- Skeletal Muscle Wasting and Its Relationship With Osteoarthritis: a Mini-Review of Mechanisms and Current Interventions. [Review]
- CRCurr Rheumatol Rep 2019 Jun 15; 21(8):40
- Osteoarthritis (OA) is a subset of joint disorders resulting in degeneration of synovial joints. This leads to pain, disability and loss of independence. Knee and hip OA are extremely prevalent, and …
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a subset of joint disorders resulting in degeneration of synovial joints. This leads to pain, disability and loss of independence. Knee and hip OA are extremely prevalent, and their occurrence increases with ageing. Similarly, loss of muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, occurs during ageing.
- Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI in the initial assessment of osseous sarcomas in children and adolescents. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Radiol 2019 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations of key imaging features in the initial assessment of osseous sarcomas support DWI as an alternative to gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI. The lack of association between ADC values and relative enhancement suggests that they measure independent constructs, DWI dependent upon tumor cellularity and perfusion.
- Dysferlin deficiency alters lipid metabolism and remodels the skeletal muscle lipidome in mice. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lipid Res 2019 Jun 15
- Defects in the gene coding for dysferlin, a membrane associated protein, affect many tissues including skeletal muscles with a resultant myopathy called dysferlinopathy. This manifests post-growth wi…
Defects in the gene coding for dysferlin, a membrane associated protein, affect many tissues including skeletal muscles with a resultant myopathy called dysferlinopathy. This manifests post-growth with progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, early intramyocellular lipid accumulation and a striking later replacement of selective muscles by adipocytes. To better understand the changes underpinning this disease, we assessed whole body energy homeostasis, skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, lipolysis in adipose tissue, and the skeletal muscle lipidome using young adult dysferlin-deficient male BLAJ mice and age-matched C57Bl/6J wild type (WT) mice. BLAJ mice had increased lean mass and reduced fat mass, which was associated with increased whole-body energy expenditure and increased adipose tissue lipolysis. Skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism was remodeled in BLAJ mice, characterized by a partitioning of fatty acids towards storage rather than oxidation. Lipidomic analysis identified marked changes in almost all lipid classes examined in the skeletal muscle of BLAJ mice including sphingolipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and most glycerolipids but, surprisingly, not triacylglycerol. These observations indicate that an early manifestation of dysferlin deficiency is reprogramming of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid metabolism, which is likely to contribute to the progressive adverse histopathology in dysferlinopathies.
- Adropin Regulates Cardiac Energy Metabolism and Improves Cardiac Function and Efficiency. [Journal Article]
- MMetabolism 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that adropin has important effects on energy metabolism in the heart and may be a putative candidate for the treatment of cardiac disease associated with impaired insulin sensitivity.
- Fatty acid profiles of the European migratory common noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula). [Journal Article]
- NNaturwissenschaften 2019 Jun 14; 106(7-8):33
- In animals, fatty acids (FA) are essential as structural components in membranes and for energy storage in adipocytes. Here, we studied the relative proportions of FA in a mammal with extreme changes…
In animals, fatty acids (FA) are essential as structural components in membranes and for energy storage in adipocytes. Here, we studied the relative proportions of FA in a mammal with extreme changes in metabolic rates. Common noctule bats (Nyctalus noctula) switch from energetically demanding long-distance migration at high metabolic rates to regular torpor with extremely low metabolic rates. We found that composition of FA categories differed between adipose tissue types (white adipose tissue (WAT) vs brown adipose tissue (BAT)) and muscle tissue types (skeletal vs heart), but not between sexes. We found oleic acid to be the most abundant FA in all studied tissues. Concentrations of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were not always higher in muscular tissue compared with adipocyte tissue, even though high concentrations of PUFA are considered beneficial for low body temperatures in torpor. In all tissues, we observed a high content in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), possibly to compensate for a low PUFA content in the diet. Ratios of ω6/ω3 were lower in the heart than in skeletal muscles of common noctules. Three FA (palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acid) accounted for about 70% of the FA in adipose tissue, which is similar to proportions observed in migrating birds, yet migrating birds generally have a higher PUFA content in muscle and adipose tissues than bats. Bats seem to contrast with other mammals in having a high MUFA content in all tissues. We conclude that FA profiles of bats differ largely from those of most cursorial mammals and instead are-with the exception of MUFA-similar to those of migrating birds.
