- Studies on the gametophytic development, mating behaviour and reproductive biology of Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching (Thelypteridaceae). [Journal Article]
- MMicron 2019 Jun 05; 124:102700
- Macrothelypteris torresiana is a terrestrial fern belongs to the family Thelypteridaceae. It is very imperative to know the germination and growth pattern of this fern to make strategy for ex- situ c…
Macrothelypteris torresiana is a terrestrial fern belongs to the family Thelypteridaceae. It is very imperative to know the germination and growth pattern of this fern to make strategy for ex- situ conservation. In the present study germination of spore, developmental pattern of prothallium with particular emphasis on emergence of antheridia as well as archegonia, their fertilization and development of sporophytes were studied. The spores were spheroidal or reniform with broadly winged fimbriate perispore having average size of 48 ± 3.6 × 39 ± 4.2 μm. The spores started germinating just after 6 days of plating and percentage of germination was 94%. The germination pattern of spore was Vittaria type and development of gametophyte was Aspidium type. After 27 days of plating, a very distinct cordate-shaped adult gametophyte with deep apical notch and unicellular papillate hairs throughout the gametophyte was developed. The rhizoids appeared away from the apical notch of the gametophyte. The gametophyte first developed archegonia on 32nd day, whereas antheridia were developed on 42nd day. In isolate culture the gametophytes did not develop any sporophyte whereas in composite culture juvenile sporophytes were emerged on 77th day. This suggests the plant has ability to reproduce only through inter-gametophytic selfing and crossing, hence decreasing the plant's capacity for colonization in a particular locality.
- Ultrastructural differentiation of plasma membrane and cell junctions in the hindgut cells is synchronized with key developmental transitions in Porcellio scaber. [Journal Article]
- ASArthropod Struct Dev 2019; 50:78-93
- Differentiation of transporting epithelial cells during development of animal organisms includes remodelling of apical and basal plasma membranes to increase the available surface for transport and f…
Differentiation of transporting epithelial cells during development of animal organisms includes remodelling of apical and basal plasma membranes to increase the available surface for transport and formation of occluding junctions, which maintain a paracellular diffusion barrier. This study provides a detailed ultrastructural analysis of apical and basal plasma membrane remodelling and cell junction formation in hindgut cells during late embryonic and early postembryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber. Hindgut cells in late-stage embryos are columnar with flat apical and basal plasma membranes. In early-stage marsupial mancae the hindgut cells begin to acquire their characteristic dome shape, the first apical membrane folding is evident and the septate junctions expand considerably, all changes being probably associated with the onset of active feeding. In postmarsupial mancae the apical labyrinth is further elaborated and the septate junctions are expanded. This coincides with the transition to an external environment and food sources. First basal infoldings appear in the anterior chamber of early-stage marsupial mancae, but in the papillate region they are mostly formed in postmarsupial mancae. In molting late-stage marsupial mancae, the plasma membrane acquires a topology characteristic of cuticle-producing arthropod epithelia and the septate junctions are considerably reduced.
- Phytophthora acaciae sp. nov., a new species causing gummosis of black wattle in Brazil. [Journal Article]
- MMycologia 2019 May-Jun; 111(3):445-455
- A new Phytophthora species was found associated with gummosis in black wattle plantations in the subtropical, humid, south of Brazil. The new species Phytophthora acaciae is formally named herein bas…
A new Phytophthora species was found associated with gummosis in black wattle plantations in the subtropical, humid, south of Brazil. The new species Phytophthora acaciae is formally named herein based on phylogenetic and morphological analyses. This is the fourth Phytophthora species found from this pathogen complex in black wattle plantations causing gummosis in Brazil. The other three species are P. nicotianae, P. boehmeriae, and P. frigida. Phytophthora acaciae is heterothallic with amphigynous antheridia, noncaducous, papillate sporangia and is placed in the Phytophthora clade 2 based on nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) sequences. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of P. acaciae isolates based on multigene sequences, including partial DNA sequences of three nuclear protein-coding genes (β-tubulin, translation elongation factor-1α, and ras-related protein), two mitochondrial protein-coding genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II), in addition to ITS sequence data, support the delimitation of this new species on Acacia mearnsii from the other previously described clade 2 Phytophthora species. Pathogenicity trial confirmed that the new species causes necrotic lesions on the plant stem, with either the presence or absence of gum.
