considered as "non-target organisms" by current regulations. This review explores possible ways of innovation to develop such biomarkers for herbicides. We scanned the herbicide classification by considering the mode of action, the targeted enzyme and the ecotoxicological effects of each class of active substance in order to identify those that can be tracked using sensitive microbial markers.
- Evidence Base of Yoga Studies on Cardiovascular Health: A Bibliometric Analysis. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Yoga 2019 May-Aug; 12(2):162-171
- CONCLUSIONS: The survey indicates that the number of publications in the field of "Yoga" and "Cardiovascular" health has increased rapidly in the late years. Analysis comprising the nation/state helps define its status with regard to its counterparts and helps understand science priorities and disease control strategies in an effort to provide cost-effectiveness and quality control. There is a need for further high-quality studies in the field of "Yoga" and "Cardiovascular" diseases to validate the effects of Yoga on health parameters.
- Is vitamin D a panacea? [Journal Article]
- RIRheumatol Int 2019 May 23
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- Data Challenges With Real-Time Safety Event Detection And Clinical Decision Support. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Internet Res 2019 May 22; 21(5):e13047
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of real-time data to drive safety event detection and clinical decision support is extremely powerful, but it presents its own set of challenges that include data quality and technical complexity. These challenges must be recognized and accommodated for if the full promise of accurate, real-time safety event clinical decision support is to be realized.