- Extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells prevent contact hypersensitivity through the suppression of Tc1 and Th1 cells and expansion of regulatory T cells. [Journal Article]
- IIInt Immunopharmacol 2019 Jun 11; 74:105663
- Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) are taken more seriously as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents. We studied the therapeutic effects of MSC-EVs on a…
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EVs) are taken more seriously as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents. We studied the therapeutic effects of MSC-EVs on allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a typical T cell-mediated disorder. A contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse model for ACD was established and treated by intravenous MSC-EVs injection. We found that human umbilical cord MSC-EVs could significantly prevent the pathology of CHS, including reduced ear swelling and leukocyte infiltration. Injection of MSC-EVs significantly inhibited CD8+IFN-γ+ cytotoxic T (Tc1) cells and CD4+IFN-γ+ type 1 helper T (Th1) cells, and reduced the level of pro-inflammatory Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and induced CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the level of anti-inflammatory IL-10. In vitro, MSC-EVs also suppressed Tc1 and Th1 cells and induced Tregs and the related cytokines, further indicating the immune regulatory role of MSC-EVs. Interestingly, PKH26-labeled MSC-EVs were found to be directly internalized by CD3+ T cells, resulting in reduced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) protein levels in vitro. In summary, MSC-EVs can prevent the onset of CHS by inhibiting Tc1 and Th1 immune responses and inducing the Tregs phenotype in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which MSC-EVs influence CD3+ T cells might partially involve targeting STAT1 in vitro. Therefore, MSC-EVs are ideal candidates for cell-free immunomodulatory therapy for T cell-mediated diseases such as ACD.
- RGD-containing elastin like polypeptide improves islet transplantation outcomes in diabetic mice. [Journal Article]
- ABActa Biomater 2019 Jun 11
- Successful islet transplantation critically depends on the isolation of healthy islets. However, the islet isolation procedure itself contributes to islet death due to the destruction of intra- and p…
Successful islet transplantation critically depends on the isolation of healthy islets. However, the islet isolation procedure itself contributes to islet death due to the destruction of intra- and peri-islet extracellular matrices (ECMs) during digestion. We investigated whether an RGD-containing elastin-like polypeptide (REP) could function as a self-assembling matrix to replenish ECMs and protects islets from cell death. Immediately following isolation, islets were coated with REP coacervate particles via isothermal adsorption of an REP solution followed by thermal gelation. REP-coated islets displayed increased viability and insulin secretory capacity pretransplant culture compared to untreated islets. Co-transplantation of REP-treated islets and REP beneath the renal sub-capsule in streptozoticin-induced diabetic mice restored normoglycemia and serum insulin levels. Mice that received co-transplants maintained normoglycemia for a longer period of time than those receiving untreated islets without REP. Moreover, co-transplantation sites exhibited enhanced β-cell proliferation and vascularization. Thus, the REP-based coacervation strategy improve the survival, function and therapeutic potential of transplanted islets. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: 1). An artificial matrix polypeptide comprised of thermoresponsive elastin-like peptides and integrin-stimulatory RGD ligands (REP) to reconstitute damaged or lost matrices. 2). Through body temperature-induced coacervation, REP reconstitutes intra-islet environment and enhances islet viability and insulin secretion by activating the pro-survival and insulin signaling pathways. 3). REP-coated islets were transplanted together with the matrix polypeptide under the kidney sub-capsule of mice, it develops a new peri-insular environment, which protects the islet grafts from immune rejection thus extending islet longevity. 4). Our data suggest that in situ self-assembly of biomimetic islet environments become a new platform allowing for improved islet transplantation at extrahepatic sites.
- [Contraceptive prescriptions following repeated volontary induced abortions.] [Journal Article]
- GOGynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: The repeated abortion may be partly explained by a transient or prolonged absence of contraception. Screening for breaks in the contraceptive history is therefore essential to adapt and maintain contraception at each stage of the patient's life. Some of the professional practices which do not favour an early placement of LARC devices prescribed at the time of abortion, contrary to the new recommendations. The evolution of professional practices still seems necessary to try to help reduce the repeated use of abortion.
