- Contour Adaptation Reduces the Spreading of Edge Induced Colors. [Journal Article]
- VRVision Res 2017 Apr 17
- Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduc...
Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduce surface contrast when the surface is chromatic (the saturation or colorimetric purity of the surface is maintained). In addition to reducing the brightness of physical luminance contrast, contour adaptation also reduces (or even reverses) the illusory brightness contrast seen in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion, in which two physically identical grey areas appear different brightness because of a sharp luminance edge separating them. Chromatic color spreading illusions also occur with chromatic inducing edges, and an unanswered question is whether contour adaptation can reduce the perceived contrast of illusory color spreading from edges, even though it cannot reduce the perceived contrast of physical surface color. The current studies use a color spreading illusion known as the watercolor effect in order to test whether illusory color spreading is affected by contour adaptation. The general findings of physical achromatic contrast being reduced and chromatic contrast being robust to contour adaptation were replicated. However, both illusory brightness and color were reduced by contour adaptation, even when the illusion edges only differed in chromatic contrast with each other and the background. Additional studies adapting to chromatic contours showed opposite effects on illusory color contrast than achromatic adaptation.
- A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds. [Journal Article]
- SSensors (Basel) 2017 Apr 18; 17(4)
- This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control syste...
This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as "good" and "not good" (NG). The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Chinese cabbage seeds can be sorted efficiently using the developed system.
- Visual Detection and Tracking System for a Spherical Amphibious Robot. [Journal Article]
- SSensors (Basel) 2017 Apr 15; 17(4)
- With the goal of supporting close-range observation tasks of a spherical amphibious robot, such as ecological observations and intelligent surveillance, a moving target detection and tracking system ...
With the goal of supporting close-range observation tasks of a spherical amphibious robot, such as ecological observations and intelligent surveillance, a moving target detection and tracking system was designed and implemented in this study. Given the restrictions presented by the amphibious environment and the small-sized spherical amphibious robot, an industrial camera and vision algorithms using adaptive appearance models were adopted to construct the proposed system. To handle the problem of light scattering and absorption in the underwater environment, the multi-scale retinex with color restoration algorithm was used for image enhancement. Given the environmental disturbances in practical amphibious scenarios, the Gaussian mixture model was used to detect moving targets entering the field of view of the robot. A fast compressive tracker with a Kalman prediction mechanism was used to track the specified target. Considering the limited load space and the unique mechanical structure of the robot, the proposed vision system was fabricated with a low power system-on-chip using an asymmetric and heterogeneous computing architecture. Experimental results confirmed the validity and high efficiency of the proposed system. The design presented in this paper is able to meet future demands of spherical amphibious robots in biological monitoring and multi-robot cooperation.
- Color Vision in Color Display Night Vision Goggles. [Journal Article]
- AMAerosp Med Hum Perform 2017 May 01; 88(5):448-456
- CONCLUSIONS: The results can be used by CDNVG symbology designers to optimize aircrew performance subject to wider constraints arising from the way color is used in the existing conventional cockpit instruments and displays.Liggins EP, Serle WP. Color vision in color display night vision goggles. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):448-456.
- Surgical Resection of an Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma: Relevance of Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches to the Optic Canal. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol Surg Rep 2017; 78(2):e81-e85
- Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) account for less than 2% of meningiomas and 1.7% of orbital tumors. Although rare, the management of these tumors is important as unilateral blindness often res...
Optic nerve sheath meningiomas (ONSMs) account for less than 2% of meningiomas and 1.7% of orbital tumors. Although rare, the management of these tumors is important as unilateral blindness often results in untreated cases. Radiotherapy has emerged as the preferred treatment. However, therapies for ONSMs are controversial due to the variable natural history of the disease and limitations of surgical and radiotherapy options. A 60-year-old woman presented with monocular left diminished color perception and blurred vision. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a homogenously enhancing 5-mm left optic nerve mass with evidence of nerve compression. Conservative management was advised. However, 1 month after diagnosis her visual acuity deteriorated further. Because of the small focal location of the tumor within the optic canal, surgery was considered. Given the tumor's location inferomedial to the optic nerve, an endoscopic endonasal approach to the optic canal was performed. This patient recovered fully with resolution of visual symptoms immediately following surgery. Postoperative imaging 24 hours after surgery demonstrated gross total resection of the tumor; 1 year postoperatively the patient has a normal ophthalmologic examination. This report highlights the value of endoscopic endonasal approaches in the management of select optic canal pathology, otherwise inaccessible via transcranial approaches.
- Normative values for a tablet computer-based application to assess chromatic contrast sensitivity. [Journal Article]
- BRBehav Res Methods 2017 Apr 14
- Tablet computer displays are amenable for the development of vision tests in a portable form. Assessing color vision using an easily accessible and portable test may help in the self-monitoring of vi...
