- Changing Epidemiology of KPC Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Argentina: Emergence of Hypermucoviscous ST25 and High Risk Clone ST307. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite previous reports in Argentina, ST258 is no longer the absolute clone among KPC-Kp isolates. In the present study, the dissemination of more virulent lineages such as the hypermucoviscous ST25 was detected. Even more, it was noticed for the first time in our region the emergence of the high risk clone ST307 and also the occurrence of blaKPC-3.
- [Methodical aspects of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella (review of literature).] [Review]
- KLKlin Lab Diagn 2019; 64(6):368-375
- Salmonella is one of the leading food-borne infection pathogen: annually in the Russian Federation about 50 thousand cases of salmonellosis are registered. Antimicrobial therapy is necessary in the c…
Salmonella is one of the leading food-borne infection pathogen: annually in the Russian Federation about 50 thousand cases of salmonellosis are registered. Antimicrobial therapy is necessary in the case of severe infection in children under 6 years and persons over 50 years, in patients with severe accompanying disease, as well as in the case of generalization of the infection. Beta-lactam antibiotics, quinolones and azithromycin are included in the list of drugs recommended for antimicrobial therapy of salmonellosis, including typhoid fever. The effectiveness of therapy largely depends on the appropriate antimicrobial susceptibility testing: the choice of testing method, indicator antibiotics and result interpretation. Salmonella belong to the Enterobacteriacae family and are characterized by common mechanisms of resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams, but antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella to these groups of antibiotics has a number of features. The article presents current data on the susceptibility of Salmonella, including S. Typhi, to antibiotics and leading clinically significant resistance mechanisms. The methodical aspects of Salmonella antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the drugs used for the treatment of salmonellosis (quinolones, beta-lactams and azithromycin) are described in detail. Interpretation of Salmonella testing results according the modern international and Russian recommendations are presented. The authors propose the algorithms for Salmonella antimicrobial susceptibility testing of quinolones, cephalosporins and carbapenems, as well as criteria for result interpretation, allowing the detection of clinically significant mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams (production of beta-lactamases of different molecular classes) and quinolones (chromosomal mutations and acquired resistance genes).
- Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from commercial broiler chickens and selection of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2019 Jun 14
- Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is a potential concern for animal husbandry and public health. Escherichia coli isolates from a total of 109 fecal samples collected from 6 commercial bro…
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is a potential concern for animal husbandry and public health. Escherichia coli isolates from a total of 109 fecal samples collected from 6 commercial broiler farms between 2007 and 2011 were examined for PMQR genes, and transfer of these genes was tested by conjugation analysis to elucidate the prevalence and spread of PMQR in broiler chickens. Two isolates from 2 farms harbored the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene that was not detected in plasmids using Southern blot analysis of S1 nuclease-digested genomic DNA separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In these 2 isolates, nucleotide mutations in the gyrA and parC genes that result in amino acid substitutions were detected. Additionally, a total of 6 isolates originating from 6 chickens from the 2 farms were positive for the qnrS1 gene. In 2 of the 6 isolates, the qnrS1 gene was transferred to a recipient strain. Two transconjugants harboring the qnrS1 gene were cultured on media supplemented with successively higher concentrations of enrofloxacin (ERFX). After a 5-time subcultivation, the ERFX MICs reached 8 and 16 μg/mL, and no nucleotide mutations were detected in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Our results suggest that the prevalence of PMQR was relatively low in broiler chickens and that exposure of bacteria carrying PMQR genes to the selective pressure of fluoroquinolones can result in resistance to fluoroquinolone, which is not caused by mutations in genes encoding topoisomerases.
- Identification of quinolone and colistin resistance genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from mucosal samples of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy subjects. [Journal Article]
- RPRecent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate increased resistance of E. coli to ciprofloxacin in comparison with prior studies. Further research in this field will increase our knowledge and more effective exposure to the antibiotic resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms.