- Molecular characterization of the NK-lysin in a teleost fish, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris: Antimicrobial activity and immunomodulatory activity on monocytes/macrophages. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 11
- NK-lysin (NKL) is a cationic host defense peptide that plays an important role in host immune responses against various pathogens. However, the immunomodulatory activity of NKL in fishes is rarely in…
NK-lysin (NKL) is a cationic host defense peptide that plays an important role in host immune responses against various pathogens. However, the immunomodulatory activity of NKL in fishes is rarely investigated. In this study, we characterized a cDNA sequence encoding an NK-lysin homolog (BpNKL) from the fish, mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris). Sequence analysis revealed that BpNKL is most closely related to tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) NKL. BpNKL transcript was detected in all the tested tissues, with the highest level in the gill, followed by the spleen and kidney. Upon Edwardsiella tarda infection, the mRNA expression of BpNKL in the mudskipper was significantly upregulated in the spleen, kidney, and gill. A shortened peptide derived from BpNKL, BpNKLP40, was then chemically synthesized and its biological functions were investigated. BpNKLP40 exhibited a direct antibacterial activity against some gram-negative bacteria, including E. tarda, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio harveyi, and induced hydrolysis of E. tarda genomic DNA. Intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 μg/g BpNKLP40 significantly improved the survival of mudskipper following E. tarda infection and reduced the bacterial burden in tissues and blood. Moreover, 1.0 μg/ml BpNKLP40 treatment had an enhanced effect on the intracellular killing of E. tarda by monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ) as well as on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in MO/MФ. In conclusion, our study reveals that BpNKL plays a role against E. tarda infection in the mudskipper by not only directly killing bacteria but also through an immunomodulatory activity on MO/MФ.
- Assessment of hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of medicinal plant Erica multiflora in triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia and liver function repair in rats: A comparison with fenofibrate. [Journal Article]
- RTRegul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Jun 11; :104404
- Hyperlipidemia is a serious health threat that has been linked to oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, causing among many other disorders essentially liver disease. The current study was condu…
Hyperlipidemia is a serious health threat that has been linked to oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, causing among many other disorders essentially liver disease. The current study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of methanol leaf extract from Erica multiflora (M-EML). Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats were divided into six groups: control group (CG), hyperlipidemic group (300 mg/kg body weight "BW") (HG), hyperlipidemic group treated with M-EML (150 and 250 mg/kg) (HG + M-EML), normal rats treated with M-EML (250 mg/kg) and fenofibrate-treated group (HG + FF) (65 mg/kg). After 24 h of administration, triton WR-1339 induced a significant increase in lipid profile, atherogenic index (AI) and Coronary Risk Index (CRI) in HG group compared to control group. Furthermore, triton WR-1339 administration induced alteration in the status of pro-inflammatory markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, IFN-γ and Nitric oxide production). HG group showed also, a high level of lipid peroxidation, an altered antioxidant enzyme profiles and an increase in DNA damages, in liver. However, orally administration of M-EML mitigates significantly these disorders, proving hence a protective potential against triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia. These findings suggest that M-EML extract could be used as functional foods and natural adjuvant treatment of hyperlipidemia.
- Superoxide anions mediate the effects of angiotensin (1-7) analog, alamandine, on blood pressure and sympathetic activity in the paraventricular nucleus. [Journal Article]
- PPeptides 2019 Jun 11; :170101
- Microinjection of alamandine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increased blood pressure and enhanced sympathetic activity. The aim of this study was to determine if superoxide anion…
Microinjection of alamandine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increased blood pressure and enhanced sympathetic activity. The aim of this study was to determine if superoxide anions modulate alamandine's effects in the PVN. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Microinjection of alamandine into the PVN increased MAP and RSNA in both WKY rats and SHRs, although to a greater extent in SHRs. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with an alamandine receptor (MrgD) antagonist D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7). Pretreatment with superoxide anion scavengers, tempol and tiron, and NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (APO), also blocked the effects of alamandine on MAP and RSNA. In addition, pretreatment in the PVN with a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETC) potentiated the increases of MAP and RSNA induced by alamandine administration, with a greater response observed in SHRs. Superoxide anions and NADPH oxidase levels in the PVN were higher in SHRs than that in WKY rats. Alamandine treatment increased the levels of superoxide anions and NADPH oxidase in WKY and SHRs, however, with greater effect in SHRs. These alamandine-induced increases were inhibited by D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7) pretreatment in the PVN of both rats. These results demonstrate that superoxide anions in the PVN modulate alamandine-induced increases in blood pressure and sympathetic activity in both normotensive and hypertensive rats. Alamandine increases NADPH oxidase activity to induce superoxide anion production, which is mediated by the alamandine receptor.
