- Red-Green Versus Blue Tactical Light: A Direct, Objective Comparison. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spec Oper Med 2016; 16(4):54-58
- CONCLUSIONS: Red-green was a superior light source for SOFMED and military first responders in this study, especially, where light was required to allow accurate and efficient application of Tactical Combat Casualty Care to injured personnel.
- NEW FINDINGS FROM MULTIMODAL FUNDUS IMAGING OVER 3 YEARS OF A PATIENT WITH MICROCEPHALY, CHORIORETINOPATHY, AND KIF11 MUTATION. [Journal Article]
- RCRetin Cases Brief Rep 2017 Jan 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Curvilinear streaks and retinal arteriolar sheathing in this patient expand on the more typical fundus findings of KIF11 mutations. The outer retina is preferentially involved, and there is anatomical sparing of the macula until later in the disease state when multifocal electroretinography indicates functional impairment. Lacunae represent scleral depressions with the loss of overlying choroid and outer retina. Slow atrophic progression with loss of vision may occur over time.
- Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and neurodegenerative risk: To tell or not to tell to the patient? How to minimize the risk? [Review]
- SMSleep Med Rev 2016 Nov 10
- Most people with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) have an underlying synucleinopathy, mainly Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies, with median conversion time of 4-9 y f...
Most people with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) have an underlying synucleinopathy, mainly Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies, with median conversion time of 4-9 y from iRBD diagnosis and of 11-16 y from symptom onset. Subtle signs and imaging tests indicate concomitant neurodegeneration in widespread brain areas. Risk factor studies suggest that iRBD patients may have prior head injury, occupational farming, pesticide exposure, low education level and possibly more frequent family history of dream-enactment behavior (but not of PD), plus unexpected risk factors (smoking, ischemic heart disease and inhaled corticosteroid use). Unlike PD, caffeine and smoking appear not to have a protective role. Prior depression and antidepressant use may be early neurodegenerative signs rather than exclusively causative factors. Age, hyposmia, impaired color vision, abnormal dopaminergic imaging, mild cognitive impairment and possibly sleepiness, may identify patients at greater risk of more rapid conversion. The consensus is to generally disclose the neurodegenerative risk to patients (with the caveat that phenoconversion and its temporal course remain uncertain in individuals without "soft neurodegenerative signs" and those under 50 y of age), to suggest a healthy lifestyle and to take part in prospective cohort studies in anticipation of eventual neuroprotective trials.
- MACULAR PIGMENT DISTRIBUTION RESPONSES TO HIGH-DOSE ZEAXANTHIN SUPPLEMENTATION IN PATIENTS WITH MACULAR TELANGIECTASIA TYPE 2. [Journal Article]
- RRetina 2017 Jan 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current study, zeaxanthin supplementation does not result in any visual benefit in patients with macular telangiectasia Type 2 and does not reestablish a normal peaked distribution of MP in the fovea. One patient developed a novel, reversible, crystalline maculopathy in response to zeaxanthin supplementation that was reminiscent of canthaxanthin crystalline maculopathy.
- Serum levels of vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface after bariatric surgery. [Journal Article]
- AGArq Gastroenterol 2017 Jan-Mar; 54(1):65-69
- CONCLUSIONS: - There was no influence of the bariatric surgery technique used on serum vitamin A levels, on the visual function or on the ocular surface. Moreover, there was no correlation between serum levels of vitamin A and the visual function or the ocular surface changes.
- Ophthalmologic Baseline Characteristics and 2-Year Ophthalmologic Safety Profile of Pramipexole IR Compared with Ropinirole IR in Patients with Early Parkinson's Disease. [Journal Article]
- PDParkinsons Dis 2016; 2016:8298503
- Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) progressively affects dopaminergic neurotransmission and may affect retinal dopaminergic functions and structures. Objective. This 2-year randomized, open-label, ...
Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) progressively affects dopaminergic neurotransmission and may affect retinal dopaminergic functions and structures. Objective. This 2-year randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study, NCT00144300, evaluated ophthalmologic safety profiles of immediate-release (IR) pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with early idiopathic PD with ≤6 months' prior dopamine agonist exposure and without preexisting major eye disorders. Methods. Patients received labeled IR regimens of pramipexole (n = 121) or ropinirole (n = 125) for 2 years. Comprehensive ophthalmologic assessments (COA) included corrected acuity, Roth 28-color test, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, computerized visual field test, fundus photography, and electroretinography. Results. At baseline, we observed retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) hypopigmentation not previously reported in PD patients. The estimated relative risk of 2-year COA worsening with pramipexole versus ropinirole was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.71-1.60). Mean changes from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System parts II+III total scores (pramipexole: 1 year, -4.1 ± 8.9, and 2 years, -0.7 ± 10.1, and ropinirole: 1 year, -3.7 ± 8.2, and 2 years, -1.7 ± 10.5) and Hoehn-Yahr stage distribution showed therapeutic effects on PD symptoms. Safety profiles were consistent with labeling. Conclusions. The risk of retinal deterioration did not differ in early idiopathic PD patients receiving pramipexole versus ropinirole. RPE hypopigmentation at baseline was not previously reported in this population. This trial is registered with NCT00144300.
