- Design and evaluation of a multi-epitope assembly peptide vaccine against Acinetobacter baumannii infection in mice. [Journal Article]
- SMSwiss Med Wkly 2019 Jun 03; 149:w20052
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of the design and study of a rMEP vaccine against A. baumannii. The results indicate that the rMEP is a promising vaccine candidate for the control of infections caused by A. baumannii.
- Combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveals a diversity of venom-related and toxin-like peptides expressed in the mat anemone Zoanthus natalensis (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia). [Journal Article]
- ATArch Toxicol 2019 Jun 15
- Venoms from marine animals have been recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics. Several peptide toxins from sea anemone have been investigated as therapeutic leads or pharmaco…
Venoms from marine animals have been recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics. Several peptide toxins from sea anemone have been investigated as therapeutic leads or pharmacological tools. Venom complexity should be further highlighted using combined strategies of large-scale sequencing and data analysis which integrated transcriptomics and proteomics to elucidate new proteins or peptides to be compared among species. In this work, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were combined to identify six groups of expressed peptide toxins in Zoanthus natalensis. These include neurotoxin, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxin, protease inhibitor, mixed function enzymes, venom auxiliary proteins, allergen peptides, and peptides related to the innate immunity. Molecular docking analysis indicated that one expressed Zoanthus Kunitz-like peptide, ZoaKuz1, could be a voltage-gated potassium channels blocker and, hence, it was selected for functional studies. Functional bioassays revealed that ZoaKuz1 has an intrinsic neuroprotective activity in zebrafish model of Parkinson's disease. Since pharmacological blockade of KV channels is known to induce neuroprotective effects, ZoaKuz1 holds the potential to be developed in a therapeutic tool to control neural dysfunction by slowing or even halting neurodegeneration mediated by ion-channel hyperactivity.
- Locally delivered GLP-1 analogues liraglutide and exenatide enhance microvascular perfusion in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- DDiabetologia 2019 Jun 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Liraglutide and exenatide increased skin microvascular perfusion in individuals with and without well-controlled diabetes, potentially mediated, at least in part, by NO.
- Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1-Induced Protein in Age-Related Atrial Fibrillation and Its Association with Circulating Fibrosis Biomarkers. [Journal Article]
- CCardiology 2019 Jun 14; :1-6
- CONCLUSIONS: MCPIP expression was higher in age-related AF than in the other patient groups and it was associated with AF-induced fibrosis.
- Antagonistic Glucagon Receptor Antibody Promotes α-Cell Proliferation and Increases β-Cell Mass in Diabetic Mice. [Journal Article]
- IiScience 2019 May 30; 16:326-339
- Under extreme conditions or by genetic modification, pancreatic α-cells can regenerate and be converted into β-cells. This regeneration holds substantial promise for cell replacement therapy in diabe…
Under extreme conditions or by genetic modification, pancreatic α-cells can regenerate and be converted into β-cells. This regeneration holds substantial promise for cell replacement therapy in diabetic patients. The discovery of clinical therapeutic strategies to promote β-cell regeneration is crucial for translating these findings into clinical applications. In this study, we reported that treatment with REMD 2.59, a human glucagon receptor (GCGR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), lowered blood glucose without inducing hypoglycemia in normoglycemic, streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1D) and non-obesity diabetic mice. Moreover, GCGR mAb treatment increased the plasma glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels, induced pancreatic ductal ontogenic α-cell neogenesis, and promoted α-cell proliferation. Strikingly, the treatment also increased the β-cell mass in these two T1D models. Using α-cell lineage-tracing mice, we found that the neogenic β-cells were likely derived from α-cell conversion. Therefore, GCGR mAb-induced α- to β-cell conversion might represent a pre-clinical approach for improving diabetes therapy.
- CD4 T Cells Induce A Subset of MHCII-Expressing Microglia that Attenuates Alzheimer Pathology. [Journal Article]
- IiScience 2019 May 30; 16:298-311
- Microglia play a key role in innate immunity in Alzheimer disease (AD), but their role as antigen-presenting cells is as yet unclear. Here we found that amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-specific T helper 1 (Aβ…
Microglia play a key role in innate immunity in Alzheimer disease (AD), but their role as antigen-presenting cells is as yet unclear. Here we found that amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-specific T helper 1 (Aβ-Th1 cells) T cells polarized to secrete interferon-γ and intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected to the 5XFAD mouse model of AD induced the differentiation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)+ microglia with distinct morphology and enhanced plaque clearance capacity than MHCII- microglia. Notably, 5XFAD mice lacking MHCII exhibited an enhanced amyloid pathology in the brain along with exacerbated innate inflammation and reduced phagocytic capacity. Using a bone marrow chimera mouse model, we showed that infiltrating macrophages did not differentiate to MHCII+ cells following ICV injection of Aβ-Th1 cells and did not support T cell-mediated amyloid clearance. Overall, we demonstrate that CD4 T cells induce a P2ry12+ MHCII+ subset of microglia, which play a key role in T cell-mediated effector functions that abrogate AD-like pathology.
