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564 results
  • Infant Mortality Attributable to Birth Defects - United States, 2003-2017. [Journal Article]
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jan 17; 69(2):25-29.Almli LM, Ely DM, … Reefhuis J
  • Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, accounting for 20.6% of infant deaths in 2017 (1). Rates of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) have generally declined since the 1970s (1-3). U.S. linked birth/infant death data from 2003-2017 were used to assess trends in IMBD. Overall, rates declined 10% during 2003-2017, but decreases varied by mater…
  • The two-stage placental model of preeclampsia: An update. [Review]
    J Reprod Immunol. 2019 09; 134-135:1-10.Staff AC
  • Early-onset preeclampsia has been linked to poor placentation and fetal growth restriction, whereas late-onset preeclampsia was suggested to result from maternal factors. We have proposed an alternative model, suggesting that both early- and late-onset preeclampsia result from placental syncytiotrophoblast stress. This stress represents a common endpoint of several Stage 1 processes, promoting th…
  • Associations between early term and late/post term infants and development of epilepsy: A cohort study. [Journal Article]
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0210181.Odd D, Glover Williams A, … Draycott T
  • While life-long impacts exist for infants born one or two weeks early little evidence exists for those infants born after their due date. However interventions could be used to expedite birth if the risks of continuing the pregnancy are higher than intervening. It is known that the risk of epilepsy in childhood is higher in infants exposed to perinatal compromise and therefore may be useful as a …
  • Omega-3 fatty acid addition during pregnancy. [Meta-Analysis]
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 11 15; 11:CD003402.Middleton P, Gomersall JC, … Makrides M
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the overall analysis, preterm birth < 37 weeks and early preterm birth < 34 weeks were reduced in women receiving omega-3 LCPUFA compared with no omega-3. There was a possibly reduced risk of perinatal death and of neonatal care admission, a reduced risk of LBW babies; and possibly a small increased risk of LGA babies with omega-3 LCPUFA.For our GRADE quality assessments, we assessed most of the important perinatal outcomes as high-quality (e.g. preterm birth) or moderate-quality evidence (e.g. perinatal death). For the other outcome domains (maternal, child/adult and health service outcomes) GRADE ratings ranged from moderate to very low, with over half rated as low. Reasons for downgrading across the domain were mostly due to design limitations and imprecision.Omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy is an effective strategy for reducing the incidence of preterm birth, although it probably increases the incidence of post-term pregnancies. More studies comparing omega-3 LCPUFA and placebo (to establish causality in relation to preterm birth) are not needed at this stage. A further 23 ongoing trials are still to report on over 5000 women, so no more RCTs are needed that compare omega-3 LCPUFA against placebo or no intervention. However, further follow-up of completed trials is needed to assess longer-term outcomes for mother and child, to improve understanding of metabolic, growth and neurodevelopment pathways in particular, and to establish if, and how, outcomes vary by different types of omega-3 LCPUFA, timing and doses; or by characteristics of women.
  • Being a refugee or having a refugee status? Birthweight and gestational age outcomes among offspring of immigrant mothers in Sweden. [Journal Article]
    Scand J Public Health. 2019 Nov; 47(7):730-734.Juárez S, Mussino E, Hjern A
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small or no differences were observed in birth outcomes among offspring of women coming from the same origin with different migratory status, compared to their Swedish counterparts. This suggests that information on migration status is not a relevant piece of information to identify immigrant women at higher risk of experiencing adverse reproductive outcomes. Our results however might be explained by the large proportion of women coming to Sweden for family reunification who are classified as non-refugee migrants.