- Assessing Sexual Dicromatism: The Importance of Proper Parameterization in Tetrachromatic Visual Models. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(1):e0169810
- Perceptual models of animal vision have greatly contributed to our understanding of animal-animal and plant-animal communication. The receptor-noise model of color contrasts has been central to this ...
Perceptual models of animal vision have greatly contributed to our understanding of animal-animal and plant-animal communication. The receptor-noise model of color contrasts has been central to this research as it quantifies the difference between two colors for any visual system of interest. However, if the properties of the visual system are unknown, assumptions regarding parameter values must be made, generally with unknown consequences. In this study, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of the receptor-noise model using avian visual system parameters to systematically investigate the influence of variation in light environment, photoreceptor sensitivities, photoreceptor densities, and light transmission properties of the ocular media and the oil droplets. We calculated the chromatic contrast of 15 plumage patches to quantify a dichromatism score for 70 species of Galliformes, a group of birds that display a wide range of sexual dimorphism. We found that the photoreceptor densities and the wavelength of maximum sensitivity of the short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptor 1 (SWS1) can change dichromatism scores by 50% to 100%. In contrast, the light environment, transmission properties of the oil droplets, transmission properties of the ocular media, and the peak sensitivities of the cone photoreceptors had a smaller impact on the scores. By investigating the effect of varying two or more parameters simultaneously, we further demonstrate that improper parameterization could lead to differences between calculated and actual contrasts of more than 650%. Our findings demonstrate that improper parameterization of tetrachromatic visual models can have very large effects on measures of dichromatism scores, potentially leading to erroneous inferences. We urge more complete characterization of avian retinal properties and recommend that researchers either determine whether their species of interest possess an ultraviolet or near-ultraviolet sensitive SWS1 photoreceptor, or present models for both.
- Phenotiki: An open software and hardware platform for affordable and easy image-based phenotyping of rosette-shaped plants. [Journal Article]
- PJPlant J 2017 Jan 09
- Phenotyping is important to understand plant biology but current solutions are either costly, not versatile or difficult to deploy. To solve this problem, we present Phenotiki, an affordable system f...
Phenotyping is important to understand plant biology but current solutions are either costly, not versatile or difficult to deploy. To solve this problem, we present Phenotiki, an affordable system for plant phenotyping which, relying on off-the-shelf parts, provides an easy to install and maintain platform, offering an out-of-box experience for a well established phenotyping need: imaging rosette-shaped plants. The accompanying software (with available source code) processes data originating from our device seamlessly and automatically. Our software relies on machine learning to devise robust algorithms, and includes automated leaf count obtained from 2D images without the need of depth (3D). Our affordable device (~200€) can be deployed in growth chambers or greenhouses to acquire optical 2D images of approximately up to 60 adult Arabidopsis rosettes concurrently. Data from the device are processed remotely on a workstation or via a cloud application (based on CyVerse). In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept validation experiment on top-view images of 24 Arabidopsis plants in a combination of genotypes that has not been previously compared. Their phenotypic analysis with respect to morphology, growth, color and leaf count has not been done previously comprehensively. We confirm findings of others on some of the extracted traits showing that we can phenotype at reduced cost. We also perform extensive validations with external measurements and with higher fidelity equipment and find no loss in statistical accuracy when we use the affordable setting we propose. Device setup instructions and analysis software are publicly available (http://phenotiki.com). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Atypical Color Preference in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2016; 7:1976
- So far, virtually no study has ever investigated color preference in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In order to address this issue, 29 boys with ASD varying in age between 4 and 17 yea...
So far, virtually no study has ever investigated color preference in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In order to address this issue, 29 boys with ASD varying in age between 4 and 17 years, and 38 age-matched typically developing (TD) boys were studied regarding their preference among six colors: red, pink, yellow, brown, green, and blue, in clinical settings. When mean rank of preference was computed in each of the ASD and TD groups with regard to each color, it was found that boys with ASD were significantly less likely than TD boys to prefer yellow and more likely than TD boys to prefer green and brown colors. These results appear to be caused by hyper-sensation characteristic of ASD, due to which boys with this disorder perceive yellow as being sensory-overloading.
New Search Next
- Pioneering Studies on Cephalopod's Eye and Vision at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (1883-1977). [Review]
- FPFront Physiol 2016; 7:618
- From the late nineteenth century onwards, the phenomena of vision and the anatomy and physiology of the eye of marine animals induced many zoologists, ethologists, physiologists, anatomists, biochemi...
From the late nineteenth century onwards, the phenomena of vision and the anatomy and physiology of the eye of marine animals induced many zoologists, ethologists, physiologists, anatomists, biochemists, and ophthalmologists to travel to the Zoological Station in Naples. Initially, their preferred research objects were fish, but it soon became evident that cephalopods have features which make them particularly suited to research. After the first studies, which outlined the anatomical structure of cephalopods' eyes and optic nerves, the research rapidly shifted to the electrophysiology and biochemistry of vision. In the twentieth century these results were integrated with behavioral tests and training techniques. Between 1909 and 1913 also the well-known debate on color vision between ophthalmologist Carl von Hess and zoologist Karl von Frisch took place in Naples. Largely unknown is that the debate also concerned cephalopods. A comparative historical analysis of these studies shows how different experimental devices, theoretical frameworks, and personal factors gave rise to two diametrically opposing views.