- Central Venous Access: The Missed Patient Safety Goal. [Journal Article]
- CCCrit Care Nurs Q 2017 Apr/Jun; 40(2):162-164
- Hospital-acquired conditions are conditions that never should happen to a patient while in the care of physicians, nurses, and the health care facility. Central line-associated bloodstream infections...
Hospital-acquired conditions are conditions that never should happen to a patient while in the care of physicians, nurses, and the health care facility. Central line-associated bloodstream infections plague the nation's health care facilities. With increasing rates of infections being reported during hospitalization, hospital-acquired conditions, namely, infections, and more specifically central line-associated bloodstream infections, are now at the top of patient safety concerns and impact organization's reimbursement. Increased surveillance of infections by regulatory agencies and the implementation of value-based purchasing have hospitals racing to put into place strategic plans to reduce and eliminate infections that occur while the patient is hospitalized. There are many ways to reduce and eliminate these infections from the nation's health care facilities. The development and implementation of a specialty vascular access team to insert, maintain, and care for central lines are strategies that can be a power tool for all health care facilities.
- Surveillance and diagnosis of plague and anthrax in Tanzania and Zambia. [Journal Article]
- OJOnderstepoort J Vet Res 2014 Apr 23; 81(2):722
- Environmental Microbial Forensics and Archaeology of Past Pandemics. [Journal Article]
- MSMicrobiol Spectr 2017; 5(1)
- The development of paleomicrobiology with new molecular techniques such as metagenomics is revolutionizing our knowledge of microbial evolution in human history. The study of microbial agents that ar...
The development of paleomicrobiology with new molecular techniques such as metagenomics is revolutionizing our knowledge of microbial evolution in human history. The study of microbial agents that are concomitantly active in the same biological environment makes it possible to obtain a picture of the complex interrelations among the different pathogens and gives us the perspective to understand the microecosystem of ancient times. This research acts as a bridge between disciplines such as archaeology, biology, and medicine, and the development of paleomicrobiology forces archaeology to broaden and update its methods. This chapter addresses the archaeological issues related to the identification of cemeteries from epidemic catastrophes (typology of burials, stratigraphy, topography, paleodemography) and the issues related to the sampling of human remains for biomolecular analysis. Developments in the field of paleomicrobiology are described with the example of the plague. Because of its powerful interdisciplinary features, the paleomicrobiological study of Yersinia pestis is an extremely interesting field, in which paleomicrobiology, historical research, and archeology are closely related, and it has important implications for the current dynamics of epidemiology.
- In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Omadacycline Against Two Biothreat Pathogens: Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. [Journal Article]
- AAAntimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Omadacycline is potent and demonstrates efficacy against both B. anthracis and Y. pestis The well-characterized oral and IV pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability, warrant further assessment of the potential utility of omadacycline in combating these serious biothreat organisms.
- Unstable Saphenous Vein Graft Atheroma in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris. [Journal Article]
- CCCirc Cardiovasc Interv 2017; 10(3)
- Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015. [Journal Article]
- EIEmerg Infect Dis 2017; 23(3):521-524
- During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high ...
During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak.
- Inhaled Liposomal Ciprofloxacin Protects against a Lethal Infection in a Murine Model of Pneumonic Plague. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2017; 8:91
- Inhalation of Yersinia pestis can lead to pneumonic plague, which without treatment is inevitably fatal. Two novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin, 'ciprofloxacin for inhalation' ...
Inhalation of Yersinia pestis can lead to pneumonic plague, which without treatment is inevitably fatal. Two novel formulations of liposome-encapsulated ciprofloxacin, 'ciprofloxacin for inhalation' (CFI, Lipoquin(®)) and 'dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation' (DRCFI, Pulmaquin(®)) containing CFI and ciprofloxacin solution, are in development. These were evaluated as potential therapies for infection with Y. pestis. In a murine model of pneumonic plague, human-like doses of aerosolized CFI, aerosolized DRCFI or intraperitoneal (i.p.) ciprofloxacin were administered at 24 h (representing prophylaxis) or 42 h (representing treatment) post-challenge. All three therapies provided a high level of protection when administered 24 h post-challenge. A single dose of CFI, but not DRCFI, significantly improved survival compared to a single dose of ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, single doses of CFI and DRCFI reduced bacterial burden in lungs and spleens to below the detectable limit at 60 h post-challenge. When therapy was delayed until 42 h post-challenge, a single dose of CFI or DRCFI offered minimal protection. However, single doses of CFI or DRCFI were able to significantly reduce the bacterial burden in the spleen compared to empty liposomes. A three-day treatment regimen of ciprofloxacin, CFI, or DRCFI resulted in high levels of protection (90-100% survival). This study suggests that CFI and DRCFI may be useful therapies for Y. pestis infection, both as prophylaxis and for the treatment of plague.