- Maternal betaine protects rat offspring from glucocorticoid-induced activation of lipolytic genes in adipose tissue through modification of DNA methylation. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Nutr 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that maternal betaine supplementation is effective in alleviating glucocorticoid-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue with modification of DNA methylation on the promoter of lipolytic genes.
- Regulation of lactate production through p53/β-enolase axis contributes to statin-associated muscle symptoms. [Journal Article]
- EEBioMedicine 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Elevated lactate production by statins through the p53/β-enolase axis contributes to SAMS. FUND: This work was supported by grants from the Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macau (Project codes: 034/2015/A1 and 0013/2019/A1).
- The prognostic value of early onset, CT derived loss of muscle and adipose tissue during chemotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. [Journal Article]
- LCLung Cancer 2019; 133:130-135
- CONCLUSIONS: Early loss of SM during first line chemotherapy is a poor prognostic factor in stage IV NSCLC patients. Future studies have to reveal whether early supportive intervention guided by initial CT muscle response to chemotherapy can influence the wasting process and related mortality risk.
- First Case Report of Primary Carnitine Deficiency Manifested as Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder. [Case Reports]
- BSBrain Sci 2019 Jun 13; 9(6)
- Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is a genetic disorder caused by decreased or absent organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) carnitine transporter activity, resulting in low serum carnit…
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is a genetic disorder caused by decreased or absent organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) carnitine transporter activity, resulting in low serum carnitine levels and decreased carnitine accumulation inside cells. In early life, PCD is usually diagnosed as a metabolic decompensation, presenting as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome, or sudden infant death; in childhood, PCD presents with skeletal or cardiac myopathy. However, the clinical presentation of PCD characterized by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with intellectual disability (ID) has seldom been reported in the literature. In this report, we describe the clinical features of a seven-year-old girl diagnosed with PCD who presented atypical features of the disease, including a developmental delay involving language skills, concentration, and attention span, as well as autistic features and brain alterations apparent in magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to highlight the difficulties related to the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used to diagnose such patients. The case reported here presented typical signs of PCD, including frequent episodes of hypoglycemia, generalized muscle weakness, decreased muscle mass, and physical growth deficits. A molecular genetic study confirmed the definitive diagnosis of the disease (c.1345T>G (p.Y449D)) in gene SLC22A5, located in exon 8. PCD can be accompanied by less common clinical signs, which may delay its diagnosis because the resulting global clinical picture can closely resemble other metabolic disorders. In this case, the patient was prescribed a carnitine-enriched diet, as well as oral carnitine at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. PCD has a better prognosis if it is diagnosed and treated early; however, a high level of clinical suspicion is required for its timely and accurate diagnosis.
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- Postprandial Circulating miRNAs in Response to a Dietary Fat Challenge. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Jun 13; 11(6)
- Postprandial lipemia has many physiopathological effects, some of which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be found in almost all biological fluids, but their postpra…
Postprandial lipemia has many physiopathological effects, some of which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be found in almost all biological fluids, but their postprandial kinetics are poorly described. We aimed to profile circulating miRNAs in response to a fat challenge. In total, 641 circulating miRNAs were assessed by real-time PCR in plasmas from mice two hours after lipid gavage. Mice with intestine-specific loss of Dicer were screened to identify potential miRNAs released by the intestine. A total of 68 miRNAs were selected for further validation. Ten circulating miRNAs were finally validated as responsive to postprandial lipemia, including miR-206-3p, miR-543-3p, miR-466c-5p, miR-27b-5p, miR-409-3p, miR-340-3p, miR-1941-3p, miR-10a-3p, miR-125a-3p, and miR-468-3p. Analysis of their possible tissues of origin/target showed an enrichment of selected miRNAs in liver, intestine, brain, or skeletal muscle. miR-206, miR-27b-5p, and miR-409-3p were validated in healthy humans. Analysis of their predicted target genes revealed their potential involvement in insulin/insulin like growth factor (insulin/IGF), angiogenesis, cholecystokinin B receptor signaling pathway (CCKR), inflammation or Wnt pathways for mice, and in platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and CCKR signaling pathways for humans. Therefore, the current study shows that certain miRNAs are released in the circulation in response to fatty meals, proposing them as potential novel therapeutic targets of lipid metabolism.