- "Men are Better Than Women!" The Positive Effect of a Negative Stereotype Toward Women on a Self-Paced Cycling Exercise. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sport Exerc Psychol 2019 Jul 21; :1-9
- Previous research on the stereotype threat phenomenon has shown that inducing a negative stereotype toward a group debilitates motor performance despite the increase in motivation. Most of the studie…
Previous research on the stereotype threat phenomenon has shown that inducing a negative stereotype toward a group debilitates motor performance despite the increase in motivation. Most of the studies focused on tasks requiring technical skills. However, what happens when the task does not require technical skills but focuses on energy expenditure? To examine this question, 34 male and female participants were assigned to a negative stereotype toward women and a nullified-stereotype condition and performed 20 min of self-paced cycling exercise. The authors hypothesized better performances when participants were assigned to the negative stereotype toward women condition than when assigned to the nullified-stereotype condition. As predicted, men and women increased their performances, accompanied by increases in heart rate. Concerning women, this result provides support for the notion that the effect of inducing a negative stereotype is task dependent, but further research is needed to more deeply investigate the mechanisms involved.
- Reducing harm and promoting recovery through community-based mutual aid: Characterizing those who engage in a hybrid peer recovery community organization. [Journal Article]
- ABAddict Behav 2019 Jun 26; 98:106037
- CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that peer-based support services at a hybrid recovery community organization can successfully engage populations that are often underserved (i.e., experiencing homelessness, involved in drug court, intravenous users, etc.). Significant relationships identified in the exploratory analysis suggest that additional education concerning overdose and the potential benefits of recovery meetings may be useful for specific consumers. Additionally, several recommendations and benefits of engaging in community-based participatory research with peer-led organizations are made for future research.
- Assessment of nursing students perceptions of their training hospital's infection prevention climate: A multi-university study in Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- NENurse Educ Today 2019 Jul 12; 81:72-77
- CONCLUSIONS: This article describes nursing students' perception of the infection prevention climate of their training hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Results may provide a unique theoretical underpinning on the perception and factors that effect an infection prevention climate. Thereby, previous knowledge and literature may be expanded. Results can be used as a guide in establishing clinical policies in efforts toward improving the infection prevention climate.
- Revealing the Dynamic Brain Connectivity from Perception of Speech Sound to Semantic Processing by EEG. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2019 Jul 19
- Understanding brain processing mechanisms from the perception of speech sounds to high-level semantic processing is vital for effective human-robot communication. In this study, 128-channel electroen…
Understanding brain processing mechanisms from the perception of speech sounds to high-level semantic processing is vital for effective human-robot communication. In this study, 128-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were recorded when subjects were listening to real and pseudowords in Mandarin. By using an EEG source reconstruction method and a sliding-window Granger causality analysis, we analyzed the dynamic brain connectivity patterns. Results showed that the bilateral temporal cortex (lTC and rTC), the bilateral motor cortex (lMC and rMC), the frontal cortex (FC), and the occipital cortex (OC) were recruited in the process, with complex patterns in the real word condition than in the pseudoword condition. The spatial pattern is basically consistent with previous functional MRI studies on the understanding of spoken Chinese. For the real word condition, speech perception and processing involved different connection patterns in the initial phoneme perception and processing phase, the phonological processing and lexical selection phase, and the semantic integration phase. Specifically, compared with pseudowords, a hub region in the FC and unique patterns of lMC → rMC and lTC → FC connectivity were found during processing real words after 180 ms, while a distributed network of temporal, motor, and frontal brain areas was involved after 300 ms. This may be related to semantic processing and integration. The involvement of both bottom-up input and top-down modulation in real word processing may support the previously proposed TRACE model. In sum, the findings of this study suggest that representations of speech involve dynamic interactions among distributed brain regions that communicate through time-specific functional networks.
- Respiratory modulation of intensity ratings and psychomotor response times to acoustic startle stimuli. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2019 Jul 19; :134388
- Respiratory interoception may play an important role in the perception of respiratory symptoms in pulmonary diseases. As the respiratory cycle affects startle eye blink responses, startle modulation …
Respiratory interoception may play an important role in the perception of respiratory symptoms in pulmonary diseases. As the respiratory cycle affects startle eye blink responses, startle modulation may be used to assess visceral-afferent signals from the respiratory system. To ascertain the potential impact of brainstem-relayed signals on cortical processes, we investigated whether this pre-attentive respiratory modulation of startle (RMS) effect is also reflected in the modulation of higher cognitive, evaluative processing of the startle stimulus. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers received 80 acoustic startle stimuli (100 or 105 dB(A); 50 ms), which were presented at end and mid inspiration and expiration, while performing a paced breathing task (0.25 Hz). Participants first responded to the startle probes by 'as fast as possible' button pushes and then rated the perceived intensity of the stimuli. Psychomotor response time was divided into 'reaction time' (RT; from stimulus onset to home button release; represents stimulus evaluation) and 'movement time' time (MT; from home button release to target button press). Intensity judgements were higher and RTs accelerated during mid expiration. No effect of respiratory cycle phase was found on eye blink responses and MTs. We conclude that respiratory cycle phase affects higher cognitive, attentional processing of startle stimuli.