Tablet computer displays are amenable for the development of vision tests in a portable form. Assessing color vision using an easily accessible and portable test may help in the self-monitoring of vision-related changes in ocular/systemic conditions and assist in the early detection of disease processes. Tablet computer-based games were developed with different levels of gamification as a more portable option to assess chromatic contrast sensitivity. Game 1 was designed as a clinical version with no gaming elements. Game 2 was a gamified version of game 1 (added fun elements: feedback, scores, and sounds) and game 3 was a complete game with vision task nested within. The current study aimed to determine the normative values and evaluate repeatability of the tablet computer-based games in comparison with an established test, the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) Trivector test. Normally sighted individuals [N = 100, median (range) age 19.0 years (18-56 years)] had their chromatic contrast sensitivity evaluated binocularly using the three games and the CCT. Games 1 and 2 and the CCT showed similar absolute thresholds and tolerance intervals, and game 3 had significantly lower values than games 1, 2, and the CCT, due to visual task differences. With the exception of game 3 for blue-yellow, the CCT and tablet computer-based games showed similar repeatability with comparable 95% limits of agreement. The custom-designed games are portable, rapid, and may find application in routine clinical practice, especially for testing younger populations.
- Real-Time (Vision-Based) Road Sign Recognition Using an Artificial Neural Network. [Journal Article]
- SSensors (Basel) 2017 Apr 13; 17(4)
- Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such r...
Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications.
- Color Representation Is Retinotopically Biased but Locally Intermingled in Mouse V1. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neural Circuits 2017; 11:22
- Dichromatic vision is common in many mammals. However, color processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of dichromatic mammals is relatively unknown compared to the trichromatic primates. In this s...
Dichromatic vision is common in many mammals. However, color processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) of dichromatic mammals is relatively unknown compared to the trichromatic primates. In this study, we investigated the functional organization of color processing in mouse V1. The mouse retina has a graded expression pattern of two opsins along its dorsoventral axis. However, it is not clear whether and how this expression pattern is reflected in the cortical representation at local (several hundred microns) and areal (V1) level. Using in vivo two-photon calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging and wide-field Ca(2+) imaging, we revealed that V1 neurons responded to S (UV)- and M (green)-opsin isolating stimuli with slightly biased color preference depending on retinotopic position in V1. This was consistent with the distribution of retinal opsins. At the cellular level, preferences for S- and M-opsin isolating stimuli were intermingled in a local region encompassing several hundred microns. These results suggest that functional organizations of color information are locally intermingled, but slightly biased depending on the retinotopic position in mouse V1.
- Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2017; 15(4):e2001627
- Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine sti...
Repeated adaptation to a new environment often leads to convergent phenotypic changes whose underlying genetic mechanisms are rarely known. Here, we study adaptation of color vision in threespine stickleback during the repeated postglacial colonization of clearwater and blackwater lakes in the Haida Gwaii archipelago. We use whole genomes from 16 clearwater and 12 blackwater populations, and a selection experiment, in which stickleback were transplanted from a blackwater lake into an uninhabited clearwater pond and resampled after 19 y to test for selection on cone opsin genes. Patterns of haplotype homozygosity, genetic diversity, site frequency spectra, and allele-frequency change support a selective sweep centered on the adjacent blue- and red-light sensitive opsins SWS2 and LWS. The haplotype under selection carries seven amino acid changes in SWS2, including two changes known to cause a red-shift in light absorption, and is favored in blackwater lakes but disfavored in the clearwater habitat of the transplant population. Remarkably, the same red-shifting amino acid changes occurred after the duplication of SWS2 198 million years ago, in the ancestor of most spiny-rayed fish. Two distantly related fish species, bluefin killifish and black bream, express these old paralogs divergently in black- and clearwater habitats, while sticklebacks lost one paralog. Our study thus shows that convergent adaptation to the same environment can involve the same genetic changes on very different evolutionary time scales by reevolving lost mutations and reusing them repeatedly from standing genetic variation.
New Search Next
- Visual acuity and signal color pattern in an Anolis lizard. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Exp Biol 2017 Apr 06
- Anolis lizards communicate with colorful dewlaps that often include detailed patterns. We measured the visual acuity of Anolis sagrei. Lizards viewed a checkerboard pattern of red and yellow-green sq...
Anolis lizards communicate with colorful dewlaps that often include detailed patterns. We measured the visual acuity of Anolis sagrei. Lizards viewed a checkerboard pattern of red and yellow-green squares that were too small to resolve, and thus appeared uniform in color. We quickly replaced the center portion of the display with a pattern of larger squares. If the new pattern could be resolved, the lizards perceived a change in color and reflexively shifted gaze toward the target. The acuity threshold was 1.21 cycles (o-1) We also calculated acuity based on published anatomical data for Anolis carolinensis It was similar to sagrei for the visual periphery. Foveal acuity was ten times greater. We approximated the effects of viewing conditions on the visibility of fine details of a conspecific's dewlap. For peripheral vision, no detailed patterns were visible at ≥ 0.5 m. For foveal vision, color-pattern details were visible at 1.0 m.