  • Management of Meconium-Stained Newborns in the Delivery Room. [Journal Article]
    Neonatal Netw. 2018 May 01; 37(3):141-148.Gandhi CK
  • The approach to the management of meconium-stained newborns in the delivery room has been changing for over 40 years. The goal is to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and complications related to MAS. For decades, airway obstruction was believed to be a major component of MAS and, consequently, suction maneuvers to remove meconium from the airways were recommended to decrease the frequen…
  • Gestational age at birth and risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause. [Journal Article]
    Eur J Epidemiol. 2018 Jul; 33(7):667-678.Heuvelman H, Abel K, … Rai D
  • Preterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cau…
  • Gestational age and childhood leukemia: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. [Meta-Analysis]
    Hematology. 2018 Jun; 23(5):253-262.Wang YF, Wu LQ, … Wang H
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that both preterm and postterm infants have an elevated risk of developing AML. In addition, postterm birth increased the risk of childhood leukemia and ALL in cohort studies. However, more studies are warranted to validate these results and explore the biologic mechanisms underlying these relationships.
  • Quality of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) oocytes collected after ovarian stimulation. [Journal Article]
    Theriogenology. 2018 Jan 15; 106:221-226.Kanda A, Nobukiyo A, … Sotomaru Y
  • The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an experimental animal that is considered suitable for the creation of next-generation human disease models. It has recently been used in the reproductive technology field. Oocytes can be effectively collected from female marmosets via ovarian stimulation with injections of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The o…
  • Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of women with gestational diabetes. [Review]
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 05 04; 5:CD011970.Brown J, Alwan NA, … Crowther CA
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle interventions are the primary therapeutic strategy for women with GDM. Women receiving lifestyle interventions were less likely to have postnatal depression and were more likely to achieve postpartum weight goals. Exposure to lifestyle interventions was associated with a decreased risk of the baby being born LGA and decreased neonatal adiposity. Long-term maternal and childhood/adulthood outcomes were poorly reported.The value of lifestyle interventions in low-and middle-income countries or for different ethnicities remains unclear. The longer-term benefits or harms of lifestyle interventions remains unclear due to limited reporting.The contribution of individual components of lifestyle interventions could not be assessed. Ten per cent of participants also received some form of pharmacological therapy. Lifestyle interventions are useful as the primary therapeutic strategy and most commonly include healthy eating, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose concentrations.Future research could focus on which specific interventions are most useful (as the sole intervention without pharmacological treatment), which health professionals should give them and the optimal format for providing the information. Evaluation of long-term outcomes for the mother and her child should be a priority when planning future trials. There has been no in-depth exploration of the costs 'saved' from reduction in risk of LGA/macrosomia and potential longer-term risks for the infants.
  • Maternal body mass index and post-term birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
    Obes Rev. 2017 03; 18(3):293-308.Heslehurst N, Vieira R, … Rankin J
  • Post-term birth is a preventable cause of perinatal mortality and severe morbidity. This review examined the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and post-term birth at ≥42 and ≥41 weeks' gestation. Five databases, reference lists and citations were searched from May to November 2015. Observational studies published in English since 1990 were included. Linear and nonlinear dose-resp…
  • Applicability of micro-FTIR in detecting shale heterogeneity. [Journal Article]
    J Microsc. 2017 01; 265(1):60-72.Gasaway C, Mastalerz M, … Debuhr C
  • Samples of Late Devonian/Early Mississippian New Albany Shale from the Illinois Basin, having maturities ranging from early mature to postmature, were analysed using micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ImageJ processing software and scanning electron microscopic X-ray spectroscopy to explore the distribution, connectivity and chemical composition of organic matter, clay minerals…
  • Third trimester ultrasound soft-tissue measurements accurately predicts macrosomia. [Review]
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Apr; 30(8):972-976.Maruotti GM, Saccone G, Martinelli P
  • CONCLUSIONS: Third-trimester sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue after 34 weeks may help to detect macrosomia with a high degree of accuracy. The pooled detection rate was 80%. A standardization of measurements criteria, reproducibility, building reference charts of fetal subcutaneous tissue and large studies to assess the optimal cutoff of fetal adipose thickness are necessary before the introduction of fetal soft-tissue markers in the clinical practice.
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