- Aspects on the history of transmission and favor of distribution of viruses by iatrogenic action: perhaps an example of a paradigm of the worldwide spread of HIV. [Review]
- MMMed Microbiol Immunol 2017 Apr 22
- Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B...
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa. Slave trade contributed as well to the spread of viruses from Africa to the Americas; it was stopped in 1850. Until that date HIV-1 was not transported to the Americas. By analysis of nucleic acid sequence data it can be concluded that the continental spread of HCV and HIV-1 might have started around 1920 with an exponential phase from 1940 to 1970. Further iatrogenic actions that promoted the spread of HCV and HIV-1 might be vaccinations to prevent deadly diseases. The successful vaccination was followed by diminution of the infectious agent in the population such as small pox, yellow fever and measles. Measurements to reduce the spread of plague and cholera were further benefits increasing survival of diseased subjects in a population. Thus, the reduction of exposure to deadly infectious agents might have given a chance to HIV-1 infected subjects to survive and for HIV-1 to be distributed around the world starting from Central Africa in the 1950s.
- Guidelines for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA). [Journal Article]
- OOphthalmologica 2017 Apr 20
- Diabetic retinal disease is envisioned to become the plague of the coming decades with a steep increase of worldwide diabetes incidence followed by a substantial rise in retinal disease. Improvements...
Diabetic retinal disease is envisioned to become the plague of the coming decades with a steep increase of worldwide diabetes incidence followed by a substantial rise in retinal disease. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic care have to cope with this dilemma in a clinically and socioeconomically efficient manner. Laser treatment has found a less destructive competitor in pharmacological treatments. As a consequence of recent rigorous clinical trials, laser photocoagulation is no longer recommended for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has emerged as first-line therapy. Steroids have maintained a role in the management of chronically persistent DME. The paradigm shifts in therapy are accompanied by a substantial break-through in diagnostics. The following guidance for the management of DME has been composed from the best updated knowledge of leading experts in Europe and represents another volume in the series of EURETINA recommendations for the management of retinal disease.
- A Historical View of Motion Sickness-A Plague at Sea and on Land, Also with Military Impact. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2017; 8:114
- Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in an...
Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature. A systematic search was made from the Greek period beginning with Homer in 800 BC to the late Roman period and ending with Aetios Amidenos in 600 AD, as well as in the Chinese medical classics dating from around 300 AD. Major aspects are the following: body movements caused by waves were identified in all cultures as the critical stimuli. The ancient Greeks and Romans knew that other illnesses and the mental state could precipitate seasickness and that experienced sailors were highly resistant to it (habituation). The Chinese observed that children were particularly susceptible to motion sickness; they first described the type of motion sickness induced by traveling in carts (cart-sickness) or being transported on a litter or in a sedan chair (litter-sickness). The western classics recommended therapeutic measures like fasting or specific diets, pleasant fragrancies, medicinal plants like white hellebore (containing various alkaloids), or a mixture of wine and wormwood. The East knew more unusual measures, such as drinking the urine of young boys, swallowing white sand-syrup, collecting water drops from a bamboo stick, or hiding earth from the kitchen hearth under the hair. The Greek view of the pathophysiology of seasickness was based on the humoral theory of Empedokles and Aristoteles and differed from the Chinese medicine of correspondences, which attributed malfunctions to certain body substances and the life force Qi. Many sources emphasized the impact of seasickness on military actions and famous naval battles such as the Battle of the Red Cliff, which marked the end of the Han dynasty in China, or the defeat of the Spanish Armada by the English in 1588. A peculiar form of motion sickness is associated with Napoleon's camel corps during the Egyptian campaign of 1798/1799, a sickness induced by riding on a camel. Thus, motion sickness in antiquity was known as a physiological response to unadapted body motions during passive transportation as well as a plague at sea.
- Disease Surveillance of California Ground Squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) in a Drive-through Zoo in Oregon, USA. [Journal Article]
- JWJ Wildl Dis 2017 Apr 18
- Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhum...
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals. Serologic testing was performed for Francisella tularensis ; Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohemorrhagiae, and Pomona; Toxoplasma gondii ; and Yersinia pestis . All squirrels were seronegative for Yersinia pestis (0%; 0/45) and Toxoplasma gondii (0%; 0/20); there was a prevalence of 2% (1/45) for Francisella tularensis antibodies and 57% (24/42) were positive for various Leptospira serovars. Although it remains unclear whether ground squirrels present a significant risk for transmission of disease to zoo animals, vaccination of high-risk zoo animals against leptospirosis warrants consideration. Beyond this, continued vigilance and persistence with various forms of pest control may reduce the likelihood of disease transmission from wildlife hosts to animals in human care.
