- Duck virus enteritis (duck plague) - a comprehensive update. [Journal Article]
- VQVet Q 2017; 37(1):57-80
- Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the...
Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the genus Mardivirus, family Herpesviridae, and subfamily Alpha-herpesvirinae. Of note, DVE has worldwide distribution, wherein migratory waterfowl plays a crucial role in its transmission within and between continents. Furthermore, horizontal and/ or vertical transmission plays a significant role in disease spread through oral-fecal discharges. Either of sexes from varying age groups of ducks is vulnerable to DVE. The disease is characterized by sudden death, vascular damage and subsequent internal hemorrhage, lesions in lymphoid organs, digestive mucosal eruptions, severe diarrhea and degenerative lesions in parenchymatous organs. Huge economic losses are connected with acute nature of the disease, increased morbidity and mortality (5%-100%), condemnations of carcasses, decreased egg production and hatchability. Although clinical manifestations and histopathology can provide preliminary diagnosis, the confirmatory diagnosis involves virus isolation and detection using serological and molecular tests. For prophylaxis, both live-attenuated and killed vaccines are being used in broiler and breeder ducks above 2 weeks of age. Since DEV is capable of becoming latent as well as shed intermittently, recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines either alone or in combination (polyvalent) are being targeted for its benign prevention. This review describes DEV, epidemiology, transmission, the disease (DVE), pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis, vaccination and antiviral agents/therapies along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.
- Isolation of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis from Blood Cultures by Plasma Purification and Immunomagnetic Separation Accelerates Antibiotic Susceptibility Determination. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2017; 8:312
- The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicio...
The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicion among clinicians. Moreover, because these diseases can be treated only with antibiotics, rapid isolation of the bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are preferable. Blood cultures of patients may serve as a source for bacteria isolation. However, due to the slow growth rates of F. tularensis and Y. pestis on solid media, isolation by plating blood culture samples on proper agar plates may require several days. Thus, improving the isolation procedure prior to antibiotic susceptibility determination is a major clinically relevant need. In this study, we developed a rapid, selective procedure for the isolation of F. tularensis and Y. pestis from blood cultures. We examined drop-plating and plasma purification followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) as alternative isolation methods. We determined that replacing the classical isolation method with drop-plating is advantageous with respect to time at the expense of specificity. Hence, we also examined isolation by IMS. Sub-localization of F. tularensis within blood cultures of infected mice has revealed that the majority of the bacteria are located within the extracellular fraction, in the plasma. Y. pestis also resides within the plasma. Therefore, the plasma fraction was isolated from blood cultures and subjected to an IMS procedure using polyclonal anti-F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or anti-Y. pestis antibodies conjugated to 50-nm nano-beads. The time required to reach an inoculum of sufficient bacteria for AST was shortest when using the plasma and IMSs for both bacteria, saving up to 2 days of incubation for F. tularensis and 1 day for Y. pestis. Our isolation procedure provides a proof of concept for the clinical relevance of rapid isolation for AST from F. tularensis- and Y. pestis-infected patients.
- [Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaques: Comparison With Intravascular Ultrasound]. [Journal Article]
- KKardiologiia 2017; (1):42-47
- CONCLUSIONS: Coronary CT is a non-invasive method for rapid characterization of ACP. CT results correlate well with IVUS data, including identification of such important signs of plaque instability as presence of "low-density zone" and positive remodeling at the plague level.
- New Delivery Systems of Stem Cells for Vascular Regeneration in Ischemia. [Review]
- FCFront Cardiovasc Med 2017; 4:7
- The finances of patients and countries are increasingly overwhelmed with the plague of cardiovascular diseases as a result of having to chronically manage the associated complications of ischemia suc...
The finances of patients and countries are increasingly overwhelmed with the plague of cardiovascular diseases as a result of having to chronically manage the associated complications of ischemia such as heart failures, neurological deficits, chronic limb ulcers, gangrenes, and amputations. Hence, scientific research has sought for alternate therapies since pharmacological and surgical treatments have fallen below expectations in providing the desired quality of life. The advent of stem cells research has raised expectations with respect to vascular regeneration and tissue remodeling, hence assuring the patients of the possibility of an improved quality of life. However, these supposed encouraging results have been short-lived as the retention, survival, and engraftment rates of these cells appear to be inadequate; hence, the long-term beneficial effects of these cells cannot be ascertained. These drawbacks have led to the relentless research into better ways to deliver stem cells or angiogenic factors (which mobilize stem cells) to the regions of interest to facilitate increased retention, survival, engraftment, and regeneration. This review considered methods, such as the use of scaffolds, retrograde coronary delivery, improved combinations, stem cell pretreatment, preconditioning, stem cell exosomes, mannitol, magnet, and ultrasound-enhanced delivery, homing techniques, and stem cell modulation. Furthermore, the study appraised the possibility of a combination therapy of stem cells and macrophages, considering the enormous role macrophages play in repair, remodeling, and angiogenesis.
