- Amazonian Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) potentiates the infection of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis: Role of the PKR/IFN1/IL-10 axis. [Journal Article]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 Jun 19; 13(6):e0007500
- CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our data suggest that coinfections with specific RNA viruses shared by vectors or reservoirs of Leishmania may enhance and sustain the activation of host cellular RNA sensors, resulting in aggravation of the parasite infection. The present work highlights new perspectives for the investigation of antiviral pathways as important modulators of protozoan infections.
- Cell biology of phlebovirus entry. [Journal Article]
- VVirologie (Montrouge) 2019 06 01; 23(3):176-187
- Phleboviruses constitute a large group of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), mainly transmitted to their hosts by sandflies and ticks, occasionally by mosquitoes. These viruses have a worldwide d…
Phleboviruses constitute a large group of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), mainly transmitted to their hosts by sandflies and ticks, occasionally by mosquitoes. These viruses have a worldwide distribution and many cause serious diseases - often fatal - in both domestic animals and humans. The global warming, the apparent wide distribution of arthropod reservoirs, and the increasing number of outbreaks show that phleboviruses must be taken seriously as emerging disease agents. This review proposes to focus on the early steps of phlebovirus infection, from virus binding to penetration into the cytosol. We address the most recent knowledge and advances in the entry of these viruses into vertebrate host cells, including virus receptors, cellular factors, endocytic pathways, and fusion.
- Interferon-γ-Directed Inhibition of a Novel High-Pathogenic Phlebovirus and Viral Antagonism of the Antiviral Signaling by Targeting STAT1. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2019; 10:1182
- Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by a novel phlebovirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral available an…
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by a novel phlebovirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral available and the viral pathogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that SFTSV infection results in substantial production of serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in patients and then that IFN-γ in turn exhibits a robust anti-SFTSV activity in cultured cells, indicating the potential role of IFN-γ in anti-SFTSV immune responses. However, the IFN-γ anti-SFTSV efficacy was compromised once viral infection had been established. Consistently, we found that viral nonstructural protein (NSs) expression counteracts IFN-γ signaling. By protein interaction analyses combined with mass spectrometry, we identified the transcription factor of IFN-γ signaling pathway, STAT1, as the cellular target of SFTSV for IFN-γ antagonism. Mechanistically, SFTSV blocks IFN-γ-triggered STAT1 action through (1) NSs-STAT1 interaction-mediated sequestration of STAT1 into viral inclusion bodies and (2) viral infection-induced downregulation of STAT1 protein level. Finally, the efficacy of IFN-γ as an anti-SFTSV drug in vivo was evaluated in a mouse infection model: IFN-γ pretreatment but not posttreatment conferred significant protection to mice against lethal SFTSV infection, confirming IFN-γ's anti-SFTSV effect and viral antagonism against IFN-γ after the infection establishment. These findings present a picture of virus-host arm race and may promote not only the understanding of virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis but also the development of antiviral therapeutics.
- Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus-Induced Macrophage Differentiation Is Regulated by miR-146. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2019; 10:1095
- Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans, which is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyavirida…
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans, which is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family, is tick borne and endemic in Eastern Asia. Previous study found that SFTSV can infect and replicate in macrophages in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of macrophages in virus replication and the potential pathogenic mechanisms of SFTSV in macrophage remain unclear. In this study, we provided evidence that the SFTSV infection drove macrophage differentiation skewed to M2 phenotype, facilitated virus shedding, and resulted in viral spread. We showed evidence that miR-146a and b were significantly upregulated in macrophages during the SFTSV infection, driving the differentiation of macrophages into M2 cells by targeting STAT1. Further analysis revealed that the elevated miR-146b but not miR-146a was responsible for IL-10 stimulation. We also found that SFTSV increased endogenous miR-146b-induced differentiation of macrophages into M2 cells mediated by viral non-structural protein (NSs). The M2 skewed differentiation of macrophages may have important implication to the pathogenesis of SFTS.
- Field samplings of Ixodes ricinus ticks from a tick-borne encephalitis virus micro-focus in Northern Zealand, Denmark. [Journal Article]
- TTTicks Tick Borne Dis 2019 May 19
- In 2008-2009 a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) micro-focus was detected in Northern Zealand, Denmark. No new cases of TBE with an epidemiological link to Northern Zealand has been reported since…
In 2008-2009 a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) micro-focus was detected in Northern Zealand, Denmark. No new cases of TBE with an epidemiological link to Northern Zealand has been reported since. Here we undertook to investigate Ixodes ricinus ticks from this endemic micro-focus in 2016 and 2017. In addition to TBEV, I. ricinus ticks may host other pathogens that include Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Neoehrlichia mikurensis, together with various endosymbiont microorganisms. To detect multiple organisms we used a metagenomics PanVirus microarray and next-generation sequencing to examine the persistence and evolution of other emerging viruses, bacteria and parasites. Here we report the rise and fall of the Danish TBEV micro-focus in Northern Zealand. However, we identify for the first time in Danish I. ricinus ticks the presence of Uukuniemi virus in addition to a tick-borne phlebovirus and a range of bacteria.
- Occupational Risk of Severe Fever With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Healthcare Workers. [Journal Article]
- OFOpen Forum Infect Dis 2019; 6(5):ofz210
- We identified a healthcare-associated infection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV), transmitted through direct blood contact with an index case. Following further epi…
We identified a healthcare-associated infection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV), transmitted through direct blood contact with an index case. Following further epidemiological and clinical investigations, we identified SFTSV seropositivity in 2 healthcare workers and 2 family members, who were positive for anti-SFTSV immunoglobin G. It is important to prevent SFTSV transmission by early diagnosis of SFTS and universal precautions.
