- Assessment of qualitative enrichment of organic paper mill wastes through vermicomposting: humification factor and time of maturity. [Journal Article]
- HHeliyon 2019; 5(5):e01638
- The process of bioconversion of solid organic wastes through vermicomposting justifies the environmental message for sustainability such as reduce, recycle and reuse of wastes. In the present study, …
The process of bioconversion of solid organic wastes through vermicomposting justifies the environmental message for sustainability such as reduce, recycle and reuse of wastes. In the present study, wastes derived from two different types of paper mill sludge (primary and secondary), was used for their bioconversion through the vermicomposting process using an indigenous species of earthworm (Perionyx excavatus). The maturity and stability stage of vermicompost production was assessed using FT-IR, GC-MS and TG analyses. During vermicomposting, different biochemical functional groups present in the wastes have shown differential chemical alteration and turnover as revealed by FT-IR spectroscopy. This study has also confirmed the trend of biodegradation of complex substances like lignin, cellulose, proteins etc. and thereby demonstrates the extent of mineralization. TG spectral analysis had revealed a mass loss of 80% and 71% in vermicompost produced from primary and secondary sludge respectively. GC-MS studies have also shown the presence of several humic acids like octadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid etc. in the decomposing substances demonstrating as an indicator of the maturity of products. This was further confirmed by the decrease of humification index which focuses the combined action of both earthworms and microbes in the degradation of organic wastes. The present study has highlighted the role of an indigenous earthworm in converting specific industrial wastes especially by recording the point of maturation using humic acids an indicator of the quality of decomposing of wastes following several instrumental applications.
- In vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic induction effect of earthworm coelomic fluid of Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia foetida, and Perionyx excavatus on human oral squamous cell carcinoma-9 cell line. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Rep 2019; 6:347-357
- The current protocol of cancer management includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these modalities have significant adverse effects and affect the quality of life. Further intensifi…
The current protocol of cancer management includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these modalities have significant adverse effects and affect the quality of life. Further intensification of treatment is hindered as maximal toxicity levels are reached impeding improvement. Hence researchers are in the quest for adjunctive naturally available therapies that can alter tumor proliferation without causing significant adverse reactions. The present study aims to explore the cytotoxic potential of earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) of Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) on oral cancer cell line SCC-9. The effect of ECF on cell cycle analysis and mechanism of cell death have also been investigated. All experiments reported in this paper were performed as 3 replicates per experiment. The results indicated that ECF of EE, EF and PE have potent variable cytotoxic effect on SCC-9 cells demonstrated through LDH, clonogenic and comet assay. An effective cell cycle arrest was observed at the G2M phase of cell cycle with apoptotic induction that was observed through an Annexin V - FITC/PI assay. ECF of EE was found to be superior in its cytotoxic action closely followed by ECF of PE. The present findings provide evidence for the first time that ECF of EE, EF and PE have potent cytotoxic effect on oral cancer cells in vitro. They significantly induce G2M cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis in SCC-9 cell line. Gene expression studies have been planned to ascertain the pathways of cell death.
- Heat-inactivated coelomic fluid of the earthworm Perionyx excavatus is a possible alternative source for fetal bovine serum in animal cell culture. [Journal Article]
- BPBiotechnol Prog 2019 Apr 11; :e2817
- Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) is used as a major supplement in culturing animal cells under in vitro conditions. Due to ethical concern, high cost, biosafety, and geographical as well as batchwise result …
Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) is used as a major supplement in culturing animal cells under in vitro conditions. Due to ethical concern, high cost, biosafety, and geographical as well as batchwise result variations, it is important to reduce or replace the use of FBS in animal cell culture. The major objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of heat-inactivated coelomic fluid (HI-CF) of the earthworm, Perionyx excavatus as a possible alternative for FBS in animal cell culture experiments. The coelomic fluid (CF) was extruded from the earthworm using electric shock method and used for the experiments. Electric shock method is a simple non-invasive technique, which has no harmful effect on earthworms. Mouse primary fibroblast and HeLa cell lines were used in this study. Among HI-CF, autoclaved CF and crude CF, the supplement of medium with HI-CF shows positive results. The processed HI-CF (90°C for 5 min) at 10% supplement in cell culture medium promote maximum cell growth but cells need the initial support of FBS for the attachment to the culture flask. Microscopic observation and immunofluorescence assay with actin and lamin A confirm that the cellular and molecular morphology of the cells is maintained intact. The HI-CF of earthworm, P. excavatus has shown better cellular viability when compared with FBS and making it possible as an alternative supplement to minimize the use of FBS.
