- Diseases of the Abdomen and Pelvis 2018-2021: Diagnostic Imaging - IDKD Book: Diseases of the Pancreas [BOOK]
- BOOKSpringer: Cham (CH)
- CT and MRI are the crucial tools in the imaging assessment of pancreatic diseases. They allow a comprehensive insight into the normal and pathological structural and to some degree even functional co…
CT and MRI are the crucial tools in the imaging assessment of pancreatic diseases. They allow a comprehensive insight into the normal and pathological structural and to some degree even functional conditions of the pancreas and its surrounding. In consequence, most of the pancreatic diseases can be identified and classified by CT and MRI. The most common findings—the adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and acute and chronic inflammation of the pancreas—are usually easily identified and imaging contributes to the correct staging and detecting potential complications of the disease. Moreover, modern imaging enables the differentiation of nonneoplastic, developmental disorders, solid, cystic, focal, and diffuse parenchymal findings which may range from neoplasia-like over true neoplasia to inflammatory tumor-like changes and is of crucial importance to guide an appropriate therapy.
- Mitochondrial GTP Links Nutrient Sensing to β Cell Health, Mitochondrial Morphology, and Insulin Secretion Independent of OxPhos. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2019 Jul 16; 28(3):759-772.e10
- Mechanisms coordinating pancreatic β cell metabolism with insulin secretion are essential for glucose homeostasis. One key mechanism of β cell nutrient sensing uses the mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) cycl…
Mechanisms coordinating pancreatic β cell metabolism with insulin secretion are essential for glucose homeostasis. One key mechanism of β cell nutrient sensing uses the mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) cycle. In this cycle, mtGTP synthesized by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) is hydrolyzed via mitochondrial PEPCK (PEPCK-M) to make phosphoenolpyruvate, a high-energy metabolite that integrates TCA cycling and anaplerosis with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Several strategies, including xenotopic overexpression of yeast mitochondrial GTP/GDP exchanger (GGC1) and human ATP and GTP-specific SCS isoforms, demonstrated the importance of the mtGTP cycle. These studies confirmed that mtGTP triggers and amplifies normal GSIS and rescues defects in GSIS both in vitro and in vivo. Increased mtGTP synthesis enhanced calcium oscillations during GSIS. mtGTP also augmented mitochondrial mass, increased insulin granule number, and membrane proximity without triggering de-differentiation or metabolic fragility. These data highlight the importance of the mtGTP signal in nutrient sensing, insulin secretion, mitochondrial maintenance, and β cell health.
- Gadofullerene Nanoparticles Reverse Dysfunctions of Pancreas and Improve Hepatic Insulin Resistance for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment. [Journal Article]
- ANACS Nano 2019 Jul 17
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders. Nonetheless, the commonly used anti-T2DM drugs failed to substantially treat T2DM, which always rapidly rebound…
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders. Nonetheless, the commonly used anti-T2DM drugs failed to substantially treat T2DM, which always rapidly rebound in blood glucose when withdrawal. Here we put forward a superior and sustainable anti-diabetic strategy using intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of amino acid functionalized gadofullerene nanoparticles (GFNPs) in db/db diabetic mice. Highly accumulated into pancreas and liver, GFNPs could prominently decrease hyperglycemia, along with permanently maintained normal blood sugar levels in T2DM mice even stopping administration. Importantly, GFNPs reversed the pancreas islets dysfunctions by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation responses, and fundamentally normalize the insulin secretory function of pancreas islets. Mechanistically, GFNPs improved hepatic insulin resistance by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism through the activation of IRS2/PI3K/AKT signal pathways, resulting in inhibiting gluconeogenesis and increasing glycogenesis in liver. Additionally, GFNPs relieved hepatic steatosis in liver, ultimately maintain systemic glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis without obvious toxicity. Together, GFNPs reverse the dysfunctions of pancreas and improve hepatic insulin resistance, providing a promising approach for T2DM treatment.
- Impact on health-related quality of life deterioration-free survival of a first-line therapy combining nab-paclitaxel plus either gemcitabine or simplified leucovorin and fluorouracil for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: Results of the randomized phase II AFUGEM GERCOR clinical trial. [Journal Article]
- CMCancer Med 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The nab-paclitaxel plus simplified leucovorin and fluorouracil combination had no negative impact in exploratory HRQoL analyses.