- Separate domains of G3BP promote efficient clustering of alphavirus replication complexes and recruitment of the translation initiation machinery. [Journal Article]
- PPPLoS Pathog 2019 Jun 14; 15(6):e1007842
- G3BP-1 and -2 (hereafter referred to as G3BP) are multifunctional RNA-binding proteins involved in stress granule (SG) assembly. Viruses from diverse families target G3BP for recruitment to replicati…
G3BP-1 and -2 (hereafter referred to as G3BP) are multifunctional RNA-binding proteins involved in stress granule (SG) assembly. Viruses from diverse families target G3BP for recruitment to replication or transcription complexes in order to block SG assembly but also to acquire pro-viral effects via other unknown functions of G3BP. The Old World alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recruit G3BP into viral replication complexes, via an interaction between FGDF motifs in the C-terminus of the viral non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) and the NTF2-like domain of G3BP. To study potential proviral roles of G3BP, we used human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell lines lacking endogenous G3BP generated using CRISPR-Cas9 and reconstituted with a panel of G3BP1 mutants and truncation variants. While SFV replicated with varying efficiency in all cell lines, CHIKV could only replicate in cells expressing G3BP1 variants containing both the NTF2-like and the RGG domains. The ability of SFV to replicate in the absence of G3BP allowed us to study effects of different domains of the protein. We used immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that that both NTF2-like and RGG domains are necessary for the formation a complex between nsP3, G3BP1 and the 40S ribosomal subunit. Electron microscopy of SFV-infected cells revealed that formation of nsP3:G3BP1 complexes via the NTF2-like domain was necessary for clustering of cytopathic vacuoles (CPVs) and that the presence of the RGG domain was necessary for accumulation of electron dense material containing G3BP1 and nsP3 surrounding the CPV clusters. Clustered CPVs also exhibited localised high levels of translation of viral mRNAs as detected by ribopuromycylation staining. These data confirm that G3BP is a ribosomal binding protein and reveal that alphaviral nsP3 uses G3BP to concentrate viral replication complexes and to recruit the translation initiation machinery, promoting the efficient translation of viral mRNAs.
- Anxiety associates with pain and disability but not increased measures of inflammation for adolescent patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. [Journal Article]
- ACArthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019 Jun 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent JIA patients experience equivalent levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms as healthy adolescents. For adolescent JIA patients, anxiety and depressive symptoms associate with pain, disability and physician VAS but not with inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Advanced age promotes colonic dysfunction and gut-derived lung infection after stroke. [Journal Article]
- ACAging Cell 2019 Jun 14; :e12980
- Bacterial infection a leading cause of death among patients with stroke, with elderly patients often presenting with more debilitating outcomes. The findings from our retrospective study, supported b…
Bacterial infection a leading cause of death among patients with stroke, with elderly patients often presenting with more debilitating outcomes. The findings from our retrospective study, supported by previous clinical reports, showed that increasing age is an early predictor for developing fatal infectious complications after stroke. However, exactly how and why older individuals are more susceptible to infection after stroke remains unclear. Using a mouse model of transient ischaemic stroke, we demonstrate that older mice (>12 months) present with greater spontaneous bacterial lung infections compared to their younger counterparts (7-10 weeks) after stroke. Importantly, we provide evidence that older poststroke mice exhibited elevated intestinal inflammation and disruption in gut barriers critical in maintaining colonic integrity following stroke, including reduced expression of mucin and tight junction proteins. In addition, our data support the notion that the localized pro-inflammatory microenvironment driven by increased tumour necrosis factor-α production in the colon of older mice facilitates the translocation and dissemination of orally inoculated bacteria to the lung following stroke onset. Therefore, findings of this study demonstrate that exacerbated dysfunction of the intestinal barrier in advanced age promotes translocation of gut-derived bacteria and contributes to the increased risk to poststroke bacterial infection.
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- Lipid protection by polyphenol-rich apple matrices is modulated by pH and pepsin in in vitro gastric digestion. [Journal Article]
- FFFood Funct 2019 Jun 14
- Lipid oxidation takes place in the gastric tract after the ingestion of a Western diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and red meat (heme iron). The incorporation of oxidation products…
Lipid oxidation takes place in the gastric tract after the ingestion of a Western diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and red meat (heme iron). The incorporation of oxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) into low-density lipoproteins is further correlated to endothelial dysfunction. Gastric postprandial stress could thus be reduced by antioxidant phytomicronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary lipid oxidation and its inhibition by apple polyphenols under different matrix forms (fresh fruit, puree, extract) under in vitro gastric digestion conditions. A deep insight was given into the two factors pH and pepsin governing the metmyoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation of sunflower oil-in-water emulsions simulating the physical state of dietary lipids. Our results first showed that pepsin accelerated lipid oxidation at pH 5 through the formation of a micro-metmyoglobin form likely displaying a higher accessibility to lipids. Spectroscopic studies further highlighted the formation of a reversible unfolded metmyoglobin form at pH 3 which was shown to be more pro-oxidant in the absence of pepsin. At nutritional levels, the three apple matrices inhibited less efficiently the accumulation of lipid-derived conjugated dienes and 4-HNE at pH 5 when pepsin was present whereas at pH 3 the opposite was true. High initial bioaccessibilities of monomeric phenolic compounds were evidenced for both puree (57-74%) and the phenolic extract (79-96%) compared to fresh apple (1-14%) supporting their greater antioxidant capacity. By contrast, the bioaccessibility of dimer B2 was low for all matrices suggesting non-covalent binding to apple pectins.