- Studies on the toxic effects of agrochemical pesticide (Monocrotophos) on physiological and reproductive behavior of indigenous and exotic earthworm species. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Health Res 2019 Mar 21; :1-14
- Earthworms are an ideal biological model in toxicity assays and environmental monitoring studies. In the present study, the reproductive toxicity and histopathological effects of Monocrotophos pestic…
Earthworms are an ideal biological model in toxicity assays and environmental monitoring studies. In the present study, the reproductive toxicity and histopathological effects of Monocrotophos pesticide on an exotic epigeic Eudrilus eugeniae and an indigenous epigeic Perionyx barotensis earthworm were studied. Earthworm species were exposed to different concentrations of pesticide like 450 ppm, 500 ppm, and 650 ppm for 45 days and the mortality rate and reproductive activity was recorded every 15 days of exposure. There was an increase in mortality and abnormal sperm (asthenospermia, necrospermia, and oligospermia) and defective cocoons in earthworms with increasing concentrations of the pesticide. Histopathological changes like rupture of chloragogenous tissue, longitudinal muscle, fused and extra-villous growth and necrotic cell rupture in earthworm's body wall (epidermis, circular and longitudinal muscles) were observed. Fluorescent probes have detected cell death in pesticide-treated earthworms when compared to the control group after 45 days. The present findings show that Monocrotophos pesticide on exposure to epigeic earthworm species causes significant reproductive toxicity and histopathological abnormalities and these changes could be used as a tool in environmental risk assessment of pesticides. Abbreviations: DDT: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; MCP: Monocrotophos; EPA: Environment Protection Act; SL: Soluble Liquid; C: N (Carbon: Nitrogen); C: P (Carbon: Phosphorus); LC: Lethal Concentration; PBS: Phosphate Buffer Solution; WHO: World Health Organization; H&E: Hematoxylin and Eosin; SV: seminal vesicles; O: ovary; GP: genital papillae; Ch: chloragogenous tissue; EL: epithelial layer; CM: circular muscle; LM: longitudinal muscle; CD: cell debris.
- Seaweeds as bioresources for vermicompost production using the earthworm, Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). [Journal Article]
- BTBioresour Technol 2019; 275:394-401
- Fifteen days pre-decomposed seaweeds, Halimeda gracilis, Gracilaria corticata, Sargassum wightii and Sargassum swartzii spiked with cowdung (1:1) were vermicomposted using Perionyx excavatus for 60 d…
Fifteen days pre-decomposed seaweeds, Halimeda gracilis, Gracilaria corticata, Sargassum wightii and Sargassum swartzii spiked with cowdung (1:1) were vermicomposted using Perionyx excavatus for 60 days. The pH in the vermicompost showed insignificant reduction while electrical conductivity showed significant enhancement (P < 0.05). The reduction of organic carbon in vermicomposts ranged from -37.78 to -50.97% over worm-unworked composts. Total NPK contents showed significant increment (26.72-78.17%) in vermicompost over worm-unworked composts. The difference in percentage increase/decrease between physicochemical parameters was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and the same pattern was found between substrates. The total microbial population in vermicomposts was significantly higher than that of initial and composts of all seaweed + cowdung combinations (P < 0.001). The growth and reproduction of Perionyx excavatus in seaweed + cowdung combinations showed equivalent or higher rates when compared with cowdung signifying that Perionyx excavatus is well suited to convert seaweed and cowdung combinations into nutrient rich vermicompost.
- Untargeted metabolomics reveals transformation pathways and metabolic response of the earthworm Perionyx excavatus after exposure to triphenyl phosphate. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 06; 8(1):16440
- Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is one of the most highly utilized organophosphorus flame retardants, and has been frequently detected in various environmental matrices, including soil. So far, limited in…
Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is one of the most highly utilized organophosphorus flame retardants, and has been frequently detected in various environmental matrices, including soil. So far, limited information is known regarding the potential toxicity of TPHP to the earthworm-soil ecosystem. We investigated the metabolism of TPHP and the perturbation of the endogenous metabolome in the earthworm, Perionyx excavatus, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF)-based untargeted metabolomics approach after acute exposure to TPHP for one and two days through a filter paper contact test, as well as after chronic exposure for 28 days in a soil microcosm experiment. TPHP showed low bioaccumulation potential in the earthworm-soil ecosystem at concentrations of 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. Identified phase I metabolites include diphenyl phosphate, mono-hydroxylated and di-hydroxylated TPHP. Two groups of phase II metabolites, thiol conjugates (including mercaptolactic acid, cysteine, cysteinylglycine, and mercaptoethanol conjugates) and glucoside conjugates (including glucoside, glucoside-phosphate, and C14H19O10P conjugates), were putatively identified. Only acute TPHP exposure caused significant perturbations of the endogenous metabolome in earthworms, featuring fluctuations in amino acids, glucose, inosine and phospholipids. These results reveal novel phase II metabolism and toxicity of TPHP in P. excavatus.