- Macromorphological and micromorphological seed features of selected taxa of Caesalpiniaceae using light and scanning electron microscopy. [Journal Article]
- MRMicrosc Res Tech 2019 Mar 22
- Seed micromorphological and macromorphological characteristics of 12 taxa of Caesalpiniaceae from Pakistan have been studied, using light and scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the importan…
Seed micromorphological and macromorphological characteristics of 12 taxa of Caesalpiniaceae from Pakistan have been studied, using light and scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the importance of seed coat features as a taxonomic tool. Great variations have been observed in color, shape, dimension, and seed surface pattern among the different genera of the family. A taxonomic key was prepared for the studied taxa. Six types of seed shapes were observed; circular, elliptical, irregular, oblong, oval, and ovoid. All examined seeds were hard except fragile seeds of Haematoxylom campechianum. Eight types of surface ornamentation have been noticed that include levigate, lugose, papillate, reticulate, reticulate irregular, reticulate regular, rhombus, and rogues. Majority of the taxa has been observed with thick ornamentation wall but thin ornamentation wall has also been recorded in few species. Fracture line of the various patterns was present in all taxa except genus Bauhinia. Three types of texture crudeness; coarse, medium, and fine have been recorded. Both micromorphological and macromorphological characters of seed are very fruitful in identification and classification of Caesalpiniaceae.
- Molecular phylogenetics and species delimitation in annual species of Hydrocotyle (Araliaceae) from South Western Australia. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2019; 134:129-141
- Hydrocotyle L. is a cosmopolitan genus, with approximately 130 species, of mostly perennial herbs in the family Araliaceae. The genus includes around 95 perennial and 35 annual species, with all annu…
Hydrocotyle L. is a cosmopolitan genus, with approximately 130 species, of mostly perennial herbs in the family Araliaceae. The genus includes around 95 perennial and 35 annual species, with all annual species endemic to Australia. In this study, I used sequences of a nDNA marker (ETS) and two cpDNA markers (psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among the annual species of Hydrocotyle. The final sampling included 21 species of Hydrocotyle and seven outgroup taxa. The phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular dataset (i.e., ETS, psbA-trnH and trnL-trnF) recovered three major clades within Hydrocotyle, defined by annual or perennial life histories, and the presence/absence of floral bracts. The topology reconstructed here indicates that there is insufficient molecular evidence for the formal recognition of two putative new species, Hydrocotyle sp. Hamelinensis and Hydrocotyle sp. Puberula, previously identified on the basis of morphology. More specifically, H. sp. Hamelinensis is conspecific with H. tetragonocarpa Bunge, while H. sp. Puberula is conspecific with H. scutellifera Benth. Morphological studies of H. tetragonocarpa revealed that this species is andromonoecious and has heterocarpic schizocarps. Fertile plants of H. tetragonocarpa bear fruit that are either ovoid and wingless or broadly obcordate and winged. A detailed re-examination of the schizocarp surfaces of H. scutellifera indicated that these schizocarps are either glabrous or papillate, with neither of these two character states co-varying with any other vegetative or reproductive traits. The phylogeny of the annual Hydrocotyle recovered a paraphyletic Hydrocotyle, with Neosciadium glochidiatum (Benth.) Domin nested within the genus. This study is the first to reconstruct a molecular phylogeny of Hydrocotyle using samples of both annual and perennial taxa. The findings from this study provide a phylogenetic framework for future systematic and taxonomic research within the genus.
