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357 results
  • Prophylactic efficacy of 5-HT4R agonists against stress. [Journal Article]
    Neuropsychopharmacology 2019Chen BK, Mendez-David I, … Denny CA
  • Enhancing stress resilience could protect against stress-induced psychiatric disorders in at-risk populations. We and others have previously reported that (R,S)-ketamine acts as a prophylactic against stress when administered 1 week before stress. While we have shown that the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (serotonin) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (Flx) is ineffective as a prophylact…
  • Gastroparesis: a turning point in understanding and treatment. [Review]
    Gut 2019Grover M, Farrugia G, Stanghellini V
  • Gastroparesis is defined by delayed gastric emptying (GE) and symptoms of nausea, vomiting, bloating, postprandial fullness, early satiety and abdominal pain. Most common aetiologies include diabetes, postsurgical and postinfectious, but in many cases it is idiopathic. Clinical presentation and natural history vary by the aetiology. There is significant morbidity and healthcare utilisation associ…
  • Luminal 5-HT4 receptors-A successful target for prokinetic actions. [Review]
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 31(10):e13708Gwynne RM, Bornstein JC
  • The prokinetic effects of 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4 R) agonists have been utilized clinically for almost three decades to relieve symptoms of constipation. Surprisingly, the mechanism(s) of action of these compounds is still being debated. Recent studies highlight luminal 5-HT4 Rs as an alternative and effective target for these prokinetic agents. These include the study by Shokrollahi et al (2019, N…
  • Efficacy of drugs in chronic idiopathic constipation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019; 4(11):831-844Luthra P, Camilleri M, … Ford AC
  • CONCLUSIONS: Almost all drugs studied were superior to placebo, according to either failure to achieve three or more CSBMs per week or or failure to achieve an increase of one or more CSBM per week over baseline. Although diphenyl methane laxatives ranked first at 4 weeks, patients with milder symptoms might have been included in these trials. Prucalopride ranked first at 12 weeks, and many of the included trials recruited patients who previously did not respond to laxatives, suggesting that this drug is likely to be the most efficacious for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. However, because treatment duration in most trials was 4-12 weeks, the long-term relative efficacy of these drugs is unknown.
  • [Constipation - pathophysiology, diagnostics, treatment]. [Journal Article]
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2019; 144(16):1145-1157Müller-Lissner S
  • The most relevant risk factors for the development of chronic constipation are neurologic disorders such as Parkinson's disease, immobility, and some drugs, in particular opioids. A proctologic exam and exclusion of red flags form part of the basic assessment. The currently available laxatives are effective and safe, habituation and tolerance (tachyphylaxis) being an exception. Also long-term int…
  • Implications of the Opioid Epidemic for the Clinical Gastroenterology Practice. [Review]
    Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2019; 21(9):44Thapa N, Kappus M, … Diamond S
  • The opioid epidemic in the USA has led to a rise in opioid-related gastrointestinal (GI) side effects that are often difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this report is to discuss opioid pathophysiology, opioid-related GI side effects, clinical presentation, and diagnostic criteria and to review the current pharmacotherapy available.
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