- New species and records of earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta) in plantain cropping systems in Colombia's coffee-growing region. [Journal Article]
- ZZootaxa 2018 Oct 04; 4496(1):448-458
- Two new earthworm species, one of Glossodrilus Cognetti, 1905 and the other of Martiodrilus (Maipure) Righi, 1995, are described from material collected from the coffee-growing region located in cent…
Two new earthworm species, one of Glossodrilus Cognetti, 1905 and the other of Martiodrilus (Maipure) Righi, 1995, are described from material collected from the coffee-growing region located in central-western Colombia: Glossodrilus chaguala sp. nov., and Martiodrilus (Maipure) quimbayaensis sp. nov. New records for this region are also reported for Glossodrilus griseus, Glossodrilus lacteus, Glossodrilus panikita, Aptodrilus fuhrmanni, Periscolex columbianus, Periscolex coreguaje, Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex) corethrurus, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus) affinis, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus) bolaui, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus) saliens, Amynthas (Amynthas) gracilis, Amynthas minimus, and Perionyx excavatus.
- Cellular enzymatic anti-oxidants of fractionated mucus proteins from Eudrilus eugeniae (African night crawler) and Perionyx excavatus (Blue worm) in MC3T3. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(13):4375-4391
- CONCLUSIONS: The EeANX1 and EeANX4 fractions demonstrate SOD-liked and GPx-liked activities, as well as cellular anti-oxidation activities. These fractions could be developed as a natural anti-oxidant. This research could provide benefit to the study of cellular anticancer.
- Differential expression of primary pair-rule genes during bidirectional regeneration in Perionyx excavatus. [Journal Article]
- GGGenes Genomics 2018; 40(7):747-753
- The earthworm Perionyx excavatus is a species highly capable of bidirectional regeneration. Pair-rule genes are thought to have an ancestral function in arthropod segmentation. However, orthologs in …
The earthworm Perionyx excavatus is a species highly capable of bidirectional regeneration. Pair-rule genes are thought to have an ancestral function in arthropod segmentation. However, orthologs in annelids (i.e. Capitella teleta) do not exhibit segmental expression in the ectoderm or mesoderm. Their role in regeneration is currently unclear. Here, we report the expression profile of primary pair-rule genes (Pex-EvxA, Pex-EvxB, Pex-RuntA, Pex-RuntB, Pex-Hes1A, Pex-Hes1B, Pex-Hes4A, and Pex-Hey) found in P. excavatus using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated these genes showed variable expression during bidirectional regeneration. Six of these genes might play diverse and potentially critical roles in head and/or tail regeneration.
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- Feedstock composition influences vermicomposting performance of Dichogaster annae relative to Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Pollut Res Int 2018; 25(18):17716-17725
- Carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio influences substrate combinations and earthworm performance in vermicomposting systems. To elucidate these factor effects, a comparative evaluation of species, C/N rati…
Carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio influences substrate combinations and earthworm performance in vermicomposting systems. To elucidate these factor effects, a comparative evaluation of species, C/N ratio combined with feed rate, was conducted on three local earthworm species: Perionyx excavatus, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Dichogaster annae. Earthworms were stocked at similar densities and fed shredded paper (SP), cattle manure (CM), and lawn clippings (LC) combined to form C/N ratios of 28, 36, and 53. Earthworms were fed at rates of 1, 1.25, and 2 g feed (dry wt.)/g worm/day for a period of 8 weeks. Percent vermiconversion, earthworm adult and juvenile biomass, and vermicast quality were measured. Vermicast production was significantly affected by the combination of C/N ratio and feed rate and varied among species. All treatment combinations resulted in > 70% conversion, except E. eugenaie fed at the medium rate. Vermiconversion increased for P. excavatus and D. annae with increasing C/N ratio but decreased with increasing the feed rate. Vermicast EC, pH, and C/N ratio was strongly affected by species, relative to other experimental factors. D. annae showed the greatest change in biomass, which peaked at the highest feed rate and lowest C/N ratio. Average adult biomass decreased for P. excavatus with increasing feed rate, while differences were nonsignificant for E. eugenaie and D. annae. Significant increases in average juvenile biomass were only evident for D. annae in response to increasing feed rates. Feed rate had a greater influence on earthworm population dynamics and vermicast quality compared to initial feedstock C/N ratio.