- Robust growth of avirulent phase II Coxiella burnetii in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(3):e0173528
- Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is t...
Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is thought to result from potentiated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which leads to production of inhibitory effector molecules. Past studies have used conditioned medium from L-929 murine fibroblasts as a source of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to promote differentiation of bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors into macrophages. However, uncharacterized components of conditioned medium, such as variable amounts of type I interferons, can affect macrophage activation status and their permissiveness for infection. In the current study, we show that the C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain grows robustly in primary macrophages from C57BL/6J mice when bone marrow cells are differentiated with recombinant murine M-CSF (rmM-CSF). Bacteria were readily internalized by BMDM, and replicated within degradative, LAMP1-positive vacuoles to achieve roughly 3 logs of growth over 6 days. Uninfected BMDM did not appreciably express CD38 or Egr2, markers of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, nor did infection change the lack of polarization. In accordance with an M0 phenotype, infected BMDM produced moderate amounts of TNF and nitric oxide. Similar NMII growth results were obtained using C57BL/6J myeloid progenitors immortalized with an estrogen-regulated Hoxb8 (ER-Hoxb8) oncogene. To demonstrate the utility of the ER-Hoxb8 system, myeloid progenitors from natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) C57BL/6J knock-in mice were transduced with ER-Hoxb8, and macrophages were derived from immortalized progenitors using rmM-CSF and infected with NMII. No difference in growth was observed when compared to macrophages from wild type mice, indicating depletion of metal ions by the Nramp1 transporter does not negatively impact NMII growth. Results with NMII were recapitulated in primary macrophages where C57BL/6J Nramp1+ BMDM efficiently killed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. M-CSF differentiated murine macrophages from bone marrow and conditional ER-Hoxb8 myeloid progenitors will be useful ex vivo models for studying Coxiella-macrophage interactions.
- The Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system predicts wound healing but not major amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers treated in a multidisciplinary setting. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vasc Surg 2017 Mar 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with DFU, the WIfI classification system correlated well with wound healing but was not associated with risk of major amputation at 1 year. Although further prospective research is warranted, our results suggest that use of a multidisciplinary approach for DFUs may augment healing time and reduce amputation risk compared with previously published historical controls of standard wound care among patients with advanced stage 4 disease.
- Q&A: A Conversation With David France - The HIV/AID Plague Years and Where We Stand Now. [Journal Article]
- MCManag Care 2017; 26(2):32-34
- Journalist David France's How to Survive A Plague is a searing firsthand account of the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in New York City. AIDS activists, most of them gay men, were fighting for ...
Journalist David France's How to Survive A Plague is a searing firsthand account of the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in New York City. AIDS activists, most of them gay men, were fighting for their lives. Researchers, politicians, public health officials, and pharma were slow to respond-or resisted outright.
- Network theory may explain the vulnerability of medieval human settlements to the Black Death pandemic. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Mar 06; 7:43467
- Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes tha...
Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes that are also directly connected between them) and centrality (the number and intensity of connections with the other nodes in the network), are widely associated with the dynamics of transmission of pathogens. Here we investigate how network centrality and transitivity influence vulnerability to diseases of human populations by examining one of the most devastating pandemic in human history, the fourteenth century plague pandemic called Black Death. We found that, after controlling for the city spatial location and the disease arrival time, cities with higher values of both centrality and transitivity were more severely affected by the plague. A simulation study indicates that this association was due to central cities with high transitivity undergo more exogenous re-infections. Our study provides an easy method to identify hotspots in epidemic networks. Focusing our effort in those vulnerable nodes may save time and resources by improving our ability of controlling deadly epidemics.
- [Genotyping by CRISPR and regional distribution of Yersinia pestis in Qinghai-plateau from 1954 to 2011]. [Journal Article]
- ZYZhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Mar 06; 51(3):237-242
- CONCLUSIONS: CRISPR-based genotyping analyses showed complicated population of Y. pestis in Qinghai-plateau. Four clusters, Ca7, Ca7', CaΔ5' and Ca35' were the most epidemic dominant four clusters and presented obvious regional distribution patterns, which instructed us to strengthen the surveillance and prevention and control by CRISPR-genotyping technique.
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- Molecular and serological evidence of flea-associated typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsial infections in Madagascar. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2017 Mar 04; 10(1):125
- CONCLUSIONS: The general population in Madagascar are exposed to rickettsiae, and two flea-associated Rickettsia pathogens, R. typhi and R. felis, are present near or in homes. Although our results are from a single district, they demonstrate that rickettsiae should be considered as potential agents of undifferentiated fever in Madagascar.