- Detection of SFTS virus RNA and antibodies in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome surveillance cases in endemic areas of China. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2019 May 28; 19(1):476
- CONCLUSIONS: SFTSV RNA detection was preferred for SFTSV infection during disease surveillance. For highly suspected SFTS cases, IgM antibody is suggested to make a comprehensive judgement.
- Detection of a Novel Phlebovirus (Drin Virus) from Sand Flies in Albania. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2019 May 23; 11(5)
- Phlebotomine sand flies are generalist vectors with significant implications for public health. They are able to transmit phleboviruses that cause sand fly fever, headaches, or meningitis in humans. …
Phlebotomine sand flies are generalist vectors with significant implications for public health. They are able to transmit phleboviruses that cause sand fly fever, headaches, or meningitis in humans. Albania is a country in Southeast Europe with a typical Mediterranean climate which provides convenient conditions for the presence of sand flies. Hence, the circulation of phleboviruses, such as the Toscana and Balkan viruses, has been recently described in the country. We followed a virus discovery approach on sand fly samples collected in 2015 and 2016 in seven regions of Albania, with the aim to investigate and characterize potentially circulating phleboviruses in phlebotomine sand flies. A presumed novel phlebovirus was detected in a pool consisting of 24 Phlebotomus neglectus males. The virus was provisionally named the Drin virus after a river near the locality of Kukës, where the infected sand flies were trapped. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Drin virus is closely related to the Corfou (CFUV) virus, isolated in the 1980s from Phlebotomus major sand flies on the eponymous island of Greece, and may also be involved in human infections because of its similarity to the sand fly fever Sicilian virus. The latter justifies further studies to specifically address this concern. Together with recent findings, this study confirms that Albania and the Balkan peninsula are hot spots for phleboviruses.
- Geographic dispersal and genetic diversity of tick-borne phleboviruses (Phenuiviridae, Phlebovirus) as revealed by the analysis of L segment sequences. [Journal Article]
- TTTicks Tick Borne Dis 2019; 10(4):942-948
- The large diversity of new tick-borne phleboviruses, and the negative impacts of the virulent viruses on human/animal health have led to a growing interest in their analysis. In this report, new insi…
The large diversity of new tick-borne phleboviruses, and the negative impacts of the virulent viruses on human/animal health have led to a growing interest in their analysis. In this report, new insights are brought out into the diversity of putative phleboviruses circulating in Portugal (both the continental territory and the islands of São Miguel, in the Azores, and Madeira), as well as in the Spanish western regions of Extremadura and Castilla and León. Phlebovirus sequences were frequently detected (L-segment) from both questing and feeding ticks, but especially in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) specimens. These sequences were detected in adult ticks, as well as nymphs and eggs, supporting the hypothesis of viral maintenance by vertical transmission. Though multiple genetic groups could be identified in phylogenetic trees (AnLuc, KarMa, RiPar virus 1, and Spanish group 1 and 2), all the sequences from Portugal and Spain shared common ancestry with other viral sequence obtained from samples collected over a large geographic coverage. Spatiotemporal analysis placed Middle-East as the geographic origin of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all phleboviruses analysed in the present study. More recent viral transitions might include migrations from Spain to continental Portugal, and from there to the Portuguese Islands. Our findings suggest that the time of the MRCA of phleboviruses was dated around 225 years ago [95% HPD: 124-387 year before the last sampling date].
New Search Next
- Diverse novel phleboviruses in sandflies from the Panama Canal area, Central Panama. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Virol 2019; 100(6):938-949
- The genus Phlebovirus (order Bunyavirales, family Phenuiviridae) comprises 57 viruses that are grouped into nine species-complexes. Sandfly-transmitted phleboviruses are found in Europe, Africa and t…
The genus Phlebovirus (order Bunyavirales, family Phenuiviridae) comprises 57 viruses that are grouped into nine species-complexes. Sandfly-transmitted phleboviruses are found in Europe, Africa and the Americas and are responsible for febrile illness and infections of the nervous system in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of sandfly-transmitted phleboviruses in connected and isolated forest habitats throughout the Panama Canal area in Central Panama. In total, we collected 13 807 sandflies comprising eight phlebotomine species. We detected several strains pertaining to five previously unknown viruses showing maximum pairwise identities of 45-78 % to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of phleboviruses. Entire coding regions were directly sequenced from infected sandflies as virus isolation in cell culture was not successful. The viruses were tentatively named La Gloria virus (LAGV), Mona Grita virus (MOGV), Peña Blanca virus (PEBV), Tico virus (TICV) and Tres Almendras virus (TRAV). Inferred phylogenies and p-distance-based analyses revealed that PEBV groups with the Bujaru phlebovirus species-complex, TRAV with the Candiru phlebovirus species-complex and MOGV belongs to the proposed Icoarci phlebovirus species-complex, whereas LAGV and TICV seem to be distant members of the Bujaru phlebovirus species-complex. No specific vector or habitat association was found for any of the five viruses. Relative abundance of sandflies was similar over habitat types. Our study shows that blood-feeding insects originating from remote and biodiverse habitats harbour multiple previously unknown phleboviruses. These viruses should be included in future surveillance studies to assess their geographic distribution and to elucidate if these viruses cause symptoms of disease in animals or humans.