- Defining Virus-specific CD8+ TCR Repertoires for Therapeutic Regeneration of T Cells against Chronic Hepatitis E. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hepatol 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: We identified TCRs targeting HEV-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes, and characterized their immune properties, which may have clinical potential in future T-cell based therapy.
- The protective effect of fish-derived cathelicidins on bacterial infections in zebrafish, Danio rerio. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 13
- Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are severe threats to aquaculture industry. Boosting and modulating host immune responses has been proved to be an effective strategy to combat with bacterial infections…
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are severe threats to aquaculture industry. Boosting and modulating host immune responses has been proved to be an effective strategy to combat with bacterial infections and there is an urgent need for novel immunomodulators. Cathelicidins is an important family of host defense peptides (HDPs) that possess direct antimicrobial activities and potent immunomodulatory properties. Several cathelicidins have been identified and characterized from diverse fish species. Considering the relatively conserved immune systems between different fish species, it is reasonable to speculate that cathelicidins from different fish species possess immunomodulating functions on the other fish species. In the present study, two fish-derived cathelicidins (CATH_BRALE and codCath1) were selected to investigate their protective effect on zebrafish with bacterial infections. They exhibited potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against the tested aquatic Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with MIC values ranging 2.34-18.75 μg/ml for CATH_BRALE and 2.34-37.5 μg/ml for codCath1. And their antimicrobial effect is so rapid that they killed the bacteria within 60 min. Unlike conventional antibiotics, they kill bacteria by inducing bacterial membrane permeabilization and cell disruption. Besides direct antimicrobial activity, CATH_BRALE and codCath1 exhibited potent immunomodulatory functions by both inhibiting bacteria induced zebrafish pro-inflammatory cytokine gene (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) expression and stimulating zebrafish chemokine gene IL-8 expression. In vivo challenge test proved that they could significantly decrease the bacterial numbers and enhance the survival rates of zebrafish. All the results above imply the great potential of CATH_BRALE and codCath1 as novel peptide immunomodulators in fish aquaculture industry.
- Pharmacophore model of immunocheckpoint protein PD-L1 by cosolvent molecular dynamics simulations. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Graph Model 2019 Jun 07; 91:105-111
- Due to the clinical success of cancer immunotherapy, the design of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has become an area of active research. To date, only five monoclonal antibodies are approved by FDA. Despite t…
Due to the clinical success of cancer immunotherapy, the design of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors has become an area of active research. To date, only five monoclonal antibodies are approved by FDA. Despite the great effort for the development of small molecules and peptides as inhibitors, only one of those has reached clinical trials. Pharmacophore models are a proven useful tool for drug design. The effectiveness of receptor-based pharmacophore modeling is limited due to the neglect of protein flexibility and desolvation effects. In the present application, we performed co-solvent molecular dynamics simulations of PD-L1 protein in order to obtain a pharmacophore model of PD-L1 immunecheckpoint protein. The analysis of probe molecules affinities by PD-L1 resulted in the identification of C'CFG beta strands as the zone with the highest convergence of hotspots, which corresponds to PD-1/PD-L1 interaction surface. The interactions maintained with PD-L1 residues varied from hydrophobic interactions to hydrogen bonds and salt bridges with critical residues for PD-1/PD-L1 binding (M115, A121, Y123, I54, Y56, E58, R125). The superposition of known inhibitors of PD-L1 as Peptide-57, BMS-1166 and high affinity PD-1(HAPD-1) allowed us to validate the pharmacophore model due to the good correlation with its features. The pharmacophore described herein can lead to the optimization and design of more selective and potent anti-cancer drugs.
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- Functionalized Liposomal Nanoparticles for Efficient Gene Delivery System to Neuronal Cell Transfection. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2019 Jun 13
- Liposome based delivery systems provide a promising strategy for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A rational design of brain-targeted liposomes can support the development of more efficient t…
Liposome based delivery systems provide a promising strategy for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A rational design of brain-targeted liposomes can support the development of more efficient treatments with drugs and gene materials. Here, we characterized surface modified liposomes with transferrin (Tf) protein and penetratin (Pen), a cell-penetrating peptide, for efficient and targeted gene delivery to brain cells. PenTf-liposomes efficiently encapsulated plasmid DNA, protected them against enzymatic degradation and exhibited a sustained in vitro release kinetics. The formulation demonstrated low cytotoxicity and was non-hemolytic. Liposomes were internalized into cells mainly through energy-dependent pathways especially clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Reporter gene transfection and consequent protein expression in different cell lines were significantly higher using PenTf-liposomes compared to unmodified liposomes. The ability of these liposome to escape from endosomes can be an important factor which may have likely contributed to the high transfection efficiency observed. Rationally designed bifunctional targeted-liposomes provide an efficient tool for improving the targetability and efficacy of synthesized delivery systems. This investigation of liposomal properties attempted to address cell differences, as well as, vector differences, in gene transfectability. The findings indicate that PenTf-liposomes can be a safe and non-invasive approach to transfect neuronal cells through multiple endocytosis pathways.