- Toll-like receptor 1 predicts favorable prognosis in pancreatic cancer. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219245
- CONCLUSIONS: Strong TLR1 expression suggested better prognosis in PDAC patients, whereas negative expression of TLR1, TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 was a sign of poor prognosis.
- Percutaneous Endoscopic Necrosectomy of Complex Walled-Off Lateral Necrosis of the Pancreas with the Aid of Laparoscopic Babcock Forceps: A Case Report of an Endoscopic and Radiologic Team Approach. [Journal Article]
- PJPerm J 2019; 23
- CONCLUSIONS: This Babcock technique with endoscopic necrosectomy has not been previously described in the literature, to our knowledge. Babcock forceps were an ideal tool in our case because they were able to gain access to the obstruction in the stent, but the "teeth" are small and dull enough to prevent from catching onto the metal stent mesh.
- Unsilencing of native leptin receptors (LepR) in hypothalamic SF1 neurons does not rescue obese phenotype in LepR-deficient mice. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 Jul 17
- Leptin receptor (LepR) signaling in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), specifically those expressing steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1), have been proposed to play a key role in…
Leptin receptor (LepR) signaling in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), specifically those expressing steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1), have been proposed to play a key role in controlling energy balance. By crossing LepR-silenced (LepRloxTB) mice to those expressing SF1-Cre, we unsilenced native LepR specifically in the VMH and tested whether SF1 neurons in the VMH are critical mediators of leptin's effect on energy homeostasis. LepRloxTB x SF1-Cre (KO/Tg+) mice were metabolically phenotyped and compared to littermate controls that either expressed or were deficient in LepR. Leptin-induced pSTAT3 was present in the VMH of KO/Tg+ mice and absent in other hypothalamic nuclei. VMH leptin signaling did not ameliorate obesity resulting from LepR-deficiency in chow-fed mice. There was no change in food intake or energy expenditure when comparing complete LepR-null mice to KO/Tg+ mice, nor did KO/Tg+ show improved glucose tolerance. The presence of functional LepR in the VMH mildly enhanced sensitivity to the pancreatic hormone amylin. When maintained on high fat diet (HFD), there was no reduction in diet-induced obesity in KO/Tg+ mice, but KO/Tg+ mice had improved glucose tolerance after 7 weeks on HFD compared to LepR-null mice. We conclude that LepR signaling in the VMH alone is not sufficient to correct metabolic dysfunction observed in LepR-null mice.
- Clinically Applicable Deep Learning Algorithm Using Quantitative Proteomic Data. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteome Res 2019 Jul 17
- Deep learning (DL), a type of machine learning approach, is a powerful tool for analyzing large sets of data that are derived from biomedical sciences. However, it remains unknown whether DL is suita…
Deep learning (DL), a type of machine learning approach, is a powerful tool for analyzing large sets of data that are derived from biomedical sciences. However, it remains unknown whether DL is suitable for identifying contributing factors, such as biomarkers, in quantitative proteomics data. In this study, we describe an optimized DL-based analytical approach using a data set that was generated by selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS), comprising SRM-MS data from 1008 samples for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, to test its classification power. Its performance was compared with that of 5 conventional multivariate and machine learning methods: random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and naïve Bayes (NB). The DL method yielded the best classification (AUC 0.9472 for the test data set) of all approaches. We also optimized the parameters of DL individually to determine which factors were the most significant. In summary, the DL method has advantages in classifying the quantitative proteomics data of pancreatic cancer patients, and our results suggest that its implementation can improve the performance of diagnostic assays in clinical settings.
- Adverse effects of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer : a case report and literature review. [Case Reports]
- AGActa Gastroenterol Belg 2019 Apr-Jun; 82(2):322-325
- Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies worldwide. One of the most important developments in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer is targeted therapy. Bevaciz…
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies worldwide. One of the most important developments in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer is targeted therapy. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody inhibiting VEGF induced angiogenesis, has been accepted as safe and efficient in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer for more than a decade. Addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is also associated with severe adverse events. We present a case of bevacizumab-induced bowel ischaemia associated with gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
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- Comparing clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with pancreatic diabetes to patients with type 1 diabetes - a matched case-control study. [Journal Article]
- PDPediatr Diabetes 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: With the use of robust epidemiological data our study improves the knowledge on clinical characteristics in pediatric individuals with pancreatic diabetes. Moreover, our results serve as a basis to reconsider treatment options and for discussing clinical practice guidelines for patients with this rare medical condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.