- Symptoms and perception of airway obstruction in asthma: clinical implications for use of reliever medications. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: We found that abnormal perception of airway obstruction has important clinical implications for the management of patients with asthma.
- The Controllability Hypothesis: Near-miss effect points to common neurological machinery in posterior parietal cortex for controllable objects and concepts. [Review]
- EJEur J Neurosci 2019 Jul 22
- In this paper I postulate that the processing of concepts which are deemed controllable is rooted in neurological machinery located in the posterior parietal cortex specialised for the processing of …
In this paper I postulate that the processing of concepts which are deemed controllable is rooted in neurological machinery located in the posterior parietal cortex specialised for the processing of objects which are immediately actionable because they are within reach. This is demonstrated with reference to the near-miss effect in gambling behaviour, where it is argued that the configurative proximity of the near-miss outcome to the win outcome creates the impression that the win outcome is 'almost within reach' or controllable. The perceived realisability of the desired outcome increases subjective reward probability and the associated expected action value, which impacts decision-making and behaviour. When extended to substance addiction, this novel hypothesis adds fresh insight into understanding the motivational effects associated with cue-exposure and opportunity for drug-taking. Moreover, by postulating that a perception of control can be generated to minimise unpleasant affective states, it can also reconcile contrasting models of decision-making and provide a neurological explanation for the efficacy of mindfulness-based techniques in treating addictions. With reference to the previously-hypothesised link between the self and control, these ideas can provide an explanation for the increased subjective value of self-associated concepts in the 'endowment effect', as well as a neurological correlate for the concept of the 'narrative self'. This paper therefore provides an innovative and unifying perspective for the study and treatment of behavioural and substance addictions as well as contributing to our neurological understanding of philosophical approaches to the self. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- 'Swimming mosquitoes': a key stepping stone to prevent Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya: an educative experience in Colima, Mexico. [Journal Article]
- HEHealth Educ Res 2019 Aug 01; 34(4):389-399
- Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya arboviruses (DZC), mainly transmitted by mosquito Aedes aegypti, are global health public issues affecting 390 million people each year. In most endemic countries, vector…
Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya arboviruses (DZC), mainly transmitted by mosquito Aedes aegypti, are global health public issues affecting 390 million people each year. In most endemic countries, vector control strategies have been focused on reducing breeding sites and adult mosquito populations. Most health communication strategies have pointed out adult mosquito as the main responsible of the transmission, persuading people to eliminate domestic containers. However, it is not clear how should people understand the relationship between adult mosquitoes and water domestic containers. So, the main goal of the present study was to assess the people understanding of this relationship. Results showed that most people associate adult mosquitoes with DZC, but only few could associate swimming larvae with mosquitoes. The unawareness of larva presence leads to an underestimation of risk perception about DZC transmission. In this context, we consider that educative interventions for health promotion, based on meaningful knowledge and social representations arise as long-term strategies to control transmission of vector-borne diseases. Here, we propose innovative health strategies focused on increase the risk perception about swimming larvae, considering social representations, which may be a key stepping stone to increase people adherence to massive campaigns and reducing DZC burden.
- Validation of a risk perception questionnaire developed for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219921
- CONCLUSIONS: The risk perception questionnaire was valid and reliable to evaluate risk perception construct in RA outpatients; it can be incorporated to routine care and clinical research, and guide interventions to improve patient's health behaviors.
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- Assistive robots to improve the independent living of older persons: results from a needs study. [Journal Article]
- DRDisabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2019 Jul 22; :1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: The results were clustered according to the robot abilities (i.e., motion, interaction, manipulation, decision support and perception abilities) as a list of functional and technical requirements that should be developed to address all the needs related to the personal mobility. Robotic developer teams that work in this context could take advantage of this research. Additionally, this work can be used as a basis for clinicians and nurses working in geriatric units to understand how the robots can support and enhance their work. Implications for rehabilitation The incidence of personal mobility limitations affects 35% of adults age 70 and older and 72% of people over 80 years of age. Assistive robots can support elderly people during daily tasks: they could promote their personal mobility acting as a supporting tool. The results of the needs analysis revealed four categories of needs from the perspective of the older individuals: instrumental needs, rehabilitation needs, personal safety, and indoor activities of daily life. Three categories of caregiver needs were also distinguished: instrumental needs, rehabilitation monitoring needs, and check-up needs.