- Comparative ultrastructure of cells and cuticle in the anterior chamber and papillate region of Porcellioscaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) hindgut. [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2018; (801):427-458
- Isopod hindgut consists of two anatomical and functional parts, the anterior chamber, and the papillate region. This study provides a detailed ultrastructural comparison of epithelial cells in the an…
Isopod hindgut consists of two anatomical and functional parts, the anterior chamber, and the papillate region. This study provides a detailed ultrastructural comparison of epithelial cells in the anterior chamber and the papillate region with focus on cuticle ultrastructure, apical and basal plasma membrane labyrinths, and cell junctions. Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hindgut epithelial cells was demonstrated by cytochemical localisation. The main difference in cuticle ultrastructure is in the thickness of epicuticle which is almost as thick as the procuticle in the papillate region and only about one sixth of the thickness of procuticle in the anterior chamber. The apical plasma membrane in both hindgut regions forms an apical plasma membrane labyrinth of cytoplasmic strands and extracellular spaces. In the papillate region the membranous infoldings are deeper and the extracellular spaces are wider. The basal plasma membrane is extensively infolded and associated with numerous mitochondria in the papillate region, while it forms relatively scarce basal infoldings in the anterior chamber. The junctional complex in both hindgut regions consists of adherens and septate junctions. Septate junctions are more extensive in the papillate region. Na+/K+-ATPase was located mostly in the apical plasma membranes in both hindgut regions. The ultrastructural features of hindgut cuticle are discussed in comparison to exoskeletal cuticle and to cuticles of other arthropod transporting epithelia from the perspective of their mechanical properties and permeability. The morphology of apical and basal plasma membranes and localisation of Na+/K+-ATPase are compared with other arthropod-transporting epithelia according to different functions of the anterior chamber and the papillate region.
- Molecular systematics of two sister clades, the Fusarium concolor and F. babinda species complexes, and the discovery of a novel microcycle macroconidium-producing species from South Africa. [Journal Article]
- MMycologia 2018 Nov-Dec; 110(6):1189-1204
- Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to investigate species identity and diversity in two sister clades, the Fusarium concolor (FCOSC) and F. babinda species complexes. Of the 109 isolates analyzed…
Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to investigate species identity and diversity in two sister clades, the Fusarium concolor (FCOSC) and F. babinda species complexes. Of the 109 isolates analyzed, only 4 were received correctly identified to species and these included 1/46 F. concolor, 1/31 F. babinda, and 2/3 F. anguioides. The majority of the F. concolor and F. babinda isolates were received as F. polyphialidicum, which is a heterotypic synonym of the former species. Previously documented from South America, Africa, Europe, and Australia, our data show that F. concolor is also present in North America. The present study expands the known distribution of F. babinda in Australia to Asia, Europe, and North America. The molecular phylogenetic results support the recognition of a novel Fusarium species within the FCOSC, which is described and illustrated here as F. austroafricanum, sp. nov. It was isolated as an endophyte of kikuyu grass associated with a putative mycotoxicosis of cattle and from plant debris in soil in South Africa. Fusarium austroafricanum is most similar morphologically to F. concolor and F. babinda but differs from the latter two species in producing (i) much longer macroconidia in which the apical cell is blunt to slightly papillate and the basal cell is only slightly notched and (ii) macroconidia via microcycle conidiation on water agar. BLASTn searches of the whole genome sequence of F. austroafricanum NRRL 53441 were conducted to predict mycotoxin potential, using genes known to be essential for the synthesis of several mycotoxins and biologically active metabolites. Based on the presence of intact gene clusters that confer the ability to synthesize mycotoxins and pigments, we analyzed cracked corn kernel cultures of F. austroafricanum via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) but failed to detect these metabolites in vitro.
- Reclassification of Parapterulicium Corner (Pterulaceae, Agaricales), contributions to Lachnocladiaceae and Peniophoraceae (Russulales) and introduction of Baltazaria gen. nov. [Journal Article]
- MMycoKeys 2018; (37):39-56
- The genus Parapterulicium was first introduced to accommodate two Brazilian species of coralloid fungi with affinities to Pterulaceae (Agaricales). Despite the coralloid habit and the presence of ske…
The genus Parapterulicium was first introduced to accommodate two Brazilian species of coralloid fungi with affinities to Pterulaceae (Agaricales). Despite the coralloid habit and the presence of skeletal hyphae, other features, notably the presence of gloeocystidia, dichophyses and papillate hyphal ends, differentiate this genus from Pterulaceaesensu stricto. Fieldwork in Brazil resulted in the rediscovery of two coralloid fungi identifiable as Parapterulicium, the first verified collections of this genus since Corner's original work in the 1950s. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of nrITS and nrLSU sequences from these modern specimens revealed affinities with the /peniophorales clade in the Russulales, rather than Pterulaceae. The presence of distinctive hyphal elements, homologous to the defining features of /peniophorales, is consistent with the phylogenetic evidence and thus clearly distinguished Parapterulicium and its type species P.subarbusculum from Pterulaceae, placing this genus within /peniophorales. Parapterulicium was also found to be polyphyletic so Baltazaria gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate P.octopodites, Scytinostromagalactinum, S.neogalactinum and S.eurasiaticogalactinum also within /peniophorales.