- Chemical tuning for potential antitumor fluoroquinolones. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Biol Med 2019 Jun 10
- Phototoxic effects of 6,8 dihalogenated quinolones confers to this type of molecules a potential property as photochemotherapeutic agents. Two photodehalogenation processes seem to be involved in the…
Phototoxic effects of 6,8 dihalogenated quinolones confers to this type of molecules a potential property as photochemotherapeutic agents. Two photodehalogenation processes seem to be involved in the remarkable photoinduced cellular damage. In this context, a new 6,8 dihalogenated quinolone 1 (1-methyl-6,8-difluoro-4-oxo-7-aminodimethyl-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was synthetized looking for improving the phototoxic properties of fluoroquinolones (FQ) and to determine the role of the photodegradation pathways in the FQ phototoxicity. With this purpose, fluorescence emissions, laser flash photolysis experiments and photodegradation studies were performed with compound 1 using 1-ethyl-6,8-difluoro-4-oxo-7-aminodimethyl-1,4-dihidroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (2) and lomefloxacin (LFX) as reference compounds. The shortening of alkyl chain of the N(1) of the quinolone ring revealed a lifetime increase of the reactive aryl cation generated from photolysis of the three FQ and a significant reduction of the FQ photodegradation quantum yield. The fact that these differences were smaller when the same study was done using a hydrogen donor solvent (ethanol-aqueous buffer, 50/50 v/v) evidenced the highest ability of the reactive intermediate arising from 1 to produce intermolecular alkylations. These results were correlated with in vitro 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test. Thus, when Photo-Irritation-Factor (PIF) was determined for 1, 2 and LFX using cytotoxicity profiles of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts treated with each compound in the presence and absence of UVA light, a PIF more higher than 30 was obtained for 1 while the values for 2 and LFX were only higher than 8 and 10, respectively. Thereby, the present study illustrates an approach to modulate the photosensitizing properties of FQ with the purpose to improve the chemotherapeutic properties of antitumor quinolones. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also evidence that the key pathway responsible for the phototoxic properties associated with dihalogenated quinolones is the aryl cation generation.
- Characterization of Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains Isolated From Selected Hospitals in Iran. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2019; 10:1191
- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental Gram-negative bacterium that has rapidly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitalized patients. Treatment of S. maltophilia infections …
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental Gram-negative bacterium that has rapidly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitalized patients. Treatment of S. maltophilia infections is difficult due to increasing resistance to multiple antibacterial agents. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of S. maltophilia isolates recovered from patients referred to several hospitals. A total of 164 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from hospitals in various regions in Iran between 2016 and 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method and E-test assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline. The ability of biofilm formation was assessed with crystal violet staining and then, biofilm-associated genes were investigated by PCR-sequencing method. The presence of L1 (a metallo-β-lactamase), L2 (a clavulanic acid-sensitive cephalosporinase), sul1 and sul2 (resistance to Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole), Smqnr (intrinsic resistance to quinolones), and dfrA genes (dihydrofolate reductase enzyme that contributes to trimethoprim resistance) was also examined by PCR-sequencing. Relative gene expression of smeDEF efflux pump was assessed by real-time PCR. Genotyping was performed using the multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) and repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (Rep-PCR). Isolates were resistant to imipenem (100%), meropenem (96%), doripenem (96%), and ceftazidime (36.58%). Notably, 5 (3.04%) isolates showed resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), an alarming trend of decreased susceptibility to TMP-SMX in Iran. Minocycline and levofloxacin exhibited the highest susceptibility of 91.46 and 99.39%, respectively. Using the crystal violet staining, 157 (95.73%) isolates had biofilm phenotype: 49 (29.87%), 63 (38.41%), and 45 (27.43%) isolates were categorized as strong-, moderate- and weak-biofilm producer while 7 isolates (4.26%) were identified a non-biofilm producer. Biofilm genes had an overall prevalence of 145 (88.41%), 137 (83.53%), and 164 (100%) of rmlA, rpfF, and spgM, respectively. L1, L2, Smqnr, sul1, and sul2 resistance genes were detected in 145 (88.41%), 156 (96.12%), 103 (62.80%), 89 (54.26%), and 92 (56.09%) isolates, respectively. None of the S. maltophilia isolates were positive for dfrA12, dfrA17, and dfrA27 genes. Gene expression analysis showed that smeD efflux system was overexpressed in two out of the five clinical isolates (40%) that showed resistance to TMP-SMX. Most of the isolates were genetically unrelated. Two new sequence types (ST139 and ST259) were determined. Our results showed that TMP-SMX was still an effective antibiotic against S. maltophilia. The findings of the current study revealed an increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance and biofilm genes in clinical S. maltophilia isolates in Iran.
