- Cardiac Amyloidosis Shows Decreased Diastolic Function as Assessed by Echocardiographic Parameterized Diastolic Filling. [Journal Article]
- UMUltrasound Med Biol 2017 Apr 19
- Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare but serious condition with poor survival. One of the early findings by echocardiography is impaired diastolic function, even before the development of cardiac symptoms. ...
Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare but serious condition with poor survival. One of the early findings by echocardiography is impaired diastolic function, even before the development of cardiac symptoms. Early diagnosis is important, permitting initiation of treatment aimed at improving survival. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism entails describing the left ventricular filling pattern during early diastole using the mathematical equation for the motion of a damped harmonic oscillator. We hypothesized that echocardiographic PDF analysis could detect differences in diastolic function between patients with amyloidosis and controls. Pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography of transmitral flow was measured in 13 patients with amyloid heart disease and 13 age- and gender matched controls. E- waves (2 to 3 per subject) were analyzed using in-house developed software. Nine PDF-derived parameters were obtained in addition to conventional echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function. Compared to controls, cardiac amyloidosis patients had a larger left atrial area (23.7 ± 7.5 cm(2) vs. 18.5 ± 4.8 cm(2), p = 0.04), greater interventricular septum wall thickness (14.4 ± 2.6 mm vs. 9.3 ± 1.3 mm, p < 0.001), lower e' (0.06 ± 0.02 m/s vs. 0.09 ± 0.02 m/s, p < 0.001) and higher E/e' (18.0 ± 12.9 vs. 7.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.001). The PDF parameter peak resistive force was greater in cardiac amyloidosis patients compared to controls (17.9 ± 5.7 mN vs. 13.1 ± 3.1 mN, p = 0.03), and other PDF parameters did not differ. PDF analysis revealed that patients with cardiac amyloidosis had a greater peak resistive force compared to controls, consistent with a greater degree of diastolic dysfunction. PDF analysis may be useful in characterizing diastolic function in amyloid heart disease.
- Test-Retest Reliability of Measuring the Vertebral Arterial Blood Flow Velocity in People With Cervicogenic Dizziness. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017 Apr 05
- CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of Doppler ultrasound to identify changes in mean vertebral arterial blood flow velocities before and after intervention in people with cervicogenic dizziness in future studies.
- Cardiac, Respiratory and Postural Influences on Venous Return of Internal Jugular and Vertebral Veins. [Journal Article]
- UMUltrasound Med Biol 2017 Apr 03
- It is known from physiology that heartbeat and respiration influence venous return, but little is known regarding the extent to which these two factors affect flow. In this study, we estimated the pr...
It is known from physiology that heartbeat and respiration influence venous return, but little is known regarding the extent to which these two factors affect flow. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of cardiac- and breathing-induced venous flow modulations in the internal jugular vein (IJV) and vertebral vein (VV) and the effects of posture. In 19 healthy patients, neck vein flow was examined with pulsed wave Doppler. Electrocardiogram and respiratory signals were simultaneously acquired. In supine position, heart contraction always influenced venous flow, whereas breathing influenced 68% of IJV and 34% of VV flow. In sitting position, heart contraction influenced 74% of IJV and 42% of VV flow; breathing influenced 68% of IJV and 61% of VV measures. Thus, cardiac influence is greatly present in supine position, whereas breathing influence prevails in the VV while sitting. This setup allowed us to observe that in some patients, expiration may cause an unexpected increase in venous flow.
- Spectral Doppler Ultrasound for Predicting Long-Term Response to Topical Timolol in Children with Infantile Hemangioma. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Ultrasound 2017 Mar 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Changes in AD, VD, RI, PI, and PASV at 1 month could be used to predict response to timolol at 6 months. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017.
- Physiologic Reduction of Hepatic Venous Blood Flow by the Valsalva Maneuver Decreases Liver Stiffness. [Journal Article]
- JUJ Ultrasound Med 2017 Mar 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that liver stiffness is sensitive to altered venous blood flow, which is of clinical importance when using elastography for evaluation of portal hypertension. Furthermore, our results indicate that accurate measurement of liver stiffness requires standardized breathing conditions to rule out effects of changes in hepatic blood flow on elastographic findings.
- Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroimaging 2017 Mar 09
- CONCLUSIONS: The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound.
- Association of Placental Jets and Mega-Jets With Reduced Villous Density. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biomech Eng 2017 May 01; 139(5)
- Spiral arteries (SAs) lie at the interface between the uterus and placenta, and supply nutrients to the placental surface. Maternal blood circulation is separated from the fetal circulation by struct...