- Epidemic characteristics of main infectious diseases in Yantai city between 2010 and 2012 and prevention strategy research. [Journal Article]
- PJPak J Pharm Sci 2016; 29(6(Special)):2191-2198
- To investigate the epidemic characteristics and prevention strategies of main infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, 23 notifiable diseases were reported in Yantai with average reported cases of 17,...
To investigate the epidemic characteristics and prevention strategies of main infectious diseases. From 2010 to 2012, 23 notifiable diseases were reported in Yantai with average reported cases of 17,376. The morbidity was the highest in 2012 and the lowest in 2011. The accumulated death toll was 101 with the highest death rate in 2011 and the lowest in 2012. Major class A and B infectious diseases included viral hepatitis, phthisis, syphilis, clap and dysentery. The major class C infectious disease was hand-foot-and-mouth disease every year. The distribution of transmission routes of HIV/AIDS among patients with HIV and AIDS in Yantai were investigated. The overall condition of phthisis in Yantai showed stable with slight decrease. The occurrence rate of phthisis every season had fluctuation with higher rate in middle two seasons and lower rate at the beginning and end. The major type of viral hepatitis was still hepatitis B. Patients with hand-foot-and-mouth disease were children under 5 years old accounting for 90.56%, mainly reported in May, June, July and August. At present, the condition of plague prevention for infectious diseases in Yantai is not optimistic with both new and old infectious diseases.
- Potential Roles of Pigs, Small Ruminants, Rodents, and Their Flea Vectors in Plague Epidemiology in Sinda District, Eastern Zambia. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Entomol 2017 Feb 04
- A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern part of Zambia that previously reported a plague outbreak. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of pigs, goats, and sheep as se...
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern part of Zambia that previously reported a plague outbreak. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of pigs, goats, and sheep as sero-surveillance hosts for monitoring plague, and to investigate the flea vectors and potential reservoir hosts to establish the current status of plague endemicity in the district. Serum samples were collected from 96 rodents, 10 shrews, 245 domestic pigs, 232 goats, and 31 sheep, whereas 106 organs were eviscerated from rodents and shrews. As for fleas, 1,064 Echidnophaga larina Jordan & Rothschild, 7 Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothschild), and 382 Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood) were collected from these animals in 34 villages. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests were performed on serum, and organs and fleas to determine IgG antibodies against Fraction 1 antigen and pla gene of Yersinia pestis, respectively. ELISA results showed that 2.83% (95% CI = 0.59-8.05) rodents, 9.0% (95% CI = 5.71-13.28) domestic pigs, 4.7% (95% CI = 2.39-8.33) goats, and 3.2% (95% CI = 0.08-16.70) sheep were positive for IgG antibodies against Fra1 antigen of Y. pestis. On PCR, 8.4% (95% CI = 3.96-15.51) of the rodents were detected with Y. pestis pla gene, whereas all fleas were found negative. The common fleas identified were E. larina from pigs, whereas X. cheopis were the only fleas collected from rodents. The presence of sero-positive animals as well as the occurrence of X. cheopis on local rodents suggests that Y. pestis remains a risk in the district.
- Preparing for biological threats: Addressing the needs of pregnant women. [Review]
- BDBirth Defects Res 2017 Mar 15; 109(5):391-398
- Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the mate...
Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus). Evaluating the potential maternal, fetal, and infant consequences of an intentional release of an infectious agent requires an assessment of several key issues: (1) are pregnant women more susceptible to infection or illness compared to the general population?; (2) are pregnant women at increased risk for severe illness, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population?; (3) does infection or illness during pregnancy place women, the fetus, or the infant at increased risk for adverse outcomes and how does this affect clinical management?; and (4) are the medical countermeasures recommended for the general population safe and effective during pregnancy? These issues help frame national guidance for the care of pregnant women during an intentional release of a biological threat. Birth Defects Research 109:391-398, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- [Dynamics of F1 antibody responses to Yersinia pestis infection in Rhombomys opimus]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr 06; 51(4):353-357
- CONCLUSIONS: Great gerbils infected with the high concentration of Y. pestis fluid show shorter duration in producing F1-antibody, the antibody positive rate is also higher, and the highest antibody titer can reach 1∶4 096. The great gerbils could hold the plague F1 antibodies for a long time which was about 140 to 200 days from the highest titer.
- Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(4):e0005535
- CONCLUSIONS: This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system.
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- Seroprevalence of Q fever among human and animal in Iran; A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11(4):e0005521
- CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of Q fever among human and domestic animals is considerable. Preventative planning and control of C. burnetii infections in Iran is necessary. Active surveillance and further research studies are recommended, to more clearly define the epidemiology and importance of C. burnetii infections in animals and people in Iran.