- Impact of substance use and other risk factor exposures on conviction rates by people with a psychotic illness and other mental disorders. [Journal Article]
- SPSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows people with a mental illness have higher rates of conviction than those with NMI. Substance use has a major impact on this rate. Results suggest the need for a greater investment in programs addressing the issue of comorbid substance use with a view to reduce the rate of convictions in this population.
- Assessing Developmental Environmental Risk Factor Exposure in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Individuals: Preliminary Results Using the Individual and Structural Exposure to Stress in Psychosis-Risk States Scale. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 Jul 09; 8(7)
- CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest exploring exposure to cumulative environmental risk factors/stressors and stress severity across developmental periods is generally informative and possibly specifically so for predictive models and diathesis-stress psychosis risk conceptualizations.
- Lifetime Psychotic Symptoms, Subthreshold Depression and Cognitive Impairment as Barriers to Functional Recovery in Patients with Bipolar Disorder. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 Jul 18; 8(7)
- CONCLUSIONS: treatments to ensure a good functional outcome in BD should specially prevent psychosis, target subthreshold depressive symptoms and enhance cognition, more specifically executive functions and verbal memory.
- Autoimmunity in psychotic disorders. Where we stand, challenges and opportunities. [Review]
- ARAutoimmun Rev 2019 Jul 16; :102348
- Psychotic disorders are debilitating mental illnesses associated with abnormalities in various neurotransmitter systems. The development of disease-modifing therapies has been hampered by the mostly …
Psychotic disorders are debilitating mental illnesses associated with abnormalities in various neurotransmitter systems. The development of disease-modifing therapies has been hampered by the mostly unknown etiologies and pathophysiologies. Autoantibodies against several neuronal antigens are responsible for autoimmune encephalitis. These autoantibodies disrupt neurotransmission within the brain, resulting in a wide range of psychiatric and neurologic manifestations, including psychosis. The overlap of symptoms of autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic disorders raised the question as to whether autoantibodies against a number of receptors, ion channel and associated proteins could ultimately be responsible for some forms of psychosis. Here we review our current knowledge, on antibody mediated autoimmunity in psychotic disorders, the different diagnostic methods and their limitations, as well as varying therapeutic approaches targeting the immune system.
- Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) for Refractory Psychiatric Symptoms in Huntington's Disease: A Case Series and Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Huntingtons Dis 2019 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: This case series adds to the existing literature demonstrating the successful use of ECT for psychiatric symptoms in HD. Larger scale studies are warranted to further investigate the specific role and protocol for the use of ECT in the management of refractory depression and psychosis in this population.
- Psychostimulant use and the brain. [Journal Article]
- AAddiction 2019 Jul 19
- Psychostimulant users are typically young adults. We have conducted a narrative review of neuropsychiatric harms associated with the psychostimulants methamphetamine/amphetamine, cocaine and 3,4-meth…
Psychostimulant users are typically young adults. We have conducted a narrative review of neuropsychiatric harms associated with the psychostimulants methamphetamine/amphetamine, cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), focusing on epidemiological factors, common clinical presentations, underlying causal mechanisms and treatment options. The major neuropsychiatric harms of psychostimulant use are stroke, neurocognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, seizures and psychotic illness. These arise through a combination of acute monoamine release, longer-term neurotransmitter effects and indirect effects. These effects are moderated by factors in the individual and in the pattern of substance use. Neuropsychiatric harms associated with psychostimulant use can thus lead to severe long-term impairment.
- Defining disengagement from mental health services for individuals experiencing first episode psychosis: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- SPSoc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: To truly understand the phenomenon of disengagement, studies need to have a comparable outcome variable. The need for consensus on a gold standard definition of disengagement that considers the full breadth of its complexity remains. A potential process for establishing a definition that includes set parameters, agreed upon terminology and time periods of assessment is discussed.
- The association between hormones and antipsychotic use: a focus on postpartum and menopausal women. [Review]
- TATher Adv Psychopharmacol 2019; 9:2045125319859973
- During the postpartum and menopausal periods of women's lives, there is a well-established and significant drop of circulating estrogens. This may be the reason why both these periods are associated …
During the postpartum and menopausal periods of women's lives, there is a well-established and significant drop of circulating estrogens. This may be the reason why both these periods are associated with an increased risk for onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disorders. Whether symptoms are mainly affective or mainly psychotic, these disorders are frequently treated with antipsychotic medications, which calls for an examination of the relationship between hormone replacement and antipsychotic agents at these time periods. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize what is known about the association of hormones and antipsychotics in the postnatal period and at menopause. In the review, we focus on estrogen and oxytocin hormones and include, for the most part, only papers published within the last 10 years. Both estradiol and oxytocin have at various times been implicated in the etiology of postpartum disorders, and estrogens, sometimes combined with progesterone, have been tested as potential treatments for these conditions. The role of estradiol as an adjunct to antipsychotics in the prevention of postpartum relapses is currently controversial. With respect to oxytocin, studies are lacking. Psychosis in menopausal and postmenopausal women has been successfully treated with estrogens and selective estrogen-receptor modulators, mainly raloxifene, in addition to antipsychotics. Some symptoms appear to respond better than others. No oxytocin study has specifically targeted postmenopausal women. Because of feedback mechanisms, there is a theoretical danger of therapy with exogenous hormones interfering with endogenous secretion and disturbing the balance among inter-related hormones. When used with antipsychotics, hormones may also affect the metabolism and, hence, the brain level of specific antipsychotics. This makes treatment with antipsychotics plus hormones complicated. Dose, timing and route of intervention may all prove critical to efficacy. While much remains unknown, this literature review indicates that, within standard dose ranges, the combination of hormones and antipsychotics for postnatal and menopausal women suffering severe mental distress can be beneficial, and is safe.
- "Please tell me what happened": A descriptive study on prevalence, disclosure and characteristics of victimization in people with a psychotic disorder. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219056
- CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that people with a history of psychosis have an increased risk of becoming the victim of a crime. Although our results suggest that in fifty percent of cases the patients did share the information with professionals, a substantial proportion of incidents appear to go still unnoticed.
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- Developmental dynamic interplay between executive functions and psychotic risk. [Journal Article]
- ANAppl Neuropsychol Child 2019 Jul 18; :1-4
- According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, the premorbid stages of nonaffective psychosis are characterized by early phenotypic manifestations of neurobiological vulnerability, …
According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, the premorbid stages of nonaffective psychosis are characterized by early phenotypic manifestations of neurobiological vulnerability, whose developmental trends are accurately characterized for IQ, language, and motor abilities. More elusive is the developmental relationship between psychotic risk and executive functions. Few longitudinal studies are available on this relationship, suggesting a developmental lag for executive functions in subjects that will develop psychosis in young adulthood. In this brief commentary we underline specific developmental characteristics of psychotic manifestations that should be considered by further studies, which are aimed at grasping the developmental relationship between psychotic risk and neurocognitive features. Psychosis is an end-stage phenomenon that represents the long-term outcome of a prolonged psychopathological construction. By designing studies addressing developmentally-sensitive risk phenotypes for psychosis, it will be possible to understand how executive functions (among other neurocognitive features) might impact the risk of developing psychosis.