- In vitro evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentration of several antibacterial agents against Rickettsia japonica using a plaque reduction assay system. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Chemother 2019 Jun 08
- The study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of several antibacterial agents against Rickettsia japonica, which causes Japanese spotted fever. A plaque reduction …
The study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of several antibacterial agents against Rickettsia japonica, which causes Japanese spotted fever. A plaque reduction assay as an in vitro culture method was conducted to determine the MICs of antibacterial agents (4 types of tetracyclines: tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and tigecycline; 3 types of quinolones: ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin; and 2 types of macrolides: azithromycin and clarythromycin) against R. japonica. R. japonica was sensitive to the antibacterial agents tested with MICs similar to those against other spotted fever rickettsia determined in previously described plaque reduction assays.
- Genomic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain SO-1977 from Sudan. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2019 Jun 11; 19(1):126
- CONCLUSIONS: The study reports for the first time the whole genome sequence of Sudan MRSA isolates. The release of the genome sequence of the strain SO-1977 will avail MRSA in public databases for further investigations on the evolution of resistant mechanism and dissemination of the -resistant genes of MRSA.
- Fluoroquinolones structural and medicinal developments (2013-2018): Where are we now? [Review]
- BMBioorg Med Chem 2019 May 31
- Fluoroquinolones are considered one of the widely utilized antibiotics, specifically, with the recent development of newer generations such as moxifloxacin, delafloxacin and finafloxacin which posses…
Fluoroquinolones are considered one of the widely utilized antibiotics, specifically, with the recent development of newer generations such as moxifloxacin, delafloxacin and finafloxacin which possess a wider spectrum of activity and improved bioavailability. However, alarming increase in bacterial resistance reports worldwide incites medicinal chemists to employ guided-biologically-oriented-synthesis-strategies toward the modulation of quinolones derivatives activity. At present, quinolone scaffold diverse biological activities prompted the fortuitous discovery of novel antimicrobial and anticancer derivatives. Herein, the opponent arguments (2013-2015) regarding the structure activity relationships of fluoroquinolones' antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal activities are inscribed.
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- A simple and high-throughput method for multiresidue and multiclass quantitation of antimicrobials in pangasius (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus) fillet by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 May 29; 1124:17-25
- The development and validation of a throughput method for the determination of 25 antibacterial drugs (two β-lactams, eight quinolones, two macrolides, five sulfonamides, trimethoprim, four tetracycl…
The development and validation of a throughput method for the determination of 25 antibacterial drugs (two β-lactams, eight quinolones, two macrolides, five sulfonamides, trimethoprim, four tetracyclines and three amphenicols) in pangasius fish muscle by LC-MS/MS were performed. A simple, efficient and fast extraction procedure was developed using acetonitrile and a 0.1 M EDTA solution as solvents for extraction. All compounds were determined in a single run, and chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax SB C18 column with a mobile phase comprised of purified water +0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile +0.1% formic acid (B) in a linear gradient program. The method was validated aαording to the requirements of European Decision 2002/657/EC. To quantify the analytes, matrix-matched analytical curves were constructed with spiked blank tissues and showed linearity (r2) higher than 0.99. For all analytes, the precision and accuracy were determined at the levels of 3 ng/g (low), 10 ng/g (low-middle), 50 ng/g (high-middle) and 100 ng/g (high). The precision (CV%) was lower than 18.6% and the accuracy (determined as recovery) was between 65% and 119%. The limit of quantitation was 3.0 ng/g, with the exception of chloramphenicol, which was 0.3 ng/g, and amoxicillin and doxycycline, which were 10 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to analyze pangasius muscle samples from Vietnam available at the Brazilian retail market, and 5 out of 40 samples showed the presence of low-residue levels of enrofloxacin and, consequently, must be considered out of conformity. It is recommended that competent authorities should avoid the commercialization of pangasius fillet contaminated with residues of this veterinary drug.