- New genera and species of paramphistomes (Digenea: Paramphistomoidea: Cladorchiidae) parasitic in fishes from the Amazon basin in Peru. [Journal Article]
- SPSyst Parasitol 2018; 95(7):611-624
- Two new genera and three new species of paramphistomoid digeneans are described in the family Cladorchiidae Fischoeder, 1901 from doradid, heptapterid, pimelodid and pseudopimelodid fishes in the Ama…
Two new genera and three new species of paramphistomoid digeneans are described in the family Cladorchiidae Fischoeder, 1901 from doradid, heptapterid, pimelodid and pseudopimelodid fishes in the Amazon River in Peru. Goeldamphistomum amazonum n. g., n. sp. (type-species) from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel) (type-host) and Tenellus trimaculatus (Boulenger), and Goeldamphistomum peruanum n. g., n. sp. from Duopalatinus peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host), Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein) and Microglanis sp. are placed in the Dadayiinae Fukui, 1929. Both species have an accessory acetabular sucker, which distinguishes the genus from all taxa previously reported from South American freshwater fishes. They differ from each other primarily in that G. amazonum has a prebifurcal genital pore and oblique, separated testes, the levels of which rarely overlap longitudinally, whereas G. peruanum has a postbifurcal genital pore and testes directly to obliquely tandem. Iquitostrema papillatum n. g., n. sp. (Kalitrematinae Travassos, 1933) from the intestine of Hassar orestis (Steindachner) differs from other members of the subfamily in the combination of a massive acetabulum with a papillate luminal surface and symmetrical testes which overlie the caeca close to the caecal arch. These are the first records of paramphistomes from the five host species studied here.
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- Disentangling historical signal and pollinator selection on the micromorphology of flowers: an example from the floral epidermis of the Nymphaeaceae. [Journal Article]
- PBPlant Biol (Stuttg) 2018; 20(5):902-915
- The family Nymphaeaceae includes most of the diversity among the ANA-grade angiosperms. Among the species of this family, floral structures and pollination strategies vary. The genus Victoria, as wel…
The family Nymphaeaceae includes most of the diversity among the ANA-grade angiosperms. Among the species of this family, floral structures and pollination strategies vary. The genus Victoria, as well as subgenera Lotos and Hydrocallis in Nymphaea, present night-blooming, scented flowers pollinated by scarab beetles. Such similar pollination strategies have led to macromorphological similarities among the flowers of these species, which could be interpreted as homologies or convergences based on different phylogenetic hypotheses about the relationships of these groups. We employed scanning electron microscopy of floral epidermis for seven species of the Nymphaeaceae with contrasting pollination biology to identify the main characters of the floral organs and the potential homologous nature of the structures involved in pollinator attraction. Moreover, we used transmission electron microscopy to observe ultrastructure of papillate-conical epidermis in the stamen of Victoria cruziana. We then tested the phylogenetic or ecological distribution of these traits using both consensus network approaches and ancestral state reconstruction on fixed phylogenies. Our results show that the night-blooming flowers present different specialisations in their epidermis, with V. cruziana presenting the most elaborate floral anatomy. We also identify for the first time the presence of conical-papillate cells in the order Nymphaeales. The epidermal characters tend to reflect phylogenetic relationships more than convergence due to pollinator selection. These results point to an independent and parallel evolution of scarab pollination in Nymphaeaceae and demonstrate the promise of floral anatomy as a phylogenetic marker. Moreover, they indicate a degree of sophistication in the anatomical basis of cantharophilous flowers in the Nymphaeales that diverges from the most simplistic views of floral evolution in the angiosperms.