Spiral arteries (SAs) lie at the interface between the uterus and placenta, and supply nutrients to the placental surface. Maternal blood circulation is separated from the fetal circulation by structures called villous trees. SAs are transformed in early pregnancy from tightly coiled vessels to large high-capacity channels, which is believed to facilitate an increased maternal blood flow throughout pregnancy with minimal increase in velocity, preventing damage to delicate villous trees. Significant maternal blood flow velocities have been theorized in the space surrounding the villi (the intervillous space, IVS), particularly when SA conversion is inadequate, but have only recently been visualized reliably using pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography. Here, we present a computational model of blood flow from SA openings, allowing prediction of IVS properties based on jet length. We show that jets of flow observed by ultrasound are likely correlated with increased IVS porosity near the SA mouth and propose that observed mega-jets (flow penetrating more than half the placental thickness) are only possible when SAs open to regions of the placenta with very sparse villous structures. We postulate that IVS tissue density must decrease at the SA mouth through gestation, supporting the hypothesis that blood flow from SAs influences villous tree development.
- Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries: anatomy and scanning guidelines. [Journal Article]
- UUltrasonography 2017; 36(2):111-119
- Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose vei...
Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.
- Pulmonary pulse wave transit time is associated with right ventricular-pulmonary artery coupling in pulmonary arterial hypertension. [Journal Article]
- PCPulm Circ 2016; 6(4):576-585
- Pulmonary pulse wave transit time (pPTT), defined as the time for the systolic pressure pulse wave to travel from the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary veins, has been reported to be reduced in pulmon...
Pulmonary pulse wave transit time (pPTT), defined as the time for the systolic pressure pulse wave to travel from the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary veins, has been reported to be reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the underlying mechanism of reduced pPTT is unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that abbreviated pPTT in PAH results from impaired right ventricular-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) coupling. We quantified pPTT using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound from 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls and 36 patients with PAH. pPTT was reduced in patients with PAH compared with controls. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of reduced pPTT: age, right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE), pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP), diastolic pulmonary gradient, transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and RV-PA coupling (defined as RV FAC/mean PAP or TAPSE/mean PAP). Although the correlations between pPTT and invasive markers of pulmonary vascular disease were modest, RV FAC (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001), TAPSE (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001), and RV-PA coupling (RV FAC/mean PAP: r = 0.72, P < 0.0001; TAPSE/mean PAP: r = 0.74, P < 0.0001) had the strongest relationships with pPTT. On multivariable analysis, only RV FAC, TAPSE, and RV-PA coupling were independent predictors of pPTT. We conclude that shortening of pPTT in patients with PAH results from altered RV-PA coupling, probably occurring as a result of reduced pulmonary arterial compliance. Thus, pPTT allows noninvasive determination of the status of both the pulmonary vasculature and the response of the RV in patients with PAH, thereby allowing monitoring of disease progression and regression.
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- Standardized echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in normal adult zebrafish and heart disease models. [Journal Article]
- DMDis Model Mech 2017 Jan 01; 10(1):63-76
- The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular model organism in cardiovascular research. Major insights into cardiac developmental processes have been gained by studies of embryonic zebrafis...
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular model organism in cardiovascular research. Major insights into cardiac developmental processes have been gained by studies of embryonic zebrafish. However, the utility of zebrafish for modeling adult-onset heart disease has been limited by a lack of robust methods for in vivo evaluation of cardiac function. We established a physiological protocol for underwater zebrafish echocardiography using high frequency ultrasound, and evaluated its reliability in detecting altered cardiac function in two disease models. Serial assessment of cardiac function was performed in wild-type zebrafish aged 3 to 12 months and the effects of anesthetic agents, age, sex and background strain were evaluated. There was a varying extent of bradycardia and ventricular contractile impairment with different anesthetic drugs and doses, with tricaine 0.75 mmol l(-1) having a relatively more favorable profile. When compared with males, female fish were larger and had more measurement variability. Although age-related increments in ventricular chamber size were greater in females than males, there were no sex differences when data were normalized to body size. Systolic ventricular function was similar in both sexes at all time points, but differences in diastolic function were evident from 6 months onwards. Wild-type fish of both sexes showed a reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular diastolic filling. Echocardiographic evaluation of adult zebrafish with diphtheria toxin-induced myocarditis or anemia-induced volume overload accurately identified ventricular dilation and altered contraction, with suites of B-mode, ventricular strain, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler indices showing concordant changes indicative of myocardial hypocontractility or hypercontractility, respectively. Repeatability, intra-observer and inter-observer correlations for echocardiographic measurements were high. We demonstrate that high frequency echocardiography allows reliable in vivo cardiac assessment in adult zebrafish and make recommendations for optimizing data acquisition and analysis. This enabling technology reveals new insights into zebrafish cardiac physiology and provides an imaging platform for zebrafish-based translational research.