- [Experimental observation on the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology of Great Gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in the Junggar Basin by subcutaneous injecting of Yersinia pestis]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb 06; 51(2):172-175
- Objective: To understand the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology changes of great gerbils in the Junggar Basin to Yersinia pestis infection. Methods: Forty captured great gerbils from the...
Objective: To understand the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology changes of great gerbils in the Junggar Basin to Yersinia pestis infection. Methods: Forty captured great gerbils from the Junggar Basin that tested negative for anti-F1 antibodies were infected. The Y. pestis strain 2504, isolated from a live great gerbil in the natural plague foci of the Junggar Basin in 2005 with a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of <10 CFU/ml, was used in this study. Forty great gerbils were divided into seven infection groups and were subcutaneously infected with 7.4×10(5), 7.4×10(6), 7.4×10(7), 7.4×10(8), 7.4×10(9), 7.4×10(10), or 3.0×10(11) CFU/ml of 2504. One milliliter of physiological saline was injected in the noninfected group as a control. We collected the liver, spleen, heart, and lung from all animals for histopathologic and ultrastructural pathology examination. Results: Great gerbils in the 7.4×10(8)-3.0×10(11) CFU/ml groups did not survive and exhibited pathological changes and altered ultrastructural pathology. The liver tissue of infected great gerbils showed spotty necrosis and fatty degeneration, intranuclear canaliculi with increased hepatocytes, and uneven distribution of organelles. Additionally, reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, blood sinusoid lacunae with neutrophil infiltration, and phagocytosed bacteria in phagocyte cells were observed. Myocardial fiber hypertrophy and interstitial indistinction, nuclear matrices decreased in cardiac myocytes, and loose arrangement of myogenic fibers in myocardial cells were also observed. Angiectasia, capillary congestion, and tissue necrosis were found in the lung. No significant difference in histopathological and ultrastructural pathology in the parenchymal organ was observed between the 7.4×10(5)-7.4×10(7) CFU/ml groups and the 7.4×10(8)-3.0×10(11) CFU/ml groups, and no specific death caused by Y. pestis infection was apparent in the 7.4×10(5)-7.4×10(7) CFU/ml groups. Conclusion:Y. pestis infection altered tissue and ultrastructural pathology in the parenchyma apparatus of great gerbils. In particular, the liver and spleen appeared to be the primary site of Y. pestis infection in great gerbils.
- Research misconduct: A neglected plague. [Review]
- IJIndian J Public Health 2017 Jan-Mar; 61(1):33-36
- Truthfulness and honesty are absolute essentials of research. But to sustain in the not-so-pleasant "publish-or-perish" environment and "cut-throat" competition to increase the credibility associated...
Truthfulness and honesty are absolute essentials of research. But to sustain in the not-so-pleasant "publish-or-perish" environment and "cut-throat" competition to increase the credibility associated with one's name, many individual researchers as well as research groups are turning towards research misconduct and this plague is gradually reaching epidemic and pandemic proportions. This overview highlights the various types and means of research misconduct and gives suggestions aiming to curb this academic menace so that research sanctity and integrity can be preserved and scientific research does not get polluted by the dirt of misreported or fabricated data.
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- Apparent interspecific transmission of Aphanomyces astaci from invasive signal to virile crayfish in a sympatric wild population. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Invertebr Pathol 2017 Feb 16
- The crayfish plague pathogen (Aphanomyces astaci) causes mass mortalities of European crayfish when transmitted from its original North American crayfish hosts. Little is known, however, about inters...
The crayfish plague pathogen (Aphanomyces astaci) causes mass mortalities of European crayfish when transmitted from its original North American crayfish hosts. Little is known, however, about interspecific transmission of the pathogen between different American crayfish species, although evidence from trade of ornamental crayfish suggests this may happen in captivity. We screened signal and virile crayfish for A. astaci at allopatric and sympatric sites in a UK river. Whilst the pathogen was detected in signal crayfish from both sites, infected virile crayfish were only found in sympatry. Genotyping of A. astaci from virile crayfish suggested the presence of a strain related to one infecting British signal crayfish. We conclude that virile crayfish likely contracted A. astaci interspecifically from infected signal crayfish. Interspecific transmission of A. astaci strains differing in virulence between American carrier species may influence the spread of this pathogen in open waters with potential exacerbated effects on native European crayfish.